Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

How Do Adults Learn

42,903 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education

How Do Adults Learn

  1. 1. How do adults learn? Principles of Andragogy from Alexander Kapp to Malcolm Knowles
  2. 2. Andragogy <ul><li>‘the art and science of helping adults learn’ </li></ul><ul><li>built upon two central, defining attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learners are self-directed and autonomous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the teacher is a facilitator of learning rather than presenter of content </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Six Assumptions of Andragogy <ul><li>The Learner’s Need to Know </li></ul><ul><li>The Learner’s Self-concept </li></ul><ul><li>The Learner’s Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Readiness to Learn </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation to Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation to Learn </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Learner’s Need to Know <ul><li>adults need to know why they should learn something. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reason they need to learn something </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how it will benefit them </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Learner’s Self-concept <ul><li>adults resent and resist situations in which they feel others are imposing their wills on them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>previous schooling has made them dependent learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>move adult students away from their old habits and into new patterns of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help learners who are still moving into the self-directed mode </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Learner’s Experience <ul><li>adults want to use what they know and be acknowledged for having that knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>case studies, reflective activities, and group projects will facilitate the use of learners’ already acquired expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>adults’ self-identity (including habits and biases) are determined from their experience </li></ul>
  7. 7. Readiness to Learn <ul><li>adults must experience a need to learn something in order to solve real-life tasks or problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>encourage learners’ readiness to learn by designing situations where the student will encounter a need for their knowledge or skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interactive role play will help them see how an understanding of the topic will benefit them in the future </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Orientation to Learning <ul><li>adults are life, task or problem-centered in their orientation to learning </li></ul><ul><li>use real-life examples or situations that adult learners may encounter in their life or on the job </li></ul><ul><li>allowing flexibility in the design of a lesson will permit student input on issues that need to be addressed </li></ul>
  9. 9. Motivation to Learn <ul><li>internal priorities are more important than external motivators </li></ul><ul><li>increased job satisfaction, self-esteem and quality of life are important </li></ul><ul><li>use activities that build students’ self-esteem or sense of accomplishment </li></ul>
  10. 10. References <ul><li>Fidishun, D., (2000) Andragogy and Technology: Integrating Adult Learning Theory As We Teach With Technology . Retrieved May 17, 2006 from http://www.mtsu.edu/~itconf/proceed00/fidishun.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Knowles, M. S. (1980) The Modern Practice of Adult Education; From Andragogy to Pedagogy . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Cambridge Adult Education. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowles, M., Holton, E., and Swanson, R. (1998) The Adult Learner . Houston: Gulf Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Pratt, D., & Associates (1998): Five perspectives on teaching in adult and higher education . Malabar, FL: Krieger. </li></ul><ul><li>Reischmann, Jost (2004) Andragogy. History, Meaning, Context, Function. At: http://www.andragogy.net. Version Sept. 9, 2004. </li></ul>
  11. 11. How do adults learn? Principles of Andragogy from Alexander Kapp to Malcolm Knowles

×