- 2. Microsoft Excel is a versatile program for handling a variety of data formats. Numerical and financial data is commonly entered into Excel, which allows entries to be organized in rows and columns.
- 3. Excel provides an array of formulas for analyzing this data once it is entered. Statistical formulas are particularly common in Excel, and the program has many built-in functions for constructing common calculations. It is possible to create statistical formulas quickly and easily in Excel.
- 4. 1. Open Excel. Add numerical data to the spreadsheet, or load a completed spreadsheet. 2. Click in an empty cell where you wish to place a statistical formula. Any cell can analyze data from any other group of cells. The formulas do not need to be in close proximity to the data.
- 5. 3. Click the "fx" button on the Excel toolbar. This button appears in front of the long white formula bar unique to Excel. A pop-up window will appear after you click the button. 4. Click the drop-down menu labeled "Select a category" in the pop-up window. Choose the "Statistical" category. The function list below this menu will change to reflect all the built-in Excel functions that may be used in statistical formulas.
- 6. 5. Choose a statistical function. Common statistical formulas employed by Excel users include "Average," "Median" and "Count." However, there are more complicated functions available for advanced statisticians. As you click on each function in the list, a summary of that function appears at the bottom of the window to explain the function's purpose and how it is used. Click the "OK" button once you have selected the desired function.
- 7. 6. Configure the statistical formula using the formula input box that appears after the function is selected. For example, for the "Median" function, two number fields appear. For most Excel functions, you can enter a number, a cell reference pointing to that number, or a cell range. For "Median," enter a separate number in each field, or click in a field then click on the spreadsheet to enter a particular cell's contents. Drag over a range of numbered cells on the spreadsheet to quickly include a collection of data in the formula.
- 8. 7. Press the "OK" button. The statistical formula is created and the results display in the selected cell.
- 9. Many statistical methods are not available in Excel. Commonly-used statistics and methods NOT available within Excel include: * Boxplots * p-values for the correlation coefficient * Spearman’s and Kendall’s rank correlation coefficients * 2-way ANOVA with unequal sample sizes (unbalanced data)
- 10. * Multiple comparison tests (post-hoc tests following ANOVA) * p-values for two-way ANOVA * Levene’s test for equal variance * Nonparametric tests, including rank- sum and Kruskal-Wallis * Scatterplot arrays or brushing * Principal components or other multivariate methods
- 11. * GLM (generalized linear models) * Survival analysis methods * Regression diagnostics, such as Mallow’s Cp and PRESS (it does compute adjusted r-squared) * Durbin-Watson test for serial correlation * LOESS smooths http://www.practicalstats.com/xlsstats/excelstats.html
- 12. If you need to develop complex statistical or engineering analyses, you can save steps and time by using the Analysis ToolPak. You provide the data and parameters for each analysis, and the tool uses the appropriate statistical or engineering macro functions to calculate and display the results in an output table. Some tools generate charts in addition to output tables. The Analysis ToolPak includes the tools described below. To access these tools, click Data Analysis in the Analysis group on the Data tab. If the Data Analysis command is not available, you need to load the Analysis ToolPak add-in program.
- 13. For a description of each tool, click on a tool name in the following list. Anova Correlation Covariance Descriptive Statistics Exponential Smoothing F-Test Two-Sample for Variances