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Data & Digital Ethics: some thoughts

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Talk by Kate Carruthers at ODI Australian Network in Sydney, held at Data61 CSIRO, Australian Technology Park

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Data & Digital Ethics: some thoughts

  1. 1. Data & Digital Ethics: some thoughts Kate Carruthers Version 1.0 August 2017 Classification: PUBLIC
  2. 2. Ethics Moral principles that govern a person's behaviour or the way in which they conduct an activity… August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 1 “We ask ethical questions whenever we think about how we should act. Being ethical is a part of what defines us as human beings.” The Ethics Centre, Sydney
  3. 3. August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 2
  4. 4. Digital Ethics? “A few guidelines are useful in most situations: • Use the golden rule: ask yourself how you would like to be treated as a human being, citizen or customer. • There are always unintended consequences: embrace new positive uses of technology, and block undesirable uses. • Success usually comes from exercising discipline and self-restraint in using technology, rather than pushing the limits.” August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 3 Goasduff, C. L. (2016, March 07). Kick-Start the Conversation on Digital Ethics. Retrieved August 15, 2017, from http://www.gartner.com/smarterwithgartner/kick-start-the-conversation-on-digital-ethics/
  5. 5. Areas of focus • Ethics of data - how we generate, record & share data • Ethics of algorithms - how we interpret data via artificial intelligence, machine learning and robots • Ethics of practices - devising responsible innovation and professional codes to guide this emerging science August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 4 What is data ethics? Luciano Floridi, Mariarosaria Taddeo Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 2016 374 20160360; DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2016.0360. Published 14 November 2016
  6. 6. 5 Propositions about data 1.Data is not neutral 2.There is no such thing as raw data 3.The signal to noise ratio has changed 4.Data is not inherently smart 5.The more data we have the less anonymity August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 5
  7. 7. 3 things August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 6 Privacy Data Gov Info Sec
  8. 8. Some food for thought August 17 7Kate Carruthers | UNSW
  9. 9. August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 8 http://www.informationisbeautiful.net/visualizations/worlds-biggest-data-breaches- hacks/
  10. 10. August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 9 This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA
  11. 11. Facebook study “We show, via a massive (N = 689,003) experiment on Facebook, that emotional states can be transferred to others via emotional contagion, leading people to experience the same emotions without their awareness. We provide experimental evidence that emotional contagion occurs without direct interaction between people (exposure to a friend expressing an emotion is sufficient), and in the complete absence of nonverbal cues.” August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 10 Kramer, A. D., Guillory, J. E., & Hancock, J. T. (2014). Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(24), 8788-8790.
  12. 12. August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 11 http://thehackernews.com/2017/07/sweden-data-breach.html
  13. 13. August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 12
  14. 14. August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 13 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WHynGQ9Vg30
  15. 15. August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 14
  16. 16. August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 15
  17. 17. Some traditional approaches August 17 16Kate Carruthers | UNSW
  18. 18. 1. Minimize attack surface area 2. Establish secure defaults 3. Principle of Least privilege 4. Principle of Defence in depth 5. Fail securely 6. Don’t trust services 7. Separation of duties 8. Avoid security by obscurity 9. Keep security simple 10. Fix security issues correctly OWASP Security by Design Principles August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 17 Open Web Application Security Project https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Security_by_Design_Principles
  19. 19. IEEE CS/ACM Code of Ethics & Professional Practice Software engineers shall commit themselves to making the analysis, specification, design, development, testing and maintenance of software a beneficial and respected profession. In accordance with their commitment to the health, safety and welfare of the public, software engineers shall adhere to the following Eight Principles: 1. Public: Software engineers shall act consistently with the public interest. 2. Client and Employer: Software engineers shall act in a manner that is in the best interests of their client and employer, consistent with the public interest. 3. Product: Software engineers shall ensure that their products and related modifications meet the highest professional standards possible. 4. Judgement: Software engineers shall maintain integrity and independence in their professional judgment. 5. Management: Software engineering managers and leaders shall subscribe to and promote an ethical approach to the management of software development and maintenance. 6. Profession: Software engineers shall advance the integrity and reputation of the profession consistent with the public interest. 7. Colleagues: Software engineers shall be fair to and supportive of their colleagues. 8. Self: Software engineers shall participate in lifelong learning regarding the practice of their profession and shall promote an ethical approach to the practice of the profession. August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 18 https://www.computer.org/web/education/code-of-ethics
