Jacksonian Era


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Jacksonian Era

  1. 1. <ul><li>Politics, Religion, and Reform </li></ul><ul><li>1820-1865 </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Election of 1828
  3. 3. The Election of 1840
  4. 4. Religious and Utopian Communities, 1800–1845
  5. 5. Anti-Federalists (1780s): opposed adoption of the United States Constitution and wrote the Anti-Federalist Papers. Anti-Federalists included Thomas Paine, Mercy Otis Warren, and Richard Henry Lee.
  6. 6. Federalist Party (1792-1816)
  7. 7. Era of Good Feelings: The Democratic-Republican Party (1792-1824)
  8. 8. Jacksonian Era: The Democratic Party (1824-Present) <ul><li>Major Issues of Jacksonian Era </li></ul><ul><li>Spoils System, or rotation of office </li></ul><ul><li>Sectionalism, Secession, and Slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Removal Act of 1830 </li></ul><ul><li>opposition to the Second Bank of the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Nullification Crisis (1828-1832) </li></ul><ul><li>Protective Tariff </li></ul><ul><li>Force Bill of 1833 </li></ul><ul><li>Petticoat Affair of 1831 </li></ul><ul><li>first assassination attempt against a US President (January 30, 1835) </li></ul><ul><li>Panic of 1837, or specie circular crisis </li></ul>
  9. 9. Jackson Assassination Attempt in the U.S. Capitol, January 30, 1835
  10. 10. Second Party System (1837-1852) <ul><li>McCormick is most responsible for defining the term. He concluded (McCormick 1966 pp 14-16): </li></ul><ul><li>It was a distinct party system. </li></ul><ul><li>It formed over a 15 year period that varied by state. </li></ul><ul><li>It was produced by leaders trying to win the presidency, with contenders building their own national coalitions. </li></ul><ul><li>Regional effects strongly affected developments, with the Adams forces strongest in New England, for example, and the Jacksonians in the Southwest. </li></ul><ul><li>For the first time two-party politics was extended to the South and West (which had been one-party regions). </li></ul><ul><li>In each region the two parties were about equal--the first and only party system showing this. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the regional balance it was vulnerable to region-specific issues (like slavery). </li></ul><ul><li>The same two parties appeared in every state, and contested both the electoral vote and state offices. </li></ul><ul><li>Most critical was the abrupt emergence of a two-party South in 1832-34 (mostly as a reaction against Van Buren). </li></ul><ul><li>The Anti-Masonic party flourished in only those states with a weak second party. </li></ul><ul><li>Methods varied somewhat but everywhere the party convention replaced the caucus. </li></ul><ul><li>The parties had an interest of their own, in terms of the office-seeking goals of party activists. </li></ul><ul><li>The System brought forth a new, popular campaign style. </li></ul><ul><li>Close elections brought out the voters (not charismatic candidates or particular issues). </li></ul><ul><li>Party leaders formed the parties to some degree in their own image. </li></ul>Source: Wikipedia, Second Party System @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_party_system
  11. 11. Second Parties: 1837-1854 <ul><li>Democratic Party 1824-Present </li></ul><ul><li>National Republican Party 1825-1833 </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Masonic Party 1826-1836/38 </li></ul><ul><li>Whig Party 1833-1856 </li></ul><ul><li>American Republican Party 1843-1845 </li></ul><ul><li>Native American Party 1845-1854 </li></ul><ul><li>Free Soil Party 1848-1852 </li></ul><ul><li>Know Nothing Party 1854-1856 </li></ul><ul><li>Republican Party 1854-Present </li></ul>
  12. 12. National Republican Party: Forerunner of Whig Party (1825-1833)
  13. 13. Whig Party: Opposition to Jacksonianism (1833-34-1856)
  14. 14. Whig Party Members: Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, Zachary Taylor, Winfield Scott
  15. 15. Free Soil Party: opposed the expansion of slavery into new US territories (1848-1852) Free Soil Party leaders Salmon P. Chase of Ohio and John Parker Hale of New Hampshire.
  16. 16. Know Nothing Party: formed to oppose immigration and naturalization of German and Irish Catholic immigrants to the United States (c. 1854-1856) John T. Towers, the Know Nothing Party candidate, won the Washington, D.C. mayoralty in 1854.
  17. 17. Republican Party (1854-Present)