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AIHce 2015 PBZ monitoing and wipe sampling for lead BY Prashanth K


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AIHce 2015 PBZ monitoing and wipe sampling for lead

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AIHce 2015 PBZ monitoing and wipe sampling for lead BY Prashanth K

  1. 1. #aihce Personal breathing zone exposure monitoring and surface contamination study of Lead at an indoor firing range Prasanth.K, Deputy Project Manager, India International Safety Systems, Inc. (ISS), India
  2. 2. #aihce AGENDA Background on indoor firing range Test Environment and Activity Methods and Evaluation criteria Results and Observations Lessons Learned Recommendations
  3. 3. #aihce Background Indoor firing ranges used for Shooting practice (Person inside firing range) Testing Kevlar material (Person can be outside) Potential Hazards (Noise and Lead) Bullets are loaded with gunpowder and have Lead based primer.
  4. 4. #aihce Lead vaporized due to heat and pressure within the cartridge (at the firing instance). The heat of the reaction and cooling results in formation of lead particles at Source Bullet trap Path way
  5. 5. #aihce Test Environment and Activity Indoor firing range had: Heating and Ventilated Air Circulation (HVAC) system (2 supply ducts from top and 4 return ducts from side walls) with 20 air changes per hour Acoustic enclosure Bullet traps Operator places Kevlar material at test stand and loads the barrel with bullet and trigger is pulled from outside the room.
  6. 6. #aihce Operator used apron and single pair of Nitrile gloves Test centre cleaned daily with dry mop followed by wet mop.
  7. 7. #aihce Objective of study To identify eight-hour/full shift personal breathing zone exposure to lead particulates for operator testing the kevlar by firing bullets in an Indoor firing range. To evaluate the level of surface contamination due to the deposition of lead particulates.
  8. 8. #aihce Method and Sampling Strategy Air sampling  Three samples collected using Modified NIOSH 7300; Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)  Sampling media: 37mm Matched Weight (MW) Mixed Cellulose Ester (MCE) filter  Sampling flow rate: 4 litres/minute  Sampling duration: 7 hours. (Not sampled during lunch break)  Two filters used for 3.5 hours each to avoid overloading of particulates on filter.
  9. 9. #aihce Wipe sampling  Modified NIOSH 9102 (ICP-AES)  Sampling media: Moistened Lead Dust sampling wipe  Wipe samples collected before start of the activity (beginning of shift) after completion of activity (end of shift)  Wipe samples collected at 11 locations over an area of 100 cm2
  10. 10. #aihce Evaluation Criteria Air samples  Eight-Hour Time Weighted Average (TWA) exposure compared with ACGIH TLV-TWA of 0.05 mg/m3 (50 μg/m3) Wipe samples  OSHA guideline for a level of acceptable lead loading for non-lead work areas of 0.2 μg/cm2. (Legally not applicable).
  11. 11. #aihce Results and observations Range of Personal Breathing Zone exposure – 1.0 µg/m3 to 1.7 µg/m3 Exposure varies: Based on the number of bullets fired. Duration of person inside the firing range. Wipe samples results at beginning of shift - 0.02 µg/cm2 to 4.1 µg/cm2 Wipe samples results at end of shift – 0.13 µg/cm2 to 38 µg/cm2
  12. 12. #aihce Lessons Learnt Employee exposure, without regard to use of respirator was below 10% of ACGIH TLV-TWA. The surface contamination level increased by 10 folds, after firing of bullets. Potential for ingestion risk exists due to surface contamination.
  13. 13. #aihce Recommendations Clean all surfaces effectively with the use of a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vacuum cleaner. Use dual pair of disposable nitrile gloves before contacting potential contaminated surfaces. Remove the outer pair of gloves after it is contaminated. Avoid touching of door handles with contaminated gloves
  14. 14. #aihce References • Indoor Firing Ranges Industrial Hygiene Technical Guide (Navy Environmental Health Center)
  15. 15. #aihce Thank You! Any questions ? Prasanth K.
  16. 16. #aihce