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Data & Digital Ethics - CDAO Conference Sydney 2018

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Presentation at Chief Data & Analytics Officer Conference Sydney, 20 March 2018

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Data & Digital Ethics - CDAO Conference Sydney 2018

  1. 1. Data & Digital Ethics Kate Carruthers Version 1.0 March 2018 Classification: PUBLIC
  2. 2. Slides are available https://www.slideshare.net/carruthk March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 1
  3. 3. Agenda 1. Ethics and data 2. Why this important 3. Some traditional approaches 4. Some new approaches 5. What we need to do March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 2
  4. 4. Ethics Moral principles that govern a person's behaviour or the way in which they conduct an activity… March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 3 “We ask ethical questions whenever we think about how we should act. Being ethical is a part of what defines us as human beings.” The Ethics Centre, Sydney
  5. 5. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 4
  6. 6. Areas of focus • Ethics of data - how we generate, record & share data • Ethics of algorithms - how we interpret data via artificial intelligence, machine learning and robots • Ethics of practices - devising responsible innovation and professional codes to guide this emerging science March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 5 What is data ethics? Luciano Floridi, Mariarosaria Taddeo Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 2016 374 20160360; DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2016.0360. Published 14 November 2016
  7. 7. 5 Propositions about data 1.Data is not neutral 2.There is no such thing as raw data 3.The signal to noise ratio has changed 4.Data is not inherently smart 5.The more data we have the less anonymity March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 6
  8. 8. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 7 Privacy Data Governance Cyber Security Ethics The essentials
  9. 9. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 8 http://www.informationisbeautiful.net/visualizations/worlds-biggest-data-breaches- hacks/
  10. 10. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 9 This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA
  11. 11. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 10 https://www.arnnet.com.au/article/609309/australian-red-cross-launches-investigation-after-massive-data-cock-up/
  12. 12. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 11 http://www.news.com.au/technology/online/australias-2016-census-had-significant-and-obvious-oversights-report- finds/news-story/6edcf8f897b2361965bd72683ee6edbe
  13. 13. Facebook study “We show, via a massive (N = 689,003) experiment on Facebook, that emotional states can be transferred to others via emotional contagion, leading people to experience the same emotions without their awareness. We provide experimental evidence that emotional contagion occurs without direct interaction between people (exposure to a friend expressing an emotion is sufficient), and in the complete absence of nonverbal cues.” March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 12 Kramer, A. D., Guillory, J. E., & Hancock, J. T. (2014). Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(24), 8788-8790.
  14. 14. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 13 http://thehackernews.com/2017/07/sweden-data-breach.html
  15. 15. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 14 ****** https://www.theverge.com/2016/3/24/11297050/tay-microsoft-chatbot-racist
  16. 16. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 15 “Revealed: 50 million Facebook profiles harvested for Cambridge Analytica in major data breach” https://www.theguardian.com/news/2018/mar/17/cambridge-analytica-facebook-influence-us-election
  17. 17. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 16 https://medium.com/textifire/cambridge-analytica-microsofts-exploitative-ad-tech-c2db8633f542 May 2017: Cambridge Analytica: Microsoft’s Exploitative Ad-Tech Trump & Brexit’s infamous data firm was allegedly grown in the Microsoft-funded advertising research labs at Cambridge University.
  18. 18. Traditional approaches • Security by Design • Privacy by Design • Examples: oIEEE CS/ACM Code of Ethics oACM Code of Ethics • Guidelines March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 17
  19. 19. 1. Minimize attack surface area 2. Establish secure defaults 3. Principle of Least privilege 4. Principle of Defence in depth 5. Fail securely 6. Don’t trust services 7. Separation of duties 8. Avoid security by obscurity 9. Keep security simple 10. Fix security issues correctly OWASP Security by Design Principles March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 18 Open Web Application Security Project https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Security_by_Design_Principles
  20. 20. Privacy matters Privacy by Design 1. Proactive not Reactive; Preventative not Remedial 2. Privacy as the Default Setting 3. Privacy Embedded into Design 4. Full Functionality – Positive-Sum, not Zero-Sum 5. End-to-End Security – Full Lifecycle Protection 6. Visibility and Transparency – Keep it Open 7. Respect for User Privacy – Keep it User-Centric March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 19 “Privacy is an inherent human right, and a requirement for maintaining the human condition with dignity and respect.” - Bruce Schneier https://www.schneier.com/essays/archives/2006/05/the_eternal_value_of.html
