H.2.1 State that digestive juices are secreted into the alimentary
canal by glands, including salivary glands, gastric glands in the
stomach wall, the pancreas and the wall of the small intestine.
H.2.2 Explain the structural features of exocrine gland cells.
(Include the secretory cells grouped into acini and ducts, and the
ultrastructure of secretory cells as seen in electron micrographs)
H.2.3 Compare the composition of saliva, gastric juice and
H.2.4 Outline the control of digestive juice secretion by nerves
and hormones, using the example of secretion of gastric juice.
(Limit this to the initial release of gastric juice under nerve
stimulation after sight or smell of food, and sustained release
under the influence of gastrin secreted when food is in the
H.2.5 Outline the role of membrane-bound enzymes on the surface of
epithelial cells in the small intestine in digestion.
(Some digestive enzymes (for example, maltase) are immobilized in
the exposed plasma membranes of epithelial cells in intestinal villi)
H.2.6 Outline the reasons for cellulose not being digested in the
H.2.7 Explain why pepsin and trypsin are initially synthesized as
inactive precursors and how they are subsequently activated.
H.2.8 Discuss the roles of gastric acid and Helicobacter pylori in the
development of stomach ulcers and stomach cancers.
H.2.9 Explain the problem of lipid digestion in a hydrophilic
medium and the role of bile in overcoming this.
(Lipid molecules tend to coalesce and are only accessible to lipase
at the lipid–water interface. Bile molecules have a hydrophilic end
and a hydrophobic end, and thus prevent lipid droplets coalescing.
The maximum surface is exposed to lipases.
The need for lipase to be water-soluble and to have an active site
to which a hydrophobic substrate binds should be mentioned)