The bracketed names are the contemporary characters from whom Raphael is thought to have drawn his likenesses. 1: Zeno of Citium or Zeno of Elea? 2: Epicurus 3: Frederi II of Mantua? 4: Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius or Anaximander or Empedocles? 5: Averroes? 6: Pythagoras? 7: Alcibiades or Alexander the Great? 8: Antisthenes or Xenophon? 9: Hypatia (Francesco Maria della Rovere or Raphael's mistress Margherita.) 10: Aeschines or Xenophon? 11: Parmenides? 12: Socrates? 13: Heraclitus (Michelangelo). 14: Plato holding the Timaeus ( Leonardo da Vinci). 15: Aristotle holding the Ethics ? 16: Diogenes of Sinope? 17: Plotinus? 18: Euclid or Archimedes with students ( Bramante)? 19: Strabo or Zoroaster? (Baldassare Castiglione or Pietro Bembo). 20: Ptolemy? R: Apelles (Raphael). 21: Protogenes (Il Sodoma or Perugino).
Marsilio Ficino (1492) <ul><li>“ This century, like a golden age, has restored to light the liberal arts, which were almost extinct: grammar, poetry, rhetoric, painting, sculpture, architecture, music, the ancient singing of songs to the Orphic lyre, and all this in Florence. Achieving what had been honoured among the ancients, but almost forgotten since, the age has joined wisdom with eloquence, and prudence with the military art…this century appears to have perfected astronomy, and in Florence it has recalled the Platonic teaching from darkness into light…” </li></ul>
Lorenzo Valla proclaiming the perfections of the Latin language… <ul><li>“… the glory of Latinity was allowed to decay in rust and mould….in this age they have been aroused and come to life again, so greatly increased is the number of good artists and men of letters who now flourish.” </li></ul>
The Formal Properties of Renaissance Art <ul><li>Chiaroscuro </li></ul><ul><li>One-point Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Monothematic </li></ul>
Chiaroscuro <ul><li>From the Italian meaning dark and light; the use of shading techniques to create the illusion of depth </li></ul>Gerrit van Honthorst (1592-1656), The Matchmaker
One-point Perspective <ul><li>The canvas is viewed as a window through which the observer “sees” the painting; one-point perspective involves two basic aspects : </li></ul><ul><li>(a.) horizon line : a horizontal line running through the painting that demarcates planes of vision; the horizon line, and vanishing point, that appears in a painting as in a person’s field of vision; and, </li></ul><ul><li>(b.) center point : the center point of a painting (i.e. vanishing point); the point in a painting where one’s eye naturally focuses; the point in a painting where all vertical lines converge </li></ul><ul><li>Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) developed the concept of one-point linear perspective central to Renaissance painting. </li></ul>
Filippo Brunelleschi cutaway of the Dome of Florence Cathedral (Santa Maria del Fiore)
Atmospheric Perspective <ul><li>The use of landscape as background in a painting in order to create the illusion of depth. Leonardo da Vinci was instrumental in developing atmospheric perspective during the Renaissance. </li></ul>
Monothematic <ul><li>The idea that a painting should illustrate one theme, or a single subject. A unified theme that conforms to human conceptions of temporal and spatial relationships. A universal theme; not combining two or more subjects in a single painting. In Renaissance painting the main thematic representations (subjects) were derived from Christian-humanist themes. </li></ul>
Giotto (d.1337), Lamentation, ( The Mourning of Christ) , Cappella degli Scrovegni
Mona Lisa, or La Gioconda, Leonardo da Vinci (c.1503-1506): good example of chiaroscuro
Mannerism: The Catholic Reform Program El Greco, The Opening of the Fifth Seal
Tomb of Pope Alexander VII (r.1655-1667), Vatican, Rome (Bernini). Alexander VII condemned Protestant (Anglican) England, prohibited all publications on heliocentrism calling it a theoretical (theological) error, and attempted to stamp out Jansenism as a form of heresy.
Truth, by Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini, tramples England underfoot.