Comp I Section 33 Ppt


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Comp I Section 33 Ppt

  1. 1. Pronouns <ul><li>Section 33 </li></ul>
  2. 2. 33A : Pronoun Case <ul><li>3 Cases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POssessive </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Subjective Case <ul><li>USe : when it is a subject, a subject complement, or an appositive renaming a subject or subject complement </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She was passionate about everything. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The main supporter of the recycling program was she . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three colleagues-- Peter, JOhn, and she -- worked on the program. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Objective Case <ul><li>USe : when a pronoun functions as a direct or indirect object, an object of a preposition, an appositive renaming an object, or a subject of an infinitive. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The boss surprised her with a big raise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THe owner gave her a reward. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several friends went with me . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The students elected two representatives, Joan and Me . </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Possessive Case <ul><li>Use : when a pronoun shows possession or ownership. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the adjective Form are used before nouns or gerunds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noun Forms take the place of a possessive noun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possessive pronouns do NOT include apostrophes Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sound of her voice came right through the walls. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The responsibility is hers . </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. POssessive Case (CONT.) <ul><li>Remember : Pronouns before a gerund should be in the possessive case </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I remember his singing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Because: His modifies the gerund singin g. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 33B : Who, Whoever, WHOM and Whomever WHOM and Whomever <ul><li>Who/whoever or whom/whomever? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>who : subjects or subject complements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whom : objects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 Most common confusions with who/whom? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>beginning a question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>introducing a dependent clause </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Beginning A Question <ul><li>to determine: answer the question using a personal pronoun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if answer: he, she, or they- use who </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>if answer: him, her, or them- use whom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whom did you visit? (I visited them .) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who do you think wrote it? ( She wrote it.) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Dependent CLauses <ul><li>To Determine: look at purpose in the clause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject/subject complement: who or whoever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Object: Whom or Whomever </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If Still not Sure: separate from sentence and substitute for personal pronoun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>substitute he, she, they: use who/whoever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substitute him, her, them: use whom/whomever </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Dependent Clauses (Cont.) <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The minister grimaced at whoever made any noise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substituted THey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The minister smiled at whomever she greeted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substituted them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The minister grimaced at whoever she thought made the noise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substituted he or she </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 33C: Case in Compound Structure Compound Structure <ul><li>if pronoun is part of a compound subject, complement, object, or appositive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use same case as you would if pronoun were alone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Come to the park with Anh and me . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mentally delete the rest of the sentence (COme to the part with.... me.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 33D: Case in Elliptical Constructions <ul><li>some words go unspoken in elliptical constructions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When E.C. ends in a pronoun: use case for pronoun that you would use if it were complete </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His sister has always been more athletic than he [is]. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Willie likes LIly more than she [likes Lily]. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Willie likes LIly more than [he likes] Lily. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 33E : We and us before a noun <ul><li>To Determine: take out noun, use whichever pronoun would fit without it </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We fans never give up hope. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Omit Noun: We.... never give up hope. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Rangers depend on us fans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Omit Noun: The Rangers depend on us.... </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 33F : Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement <ul><li>Antecedent: word the pronoun refers to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually occurs: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>earlier in sentence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in previous sentence. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The choirmaster raised his baton. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The boys picked up their music. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Pronoun-antecedent (COnt.) <ul><li>Compound antecedents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>joined by AND require plural pronouns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unless each/every precedes the C.A. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joined by or or nor: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pronoun agrees with the nearer or nearest antecedent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both singular & plural parts- awkward unless the plural part comes last </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Pronoun-antecedent (COnt.) <ul><li>Collective-Noun Antecedents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a C.N. referring to a single unit: singular pronoun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: The audience fixed its attention on center stage. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A C.N. referring to multiples parts: plural pronoun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: THe director chose this cast for the play because they had experience in the roles. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Pronoun-antecedent (COnt.) <ul><li>Sexist Pronouns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when indefinite pronoun: writers typically use he to serve as the pronoun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use plural pronoun when the antecedent is anybody, each, or everyone </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. 33G : Clear Pronoun Reference Pronoun Reference <ul><li>pronoun antecedent is the word the pronoun substitutes for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if pronoun is too far from its antecedent: creates confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>vague use of it, this, that, and which </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: When the senators realized the bill would be defeated, they tried to postpone the vote but failed. It was a fiasco. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indefinite use of you, it, they </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: In France, they allow dogs in many restaurants. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>