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California Missions4th grade Social Studies<br />Caitlin Santa<br />
Table of Contents<br />Brief history<br />Founding<br />Impact on native people<br />Design and Architecture<br />Parts of a mission<br />Architectural features<br />Famous missions<br />Santa Barbara<br />San Diego<br />Santa Cruz<br />Missions in modern times<br />
Mission History<br />Spanish rule- King Charles III<br />Father Junipero Serra founded the first missions<br />Create a literate population that would have been useful to the Spanish government<br />Bring Christianity to the native people<br />Built near coasts<br />21 missions total spanning 650 miles <br />Religious and military conquests<br />Cost a great deal of lives<br />
Tensions with the native people<br />Tensions with Mexico<br />Many American Indians were forced to convert to Catholicism, learn Spanish and learn various trades<br />Diseases were also spread- measles epidemic of 1806<br />Many cultures were wiped out by the Europeans <br />Mexico proclaimed native people with the Alta California area free and eligible to become Mexican citizens<br />1827- Spaniards under 60 were expelled from the territory<br />Cultural Impacts<br />
Design<br />All missions were built with a similar layout<br />Rectangular courtyard<br />Shops, rooms, church<br />Bell tower<br />Site selection<br />Close to the coast<br />Large populations of potential converts<br />Land for farming and livestock<br />
San Diego<br />California’s first mission <br /><ul><li>Founded in 1769 by Father Serra
Named by Spanish explorers for the feast day of St Didacus
Rebuilt and moved after Native Indians burned it down
This mission is still an active parish</li></li></ul><li>Santa Barbara<br />10th mission<br />Established in 1786 around the feast day of Saint Barbara<br />The land on which it was built was originally inhabited by the Chumash<br />The Chumash are credited for much of the missions agricultural success<br />A high school and junior college were at one time part of the grounds<br />
Santa Cruz<br />Holy Cross<br />12th mission, established in 1791<br />Spanish explorer named the area Santa Cruz in 1769<br />Founded during a peaceful time between missionaries and Spanish military<br />
Missions Today<br />Regarded as an important aspect of California heritage<br />Some are still working churches<br />Many of them are historical landmarks<br />The original mission trail, known as El Camino Real, can be still be followed through several freeways. <br />Some of California’s most prominent cities, including Los Angeles, San Diego, and San Francisco, were built due to the mission system<br />