9 f patterns of reactivity

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9 f patterns of reactivity

  1. 1. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20051 of 50 KS3 Chemistry 9F Patterns of Reactivity
  2. 2. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20052 of 50 9F Patterns of Reactivity Metals and acid Summary activities Reactivity series and displacement Metals and water Metals and oxygen Contents
  3. 3. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20053 of 50 Metals and water The Romans used lead to make water pipes but didn’t know that lead reacts slowly with water and makes it poisonous! Some metals react vigorously with water, some metals react slowly and some do not react at all. What is the best type of metal to use for water pipes?
  4. 4. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20054 of 50 What is the test that a metal hydroxide is produced? Metals and water – general equation Potassium and sodium are metals that react vigorously with water even when a small amount of each metal is used. When a metal reacts with water, the products are a metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas. What is the general equation for the reaction of a metal with water? metal water metal hydroxide hydrogen
  5. 5. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20055 of 50 hydrogen+lithium hydroxide water+lithium 2Li + 2H2O 2LiOH + H2 hydrogen+sodium hydroxide water+sodium 2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2 hydrogen+potassium hydroxide water+potassium 2K + 2H2O 2KOH + H2 Metals and water – equations What are the products when each metal reacts with water? What is the balanced symbol equation for each reaction?
  6. 6. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20056 of 50 Metals and water – observations James investigated how reactive some metals are when they react with water and made these observations. Potassium immediately produces a lilac flame as it skims around the surface making a fizzing noise. potassium The sodium melts and skims over the surface producing a stream of small bubbles. Sometimes a yellow-orange flame appeared. sodium Bubbles of gas are given off quite quickly. When tested with universal indicator the water is now alkaline. lithium Metal Reaction with water Which of these metals is the most reactive with water? Which of these metals is the least reactive with water?
  7. 7. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20057 of 50 Copper is used in plumbing and silver and gold in jewellery. Why are these unreactive metals suitable for such uses? Metals and water – more observations James investigated how reactive other metals are with water and made these observations. No reaction.silver No reaction.copper Reacts slowly with cold water but reacts quickly with steam. magnesium No reaction.gold Metal Reaction with water
  8. 8. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20058 of 50 Metals and water–using unreactive metals The words “plumber” and “plumbing” come from plumbum (the Latin word for lead) because the ancient Romans used lead for their water pipes. Lead reacts very slowly with water making it poisonous, so this metal is no longer used in plumbing. Copper is a much better metal for water pipes because it does not react at all with water – plumbers should be renamed coppers!
  9. 9. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20059 of 50 Put the following metals in order of reactivity based on their reaction with water, starting with the most reactive: copper,gold,magnesium,lithium,potassium,silver,sodium. potassium sodium lithium magnesium copper, silver, gold Metals and water – order of reactivity
  10. 10. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200510 of 50 9F Patterns of Reactivity Metals and acid Summary activities Reactivity series and displacement Metals and water Metals and oxygen Contents
  11. 11. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200511 of 50 Metals and oxygen – general equation Most metals will react with oxygen. Some metals react faster than others and some may react very slowly or not at all. metal oxygen metal oxide When a metal does react with oxygen, the product is a metal oxide. What is the general equation for the reaction of a metal with oxygen? Magnesium, for example, burns in oxygen with a bright flame. The magnesium reacts with oxygen to produce magnesium oxide.
  12. 12. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200512 of 50 magnesium oxideoxygen+magnesium 2Mg + O2 2MgO copper oxideoxygen+copper 2Cu + O2 2CuO iron oxideoxygen+iron 4Fe + 3O2 2Fe2O3 Metals and oxygen – equations What are the products when each metal reacts with oxygen? What is the balanced symbol equation for each reaction?
