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Integration of safety management at Chemical plants - Beijing, China

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Integration of safety management at Chemical plants - Beijing, China

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Integration of safety management at Chemical plants - Beijing, China

  1. 1. Integration of Safety Management at Chemical Plants International Safety Systems, Inc. Maharshi Mehta, CSP, CIH, President Lili Deng, Project Manager China and South East Asia COS+H Conference, Beijing, China September 22-September 25, 2014 Maharshi.mehta@issehs.com Lili.deng@issehs.com New York, USA +1 2036858808 Shanghai, China+86135 24061672 www.issehs.com
  2. 2. Agenda  Case Studies of Accidents at Chemical Plants  Common Contributory Factors  Safety Management  Chemical Hazards, Hazard Assessment and Controls  Lessons Learned
  3. 3. Accident Occurred ▪ Flixborough: ▪ 28 Fatalities, 1000 houses in one mile radius damaged and blast was heard 30 miles away ▪ Bypassed connection - releasing 20tons of cyclohexane ▪ SAVASO, Italy ▪ Dioxane released due to exothermic reaction ▪ Operators left early, all controls were manual. Critical Temperature known was 230 C. Whereas, reaction occurred at 180 C. ▪ Jinzhou District, Dalian, China ▪ 4 fatalities and glass windows of neighborhood shattered. ▪ A vacuum/pressure of as little as 0.1 psi (same pressure at the bottom of cup of tea) blew tank lid off. ▪ Closing valve on error caused an explosion. In another case explosion occured because operator forgot to open a valve. Chemical Safety Board-http://www.csb.gov/
  4. 4. Most Common Contributory Factors ▪ Safety Management System ▪ Safety Organization-Empowering Line Managers ▪ Safety at design stage– to reduce operator dependency ▪ System Safety – Hazard recognition, hazard assessment, hazard communication and training ▪ Preventive Maintenance ▪ Contractor safety “For every dollar spent at plant design stage, $10 is saved at flow sheet stage, $100 at the detail design stage, $1000 after plant is build and $10,000 saved to cleanup the mess after an accident” KLETZ
  5. 5. Elements of Successful EHS Organization Demonstrated support and interest from top management Safety responsibility with line management Allocation of sufficient resources Active participation in EHS from all Pro-active EHS approach that avoids EHS focus only after an accident or during an external audit
  6. 6. Integration of Safety Management Policy Organizing Planning and Implementing Measuring Performance Reviewing Performance Auditing
  7. 7. Hazards at Chemical Plants  Chemical Hazards – Flammability – Reactivity – Toxicity (Industrial Hygiene) – Dust Explosions – Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Liquids  Physical Hazards – Noise – Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation  Other Hazards – Cumulative Trauma Disorders (Ergonomics) – Mechanical Hazards Robust Safety Management is capable of first identifying hazards and then communicating to all stake-holders
  8. 8. Ignition Sources  Electrical  Friction  Hot Surfaces  Overheated Material  Cutting, Welding, Open Flames  Spontaneous ignition – Slow oxidation of low volatile compound with accompanying evolution of heat in non-ventilated area  Static Electricity
  9. 9. Reactive Chemicals  High reaction rate  Rate of reaction increases exponentially with increase in temperature. An increase of 10C roughly doubles the reaction rate  If the reaction rate and resulting heat are not controlled , an explosion could occur.  Heat initiated decomposition result in explosion e.g., certain peroxides  Light could be initiator of an explosive reaction e.g., hydrogen and chlorine reacts explosively in the presence of light.  Shock could initiate an explosion, e.g., acetylides, azides, organic nitrates, nitro compounds and peroxides.  Picric acid becomes highly shock-sensitive when its normal water content is allowed to evaporate.
  10. 10. Chemical Structure with Explosive Tendencies  -ONO2 nitrate R-NO2 aliphatic nitro  -NH-NO2 Primary nitramine Ar-NO2 aromatic nitro  -N-NO2 Secondary nitramine -N3  -NO nitroso =N-X halamines  -N=N-diazo -C=C-acetylides  -N=N-S-N=N-diazosulfide  Organic salts of chlorates, perchlorates, picrates, nitrates, iodates.
  11. 11. Dust Explosions  Presence of Combustible Dust  Minimum Oxygen concentration -3 to 15% v/v  Min Ignition Energy (MIE) and Temperature (MIT)  Particle Size – <particle size, > the explosion pressure -<MIE and MIT  Minimum Explosible Concentrations (MEC) – MEC for most materials is 10 to 500 g/m3 – 10 g/m3 dust concentration looks like dense fog with visibility of 1Meter.  Moisture Content of dust: > Moisture, >MIE, MIT and MEC
  12. 12. Hazard Analysis - System Safety  Job Safety Analysis (JSA)  Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA)  What-if and What if -Check List  Hazard And Operability Analysis (HAZOP)  Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)  Fault-Tree Analysis (FTA)  Management Oversight Risk Tree (MORT)  Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Efficient safety management is capable of identifying risk through hazard analysis
  13. 13. PROCESS SAFETY INFORMATION Hazards Technology Equipment Toxicity Block Flow Diagram Construction Materials PELs Chemistry Piping & Instrumention Physical Inventory Electrical Reactivity Operating Ranges Relief Vents Corrosivity Hazards of Deviations Design Codes Stability Material Balances Compatibility Safety Systems
  14. 14. Hazard Control ▪ Substitution ▪ Process Modification ▪ Engineering Controls ▪ Ventilation ▪ Administrative Controls ▪ Site Safety and Health Plan/Site Controls ▪ Housekeeping ▪ Safe Operating Procedures ▪ Confined Space/Hot Work Entry Permit System ▪ Lockout/tagout ▪ Personal Protective Equipment Most important task of safety management is to control risk and reduce losses
  15. 15. Hazard Controls  Flammable vapors below 10% of Lower Explosive Limits  Inerting with Nitrogen – Oxygen concentrations below 4%  Control of Ignition Sources – Intrinsically safe lighting (Explosion Proof) – Static Electricity Controls (Grounding and Bonding)  Redundancies – Automated temperature controls – Interlocked to slow or shutdown process – Safety Relief Valves – Rupture disks – Emergency response  Mechanical integrity – Design basis – Thickness testing – Preventive maintenance
  16. 16. Lessons Learned-Integrating Safety Management  Efficient Safety Management is at the foundation of reducing accidents in chemical plants  Empower line managers by first training them and then making them element owners for chemical safety  EHS department then works with line managers in timely identifying, evaluating and controlling safety hazards at chemical plants

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