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Crj3400 Terrorism Understanding The Threat3


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Crj3400 Terrorism Understanding The Threat3

  1. 1. Terrorism Understanding the Threat Course Text: Martin, Gus (2006). Understanding Terrorism . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  2. 2. Chapter #3
  3. 3. Beginnings: The Causes <ul><li>Complex process to accept “terrorism” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical choice & political strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective rationality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of opportunity for political participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaffection within an elite </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rational – cost-benefit analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological – based on personal dissatisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural – perception of outsiders & their threat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatic/traumatic events </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Motives <ul><ul><li>Moral conviction – certainty of righteousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moral wronged by evil enemy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group has inherent moral superiority </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good and evil simplified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Honorable cause, justifiable methods, oppose evil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking utopia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examine what kind of utopia they are seeking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Codes of self sacrifice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Justification of actions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>True behavior is cleansed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.G. Waffen S.S., Bushido, Mujahideen </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Explanations of Terrorism <ul><li>Revolution: acts of political will. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An act of political will is an effort to force change by adopting tactics & methadologies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sociological injustice. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorism is a natural progression in a struggle between two groups of people, organizations, or nations, for the weaker group to use against the stronger group. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychological rationality. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-perpetuating cycle of rationalization of political violence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More . . . </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Acts of Political Will <ul><li>Illustration: Marxist strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>History and human social evolution will lead to triumph by the revolutionary working class. </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism’s collapse can be scientifically proven. </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin clarified that the demise would come only with a push. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sociological Injustice <ul><li>Generally: terrorism is a product of intergroup conflict that results in collective violence </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism is the only available strategy, chosen by a weaker group </li></ul><ul><li>Structural theory (state is key actor) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A government with economic & military problems is vulnerable to insurgency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relative deprivation theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group’s unmet, repressed expectations may lead to political violence </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Psychological Rationality <ul><li>Terrorists aren’t mentally ill or fringe </li></ul><ul><li>Individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal dissatisfaction with life & accomplishments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorism gives purpose/reason for being </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political violence group membership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-perpetuating cycle of violence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-actualization </li></ul>
  9. 9. Profiles
  10. 10. END
  11. 11. Terrorism Understanding the Threat