  13. 13. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200513 of 50 Shaida investigated how reactive some metals are when they react with oxygen and made these observations. Which of these metals is the most reactive with oxygen? Metals and oxygen – observations The iron filings glowed red and sparkled leaving a brown-black looking solid. iron The copper turnings went through reds and oranges and then slowly got a permanent coating of black. copper The ribbon burned with a dazzling white flame giving grey-white smoke and ash. magnesium Metal Reaction with oxygen Which of these metals is the least reactive with oxygen?
  14. 14. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200514 of 50 magnesium iron copper Metals and oxygen – order of reactivity Put the following metals in order of reactivity based on their reaction with oxygen, starting with the most reactive: copper, iron, magnesium.
  15. 15. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200515 of 50 9F Patterns of Reactivity Metals and acid Summary activities Reactivity series and displacement Metals and water Metals and oxygen Contents
  16. 16. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200516 of 50 The first scientists to study chemistry were called alchemists. They were interested in many things including finding ways of changing cheap metals into gold. Some were very good at making metals look gold. Metals and acid – the acid test Acid was used to find out if gold objects were made of real or fake gold. Most metals react with strong acids. Gold is such an unreactive metal that it does not react with strong acids. This became known as “the acid test” because it stopped tricksters making false claims that something was gold. The phrase “the acid test” is used today to mean any process that will reveal fakes.
  17. 17. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200517 of 50 Metals and acid – experiment
  18. 18. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200518 of 50 Metals and acid – general equation Gold is an unreactive metal that does not react with acid. When a metal reacts with acid, the products are a metal salt and hydrogen. What is the general equation for the reaction of a metal with acid? metal acid metal salt hydrogen How does the type of acid affect the type of salt produced? Other metals, such as magnesium and zinc, react with acid producing bubbles of gas. The “squeaky pop” test shows that this gas is hydrogen.
  19. 19. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200519 of 50 hydrogen+magnesium chloride hydrochloric acid +magnesium Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2 hydrogen+aluminium chloride hydrochloric acid +aluminium 2Al + 6HCl 2AlCl3 + 3H2 hydrogen+zinc chloride hydrochloric acid +zinc Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2 Metals and hydrochloric acid – equations What is made when each metal reacts with hydrochloric acid? What is the balanced symbol equation for each reaction?
  20. 20. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200520 of 50 hydrogen+magnesium sulfate sulfuric acid+magnesium Mg + H2SO4 MgSO4 + H2 hydrogen+aluminium sulfate sulfuric acid +aluminium 2Al + 3H2SO4 Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2 hydrogen+zinc sulfate sulfuric acid +zinc Zn + H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2 Metals and sulfuric acid – equations What is made when each metal reacts with sulfuric acid? What is the balanced symbol equation for each reaction?
  21. 21. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200521 of 50 hydrogen+magnesium nitrate nitric acid+magnesium Mg + 2HNO3 Mg(NO3)2 + H2 hydrogen+aluminium nitrate nitric acid+aluminium 2Al + 6HNO3 2Al(NO3)3 + 3H2 hydrogen+zinc nitratenitric acid+zinc Zn + 2HNO3 Zn(NO3)2 + H2 Metals and nitric acid – equations What is made when each metal reacts with nitric acid? What is the balanced symbol equation for each reaction?
  22. 22. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200522 of 50 Metal Reaction with cold acid (HCl) Reaction with hot acid (HCl) magnesium Fizzed rapidly - aluminium - Bubbled quickly copper No reaction No reaction iron No reaction Slow bubbling lead No reaction Occasional bubble calcium Really fast - zinc Moderate bubbling - Metals and acid – observations Greg investigated how reactive some metals are with hot and cold acid and made these observations. Which of these metals is the most reactive with acid? Which of these metals is the least reactive with acid?
  23. 23. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200523 of 50 calcium magnesium aluminium zinc iron lead copper Metals and acid – order of reactivity Put the following metals in order of reactivity based on their reaction with acid, starting with the most reactive: aluminium, calcium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, zinc.
