The Reformation


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The Reformation

  1. 1. The Reformation Classical inheritance of humanism combined with the tradition of Christianity.
  2. 2. Catholic Seven Blessed Sacraments <ul><li>Baptism </li></ul><ul><li>Eucharist </li></ul><ul><li>Reconciliation </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Holy Orders </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme Unction </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sources of the Reformation <ul><li>spread of Italian Renaissance humanism </li></ul><ul><li>Christian, or Northern Renaissance, humanism (Erasmus) </li></ul><ul><li>town development </li></ul><ul><li>Medieval institution of the university </li></ul><ul><li>Scholasticism: reaction to convoluted argumentation of and distortion of teaching by Scholastic philosophers </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Reformation: New Ideas about God and Humanity <ul><li>fast pace of change of concepts about the world and universe during the Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>no other movement transformed Europe as much as the Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>inaugurated by Martin Luther in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>tension giving rise to the Reformation: spiritual power ( Republica Christiana ) v. political (or, secular) power (emerging nation-states) </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Reformation and Technology <ul><li>Johannes Gutenberg </li></ul><ul><li>Mainz, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>mass production of </li></ul><ul><li>movable, metal type; </li></ul><ul><li>oil-based ink; and, the </li></ul><ul><li>wooden printing press </li></ul><ul><li>Gutenberg Bible </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Gutenberg Bible
  7. 7. Martin Luther (1483-1546) <ul><li>Augustinian Friar and Professor of Theology at the University of Wittenberg </li></ul><ul><li>Luther became incensed over a succession of corrupt popes from Sixtus IV (r. 1471-1484) to Leo X (r. 1513-1521) as well as what he viewed as the corrupt practices within the Church: sale of indulgences by ecclesiastical officials to replenish the Church treasury which had been depleted in order to finance construction of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome </li></ul>
  8. 8. Martin Luther posted his ninety-five theses on the door of the castle church at Wittenberg on October 31, 1517 <ul><li>advocated faith in salvation by grace alone </li></ul><ul><li>confirmed Luther’s belief in the authority of the Word of God without intercession by the Church </li></ul><ul><li>indulgences were remissions by the Church of temporal punishment on earth or in purgatory---Church was essentially selling pardons; papal pardons, especially when sold, were no guarantee of salvation according to Luther, hence, challenging the authority of the pope </li></ul>
  9. 9. Main Tenets of Lutheranism <ul><li>doctrine of individuality </li></ul><ul><li>faith through grace alone </li></ul><ul><li>salvation of the individual soul </li></ul><ul><li>personal knowledge of God without need of church or priest as intercessor </li></ul>
  10. 10. Martin Luther (L) and John Calvin (R)
  11. 11. John Calvin (1509-1564) <ul><li>French protestant educated in law and theology </li></ul><ul><li>persecuted in France for his religious beliefs, Calvin fled to Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>Calvin established a theocratic republic in Geneva, Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>Calvinism was known for its stern rigidity in that it forbade most ordinary pleasures </li></ul><ul><li>mixture of church and state in Calvinist doctrine made infractions of divine law punishable by civilian government </li></ul>
  12. 12. John Calvin, The Institutes of the Christian Religion (1559) <ul><li>statement of Calvinist philosophy of faith </li></ul><ul><li>unconditional sovereignty of God is the foundation of Calvinist doctrine; God’s will is absolute </li></ul><ul><li>assistance of a Savior, Jesus Christ, was necessary because of the total, abject helplessness of humanity </li></ul><ul><li>predestination is rigorous and universal: a few of the elect will be saved through faith in God, but most humans will be forever damned </li></ul><ul><li>group of the elect constitutes the church; preservation of the church is responsibility of both religious and state authorities </li></ul>
  13. 13. John Calvin, The Institutes of the Christian Religion (1559)
  14. 14. The Counter-Reformation: A Catholic Response <ul><li>Papal response to the Reformation; convened by Pope Paul III (r. 1534-1549), and subsequently known as the Council of Trent (1545-1563) </li></ul><ul><li>reaffirmed all Catholic doctrines attacked by Martin Luther including original sin, grace, redemption, the sacraments, sacrifice of the Mass, and purgatory </li></ul><ul><li>violations of discipline were denounced, reforms were enacted, and inobservance was grounds for censure </li></ul><ul><li>music was reformed leading to new trends in Counter-Reformation arts and architecture (e.g. Mannerism in painting and Baroque in sculpture, painting, music, dance, and architecture) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Impact of the Reformation <ul><li>divided a monolithic institution---challenged the authority of the Church of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>kindled an intellectual revolution </li></ul><ul><li>generated change in technological, social, political, economic, and cultural spheres </li></ul><ul><li>encouraged national identity in emerging nation-states or kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>freed education from ecclesiastical control </li></ul><ul><li>encouraged religious independence and a sort of religious relativism </li></ul><ul><li>spurred growth of capitalism </li></ul>