  20. 20. ACM Code of Ethics August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 19 As an ACM member I will 1. Contribute to society and human well-being. 2. Avoid harm to others. 3. Be honest and trustworthy. 4. Be fair and take action not to discriminate. 5. Honor property rights including copyrights and patent. 6. Give proper credit for intellectual property. 7. Respect the privacy of others. 8. Honor confidentiality. From the ACM Code of Ethics
  21. 21. Accenture: 12 guidelines for developing data ethics codes 1. The highest priority is to respect the persons behind the data. 2. Attend to the downstream uses of datasets. 3. Provenance of the data and analytical tools shapes the consequences of their use. 4. Strive to match privacy and security safeguards with privacy and security expectations. 5. Always follow the law, but understand that the law is often a minimum bar. 6. Be wary of collecting data just for the sake of more data. 7. Data can be a tool of inclusion and exclusion. August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 20 https://www.accenture.com/t20160629T012639__w__/us-en/_acnmedia/PDF-24/Accenture-Universal-Principles-Data-Ethics.pdf
  22. 22. Accenture: 12 guidelines for developing data ethics codes 8. As much as possible, explain methods for analysis and marketing to data disclosers. 9. Data scientists and practitioners should accurately represent their qualifications, limits to their expertise, adhere to professional standards, and strive for peer accountability. 10.Aspire to design practices that incorporate transparency, configurability, accountability, and auditability. 11.Products and research practices should be subject to internal, and potentially external ethical review. 12.Governance practices should be robust, known to all team members and reviewed regularly August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 21 https://www.accenture.com/t20160629T012639__w__/us-en/_acnmedia/PDF-24/Accenture-Universal-Principles-Data-Ethics.pdf
  23. 23. Some things to think about August 17 22Kate Carruthers | UNSW
  24. 24. Privacy matters Privacy by Design 1. Proactive not Reactive; Preventative not Remedial 2. Privacy as the Default Setting 3. Privacy Embedded into Design 4. Full Functionality – Positive-Sum, not Zero-Sum 5. End-to-End Security – Full Lifecycle Protection 6. Visibility and Transparency – Keep it Open 7. Respect for User Privacy – Keep it User-Centric August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 23 “Privacy is an inherent human right, and a requirement for maintaining the human condition with dignity and respect.” - Bruce Schneier
  25. 25. August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 24 Technology has no ethics. People demonstrate ethics.
  26. 26. August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 25 Technology inherits the biases of its makers
  27. 27. August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 26 Kent Aitken, Prime Ministers Fellow, Public Policy Forum Canada, 2017
  28. 28. Some new approaches August 17 27Kate Carruthers | UNSW
  29. 29. August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 28 http://www.fatml.org/
  30. 30. August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 29 https://standards.ieee.org/develop/indconn/ec/autonomous_systems.html
  31. 31. August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 30
  32. 32. August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 31 Education
  33. 33. August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 32 More thought is needed!
  34. 34. Resources Georgetown University, Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Ethics Lab Causeit Data Ethics The BIG Data Ethics Cheat Sheet, Hackermoon Digital Ethics Lab - Oxford Internet Institute - University of Oxford Guidelines on Ethical Research - British Sociological Association What is data ethics? Luciano Floridi, Mariarosaria Taddeo. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 2016 374 20160360; DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2016.0360. Published 14 November 2016 Digital Enlightenment Forum: Digital Ethics. Workshop Report. (2016, March 1). Retrieved August 16, 2017, from https://digitalenlightenment.org/sites/default/files/users/14/Digital%20Ethics%20Workshop%20Report%20v2.pdf A deep study on the concept of digital ethics. Maggiolini, Piercarlo. (2014).. Revista de Administração de Empresas, 54(5), 585-591. https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-759020140511 August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 33
  35. 35. Thank you Kate Carruthers k.carruthers@unsw.edu.au August 17 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 34

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