  24. 24. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200524 of 50 Metals and acid – reactivity activity
  25. 25. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200525 of 50 9F Patterns of Reactivity Metals and acid Summary activities Reactivity series and displacement Metals and water Metals and oxygen Contents
  26. 26. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200526 of 50 with oxygen magnesium iron copper with water potassium sodium lithium magnesium copper silver gold with acid calcium magnesium aluminium zinc iron lead copper Comparing orders of reactivity When the orders of reactivity of metals with water, oxygen and air are compared, there is a pattern of results. Combining the information from all the reactions of metals with water, oxygen and air gives an overall order of reactivity called the reactivity series.
  27. 27. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200527 of 50 potassium sodium calcium magnesium aluminium zinc iron lead copper silver gold Please send Charlie’s monkeys and zebras in lead cages securely guarded! The reactivity series The reactivity series is the list of metals placed in order of their reactivity. One way to remember this order is to learn this silly sentence: increasingreactivity
  28. 28. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200528 of 50 What is the order of metals?
  29. 29. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200529 of 50 Using the reactivity series increasingreactivity The reactivity series can be used to make predictions about the reactions of metals.  Predictions can be made about simple reactions of metals with oxygen, water and acids.  Predictions can also be made about more complex reactions where one metal is competing with another. potassium sodium calcium magnesium aluminium zinc iron lead copper silver gold
  30. 30. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200530 of 50 Metal React with Prediction gold acid calcium water sodium oxygen silver oxygen zinc oxygen no reaction fizzing burns vigorously very slow reaction burns moderately Simple reactions – predictions Use the reactivity series to predict if a reaction will take place and how intense the reaction will be. potassium sodium calcium magnesium aluminium zinc iron lead copper silver gold
  31. 31. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200531 of 50 If the metal is more reactive than the metal in the compound, it competes with the less reactive metal. + less reactive metal compound more reactive metal When does displacement happen? The reactivity series can be used to predict if a metal will react with a metal compound (e.g. chloride, nitrate or sulfate). + no reactionmore reactive metal compound less reactive metal If the metal is less reactive than the metal in the compound, it will not compete and so there is no reaction. The more reactive metal pushes out, or displaces, the less reactive metal from its compound. + less reactive metal more reactive metal compound
  32. 32. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200532 of 50 copper+magnesium chloride copper chloride +magnesium no reactionmagnesium chloride +silver Displacement reactions – examples The reactivity series can be used to predict if a metal will react with a metal compound.  Will magnesium react with copper chloride?  Will silver react with magnesium chloride? Magnesium is a more reactive metal than copper, so magnesium displaces the copper from its compound. Silver is a less reactive metal than magnesium, so silver does not displace the magnesium from its compound.
  33. 33. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200533 of 50 Displacement reactions – observation This photograph shows what happens when magnesium reacts with copper sulfate. Why does the blue colour of the coppers sulfate solution gradually disappear during this reaction? before after Magnesium is a more reactive metal than copper and so the magnesium displaces the copper from the copper sulfate solution. This is why the blue colour disappears. copper+magnesium sulfate copper sulfate +magnesium
  34. 34. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200534 of 50 magnesium sulfate zinc sulfate iron sulfate copper sulfate magnesium zinc iron copper = displacement reaction = no reaction            Displacement of sulfates – predictions Use the reactivity series to predict if there is a reaction when these metals are added to different metal sulfate solutions. metal metal sulfate solution  
  35. 35. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200535 of 50 copper+magnesium sulfate copper sulfate +magnesium Mg + CuSO4 MgSO4 + Cu zinc+magnesium sulfate zinc sulfate +magnesium Mg + ZnSO4 MgSO4 + Zn iron+magnesium sulfate iron sulfate +magnesium Mg + FeSO4 MgSO4 + Fe Displacement of sulfates – magnesium Does magnesium react with and displace these metal sulfates and if so what products are formed?   
