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Adult Learning Theories

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Malcolm Knowles' Andragogy
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Steven Covey's The 8th Habit
Mihály Csíkszentmihályi ‘s Flow

Published in: Education, Business

Adult Learning Theories

  1. 1. The Emergence of The Relationship Economy The New Order of Things to Come Learning Theory Analysis . . . Malcolm Knowles' Andragogy Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Steven Covey's The 8th Habit Mihály Csíkszentmihályi ‘s Flow
  2. 2. <ul><li>Malcolm Knowles </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Maslow </li></ul><ul><li>Steven Covey </li></ul><ul><li>Mihály Csíkszentmihályi </li></ul><ul><li>These thought leaders challenge us to create creative leaders by modeling creative leadership. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Andragogy <ul><li>In &quot;The Adult Learner,&quot; Knowles identified the root of Pedagogy as &quot;paid&quot; (child) and &quot;agogus&quot; (leader of), and combined the two to mean the &quot;art and science of teaching children.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>His definition shows the strong link between leading and teaching. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Andragogy <ul><li>Knowles observed that becoming an adult was a process, culminating in the self-concept of being responsible for our own lives - having self-direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Can the same be said about becoming an adult teacher/leader? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Andragogy <ul><li>Knowles' guidance on &quot;making things happen by releasing energy in others&quot; ties in with this, as well. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Andragogy <ul><li>Knowles said that creative leaders differ from controlling leaders in the assumptions they make about human nature. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Andragogy <ul><li>Knowles said that creative leaders assume when people make a commitment they had a part in the decision process. </li></ul><ul><li>Creative leaders value individuality -- they stimulate and reward creativity. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hierarchy Of Needs <ul><li>Maslow defined self-actualization as the desire for self-fulfillment, doing what one is fitted for, to become everything that one is capable of becoming. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Hierarchy Of Needs <ul><li>Maslow’s self-actualization can be described best as a process that is often felt, sometimes seen, but rarely achieved. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Maslow’s theory of human motivation </li></ul>What Motivates You?
  11. 11. <ul><li>1. Physiological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thirst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sex </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>2. Safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection from harm </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>3. Social : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belonging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>friendship </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>4. Esteem : (also called ego). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>5. Self actualization (doing things) </li></ul>
  16. 16. 8 th Habit <ul><li>Covey says, &quot;Leadership is a choice, not a position.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>How many of us feel we have made a choice, or were we just filling a void and sort of got comfortable once we filled it? </li></ul>
  17. 17. 8 th Habit <ul><li>Leadership, if not chosen (daily), can be considered forfeited. </li></ul>
  18. 18. 8 th Habit <ul><li>Covey said the 8th Habit is about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>finding your voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and inspiring others to find theirs </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>What's the difference between </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inspiring someone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and encouraging, empowering, or assisting them? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. 8 th Habit <ul><li>Covey explained that Voice is your &quot;unique personal significance.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>It is that &quot;significance that is revealed as we face our greatest challenges and that makes us equal to them.&quot; </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>How often do we feel &quot;equal&quot; to our &quot;greatest challenges?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Does this term &quot;voice&quot; remind you of other theories? </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Covey’s &quot;voice&quot; is similar to </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow's &quot;self-actualization,&quot; from his &quot;Hierarchy Of Needs“ </li></ul><ul><li>And also looks similar to Csíkszentmihályi’s “Flow” </li></ul>
  23. 23. Flow <ul><li>Flow is the mental state of operation in which the person is fully immersed in what he or she is doing, characterized by a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and success in the process of the activity. </li></ul>
  24. 24. How do I get there from here? <ul><li>Clear goals </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrating and focusing </li></ul><ul><li>S elf-consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Distorted sense of time </li></ul><ul><li>Direct and immediate feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced ability level and challenge </li></ul><ul><li>A sense of personal control. </li></ul><ul><li>An activity that is intrinsically rewarding </li></ul><ul><li>Becoming absorbed in the activity </li></ul><ul><li>Not all are needed for flow to be experienced. </li></ul>
  25. 25. How do We get there from here? <ul><li>Creative spatial arrangements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pin walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charts (no tables) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work primarily while standing and moving. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Playground design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charts & Flow graphs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project summary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open topics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parallel, organized working </li></ul><ul><li>Target group focus </li></ul><ul><li>Prototyping </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency through visualization </li></ul><ul><li>Differences seen as opportunities, not obstacles. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Where will I feel Flow? <ul><li>Business (especially negotiations) </li></ul><ul><li>Playing music </li></ul><ul><li>Playing sports </li></ul><ul><li>Playing video games </li></ul><ul><li>Doing standup comedy </li></ul><ul><li>Religious activity </li></ul><ul><li>Education (learning and sharing) </li></ul>
  27. 27. References <ul><li>Covey, S. R. (2004). The 8th Habit: From Effectiveness to Greatness , New York: Free Press </li></ul><ul><li>Csíkszentmihályi, M. (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience . New York: Harper and Row. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowles, M.S., Holton, E. F., III & Swanson, R. A. (2005). The Adult Learner (6 th ed.). San Diego: Elsevier </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow, A. H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50 , 370-396 </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Emergence of The Relationship Economy The New Order of Things to Come Learning Theory Analysis . . . Malcolm Knowles' Andragogy Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Steven Covey's The 8th Habit Mihály Csíkszentmihályi ‘s Flow

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