AIHce 2015 PBZ monitoing and wipe sampling for lead BY Prashanth K
Personal breathing zone exposure monitoring
and surface contamination study of Lead at an
indoor firing range
Prasanth.K, Deputy Project Manager, India
International Safety Systems, Inc. (ISS), India
Background on indoor firing range
Test Environment and Activity
Methods and Evaluation criteria
Results and Observations
Indoor firing ranges used for
Shooting practice (Person inside firing range)
Testing Kevlar material (Person can be outside)
Potential Hazards (Noise and Lead)
Bullets are loaded with gunpowder and have
Lead based primer.
Lead vaporized due to heat and pressure
within the cartridge (at the firing instance).
The heat of the reaction and cooling results in
formation of lead particles at
Test Environment and Activity
Indoor firing range had:
Heating and Ventilated Air Circulation (HVAC) system
(2 supply ducts from top and 4 return ducts from side
walls) with 20 air changes per hour
Operator places Kevlar material at test stand and
loads the barrel with bullet and trigger is pulled
from outside the room.
Operator used apron and single pair of Nitrile
Test centre cleaned daily with dry mop
followed by wet mop.
Objective of study
To identify eight-hour/full shift personal
breathing zone exposure to lead particulates for
operator testing the kevlar by firing bullets in an
Indoor firing range.
To evaluate the level of surface contamination
due to the deposition of lead particulates.
Method and Sampling Strategy
Three samples collected using Modified NIOSH 7300;
Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma-Atomic Emission
Sampling media: 37mm Matched Weight (MW) Mixed
Cellulose Ester (MCE) filter
Sampling flow rate: 4 litres/minute
Sampling duration: 7 hours. (Not sampled during lunch
Two filters used for 3.5 hours each to avoid overloading
of particulates on filter.
Modified NIOSH 9102 (ICP-AES)
Sampling media: Moistened Lead Dust sampling wipe
Wipe samples collected before start of the activity
(beginning of shift) after completion of activity (end of
Wipe samples collected at 11 locations over an area of
Eight-Hour Time Weighted Average (TWA) exposure
compared with ACGIH TLV-TWA of 0.05 mg/m3 (50
OSHA guideline for a level of acceptable lead loading
for non-lead work areas of 0.2 μg/cm2. (Legally not
Results and observations
Range of Personal Breathing Zone exposure – 1.0
µg/m3 to 1.7 µg/m3
Based on the number of bullets fired.
Duration of person inside the firing range.
Wipe samples results at beginning of shift - 0.02
µg/cm2 to 4.1 µg/cm2
Wipe samples results at end of shift – 0.13
µg/cm2 to 38 µg/cm2
Employee exposure, without regard to use of
respirator was below 10% of ACGIH TLV-TWA.
The surface contamination level increased by
10 folds, after firing of bullets.
Potential for ingestion risk exists due to
Clean all surfaces effectively with the use of a
High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter
Use dual pair of disposable nitrile gloves before
contacting potential contaminated surfaces.
Remove the outer pair of gloves after it is
Avoid touching of door handles with