  36. 36. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200536 of 50 no reactionmagnesium sulfate +zinc iron+zinc sulfate iron sulfate +zinc Zn + FeSO4 ZnSO4 + Fe copper+zinc sulfate copper sulfate +zinc Zn + CuSO4 ZnSO4 + Cu Displacement of sulfates – zinc Does zinc react with and displace these metal sulfates and if so what products are formed?   
  37. 37. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200537 of 50 no reactionmagnesium sulfate +iron no reactionzinc sulfate +iron copper+iron sulfate copper sulfate +iron Fe + CuSO4 FeSO4 + Cu Displacement of sulfates – iron Does iron react with and displace these metal sulfates and if so what products are formed?   
  38. 38. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200538 of 50 no reactionmagnesium sulfate +copper no reactionzinc sulfate +copper no reactioncopper sulfate +copper Displacement of sulfates – copper Does copper react with and displace these metal sulfates and if so what products are formed?   
  39. 39. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200539 of 50 iron+aluminium oxide The more reactive aluminium wins the oxygen from the less reactive iron. The reaction gets so hot that the iron melts! This is the Thermit reaction and is used to weld railway lines. Displacement of oxides Displacement reactions can also occur between a metal and a metal compound that is a solid. iron oxide +aluminium
  40. 40. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200540 of 50 zinc oxide iron oxide copper oxide zinc iron copper       Displacement of oxides – predictions Use the reactivity series to predict if there is a reaction when each mixture of a metal and a metal oxide is heated. metal metal oxide = displacement reaction = no reaction 
  41. 41. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200541 of 50 copper+zinc oxidecopper oxide +zinc Zn + CuO ZnO Cu iron+zinc oxideiron oxide +zinc 3Zn + 2Fe2O3 3ZnO + 2Fe Zinc is the more reactive than copper and iron. Displacement of oxides – zinc   Does zinc react with and displace these metal oxides and if so what products are formed?
  42. 42. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200542 of 50 no reactionzinc oxide +iron copper+iron oxidecopper oxide +iron 2Fe + 3CuO Fe2O3 + 3Cu Iron is less reactive than zinc but more reactive than copper. Displacement of oxides – iron   Does iron react with and displace these metal oxides and if so what products are formed?
  43. 43. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200543 of 50 no reactionzinc oxide +copper no reactioniron oxide +copper Copper is less reactive than zinc and iron and will not displace either of these metals. Displacement of oxides – copper   Does copper react with and displace these metal oxides and if so what products are formed?
  44. 44. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200544 of 50 oxygencalcium sodium chloride calcium iron chloride gold hydrochloric acid potassium zinccopper sulfate magnesiumiron oxide Reaction?Reactants Displacement reactions – activity Use the reactivity series to predict if each mixture will react. potassium sodium calcium magnesium aluminium zinc iron lead copper silver gold      
  45. 45. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200545 of 50 aluminium+magnesium oxide aluminium oxide +magnesiu m iron+magnesium chloride iron chloride +magnesiu m no reactionzinc oxide +silver gold+copper nitrate gold nitrate +copper Displacement reactions – activity Use the reactivity series to predict if each mixture will react and complete the word equation.
  46. 46. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200546 of 50 9F Patterns of Reactivity Metals and acid Summary activities Reactivity series and displacement Metals and water Metals and oxygen Contents
  47. 47. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200547 of 50 displaced metal – The metal that is pushed out of a compound by a more reactive metal. displacement – A reaction in which a more reactive metal replaces a less reactive metal in a compound. reactive – A substance that reacts quickly or easily. reactivity – How quickly or easily a substance will react. reactivity series – The list of metals placed in order of their reactivity starting with the most reactive. tarnished – A metal that has become dull after reacting with water and oxygen in the air. Thermit reaction – The displacement reaction between aluminium and iron oxide that is used to weld railway lines. unreactive – A substance that reacts very slowly or does not react at all. Glossary
  48. 48. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200548 of 50 Anagrams
  49. 49. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200549 of 50 True or false?
  50. 50. © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200550 of 50 Multiple-choice quiz

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