11.4 production of gametes

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11.4 production of gametes

  1. 1. 11.4 Production of Gametes Topic 11 Human Health & Physiology
  2. 2. Spermatogenesis  11.4.1 Annotate a light micrograph of testis tissue to show the location and function of interstitial cells (Leydig cells), germinal epithelium cells, developing spermatozoa and Sertoli cells.  11.4.2 Outline the processes involved in spermatogenesis within the testis, including mitosis, cell growth, the two divisions of meiosis and cell differentiation.  (The names of the intermediate stages in spermatogenesis are not required.)  11.4.3 State the role of LH, testosterone and FSH in spermatogenesis.
  3. 3. Oogenesis  11.4.4 Annotate a diagram of the ovary to show the location and function of germinal epithelium, primary follicles, mature follicle and secondary oocyte.  11.4.5 Outline the processes involved in oogenesis within the ovary, including mitosis, cell growth, the two divisions of meiosis, the unequal division of cytoplasm and the degeneration of polar body.  (The terms oogonia and primary oocyte are not required.)
  4. 4. Gametogenesis  11.4.6 Draw and label a diagram of a mature sperm and egg.  11.4.7 Outline the role of the epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland in the production of semen.  11.4.8 Compare the processes of spermatogenesis and oogenesis, including the number of gametes and the timing of the formation and release of gametes.
  5. 5. Structure of the Testis Ref: Biology for the IB Diploma, Allott
  6. 6. Spermatogenesis Ref: Biology for the IB Diploma, Allott
  7. 7. Summary of Spermatogenesis Ref: Biology for the IB Diploma, Allott
  8. 8. Hormonal control of Spermatogenesis  Three hormones are involved in the production of sperm.  FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone).  Produced in the pituitary gland (brain).  Stimulated primary spermatocytes to undergo the first meiotic division to form secondary spermatocytes.  Testosterone.  Produced in the interstitial cells in the testies  Stimulates the development of secondary spermatocytes into mature sperm.  LH (Lutenising Hormone) - (ICSH will not be used)  Produced in the pituitary gland (brain).  Stimulates the secretion of testosterone by the testis
  9. 9. Production of Semen  Three structures help to produce semen:  The epididymis.  Sperm arrive here unable to swim.  The sperm mature while they are stored in the epididymis and learn to swim.  Seminal vesicles.  Produces fluid which contains nutrients for the sperm (fructose).  Also contains mucus which protects the sperm in the vagina.  Prostate gland.  Produces a fluid which contains mineral ions.  The fluid is also alkaline to protect the sperm in the acidic conditions of the vagina.
  10. 10. Structure of Mature Sperm Ref: Biology for the IB Diploma, Allott Ref: Yr11 Biology, Biozone
  11. 11. Structure of the Ovaries Ref: Biology for the IB Diploma, Allott
  12. 12. Oogenesis Ref: Biology for the IB Diploma, Allott
  13. 13. Summary of Oogenesis Ref: Biology for the IB Diploma, Allott
  14. 14. Structure of a Mature Egg
  15. 15. Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis Compared Spermatogenesis  Millions produced daily  Released during ejaculation.  Sperm formation starts during puberty in boys.  Sperm production continues throughout the adult life of men.  Four sperm produced per meiosis. Oogenesis  One matures every 28 days  Released on about day 14 of menstrual cycle by ovulation.  The early stages of egg production happen during fetal development in females.  Egg production becomes irregular and then stops at menopause in women.  Only one egg is produced per meiosis.
  16. 16. IBO guide:  11.4.1 Annotate a light micrograph of testis tissue to show the location and function of interstitial cells (Leydig cells), germinal epithelium cells, developing spermatozoa and Sertoli cells.  11.4.2 Outline the processes involved in spermatogenesis within the testis, including mitosis, cell growth, the two divisions of meiosis and cell differentiation.  (The names of the intermediate stages in spermatogenesis are not required.)  11.4.3 State the role of LH, testosterone and FSH in spermatogenesis.
  17. 17. IBO guide:  11.4.4 Annotate a diagram of the ovary to show the location and function of germinal epithelium, primary follicles, mature follicle and secondary oocyte.  11.4.5 Outline the processes involved in oogenesis within the ovary, including mitosis, cell growth, the two divisions of meiosis, the unequal division of cytoplasm and the degeneration of polar body.  (The terms oogonia and primary oocyte are not required.)
  18. 18. IBO guide:  11.4.6 Draw and label a diagram of a mature sperm and egg.  11.4.7 Outline the role of the epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland in the production of semen.  11.4.8 Compare the processes of spermatogenesis and oogenesis, including the number of gametes and the timing of the formation and release of gametes.

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