  21. 21. IEEE CS/ACM Code of Ethics & Professional Practice Software engineers shall commit themselves to making the analysis, specification, design, development, testing and maintenance of software a beneficial and respected profession. In accordance with their commitment to the health, safety and welfare of the public, software engineers shall adhere to the following Eight Principles: 1. Public: Software engineers shall act consistently with the public interest. 2. Client and Employer: Software engineers shall act in a manner that is in the best interests of their client and employer, consistent with the public interest. 3. Product: Software engineers shall ensure that their products and related modifications meet the highest professional standards possible. 4. Judgement: Software engineers shall maintain integrity and independence in their professional judgment. 5. Management: Software engineering managers and leaders shall subscribe to and promote an ethical approach to the management of software development and maintenance. 6. Profession: Software engineers shall advance the integrity and reputation of the profession consistent with the public interest. 7. Colleagues: Software engineers shall be fair to and supportive of their colleagues. 8. Self: Software engineers shall participate in lifelong learning regarding the practice of their profession and shall promote an ethical approach to the practice of the profession. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 20 https://www.computer.org/web/education/code-of-ethics
  22. 22. ACM Code of Ethics March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 21 As an ACM member I will 1. Contribute to society and human well-being. 2. Avoid harm to others. 3. Be honest and trustworthy. 4. Be fair and take action not to discriminate. 5. Honor property rights including copyrights and patent. 6. Give proper credit for intellectual property. 7. Respect the privacy of others. 8. Honor confidentiality. From the ACM Code of Ethics http://www.acm.org/about/code-of-ethics
  23. 23. Accenture: 12 guidelines for developing data ethics codes 1. The highest priority is to respect the persons behind the data. 2. Attend to the downstream uses of datasets. 3. Provenance of the data and analytical tools shapes the consequences of their use. 4. Strive to match privacy and security safeguards with privacy and security expectations. 5. Always follow the law, but understand that the law is often a minimum bar. 6. Be wary of collecting data just for the sake of more data. 7. Data can be a tool of inclusion and exclusion. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 22 https://www.accenture.com/t20160629T012639__w__/us-en/_acnmedia/PDF-24/Accenture-Universal-Principles-Data-Ethics.pdf
  24. 24. Accenture: 12 guidelines for developing data ethics codes 8. As much as possible, explain methods for analysis and marketing to data disclosers. 9. Data scientists and practitioners should accurately represent their qualifications, limits to their expertise, adhere to professional standards, and strive for peer accountability. 10.Aspire to design practices that incorporate transparency, configurability, accountability, and auditability. 11.Products and research practices should be subject to internal, and potentially external ethical review. 12.Governance practices should be robust, known to all team members and reviewed regularly March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 23 https://www.accenture.com/t20160629T012639__w__/us-en/_acnmedia/PDF-24/Accenture-Universal-Principles-Data-Ethics.pdf
  25. 25. Issues with Codes of Ethics • Often nobody knows they exist • Even if they do, nobody follows them • If they do follow them it turns into work to rule • It’s hard to articulate all ethical requirements in a code • Needs strong institutional support • Guidelines have similar issues March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 24
  26. 26. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 25 “One Zettabyte is approximately equal to a thousand Exabytes, a billion Terabytes, or a trillion Gigabytes.” https://blogs.cisco.com/sp/the-zettabyte-era-officially-begins-how-much-is-that
  27. 27. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 26
  28. 28. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 27 Technology has no ethics. People demonstrate ethics.
  29. 29. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 28 Technology inherits the biases of its makers – therefore we need diversity
  30. 30. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 29 “Complexity is a defining feature of the digital era, & we are not adjusting our governance structures to manage it.” Kent Aiken, Prime Minister’s Fellow, Public Policy Forum Canada, 2017
  31. 31. Some new approaches • FATML – Fairness, Accountability and Transparency in Machine Learning • IEEE Global Initiative on Ethics of Autonomous and Intelligent Systems • Algorithmic Justice League • Education in digital ethics March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 30
  32. 32. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 31 http://www.fatml.org/
  33. 33. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 32 https://standards.ieee.org/develop/indconn/ec/autonomous_systems.html
  34. 34. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 33
  35. 35. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 34 Education
  36. 36. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 35 We cannot leave ethics to volunteer groups!
  37. 37. Digital Ethics? “A few guidelines are useful in most situations: • Use the golden rule: ask yourself how you would like to be treated as a human being, citizen or customer. • There are always unintended consequences: embrace new positive uses of technology, and block undesirable uses. • Success usually comes from exercising discipline and self-restraint in using technology, rather than pushing the limits.” March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 36 Goasduff, C. L. (2016, March 07). Kick-Start the Conversation on Digital Ethics. Retrieved August 15, 2017, from http://www.gartner.com/smarterwithgartner/kick-start-the-conversation-on-digital-ethics/
  38. 38. March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 37 We need formal ways to consider the ethical implications of data and its uses
  39. 39. Slides are available https://www.slideshare.net/carruthk March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 38
  40. 40. Resources Georgetown University, Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Ethics Lab Causeit Data Ethics The BIG Data Ethics Cheat Sheet, Hackermoon Digital Ethics Lab - Oxford Internet Institute - University of Oxford Guidelines on Ethical Research - British Sociological Association What is data ethics? Luciano Floridi, Mariarosaria Taddeo. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 2016 374 20160360; DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2016.0360. Published 14 November 2016 Digital Enlightenment Forum: Digital Ethics. Workshop Report. (2016, March 1). Retrieved August 16, 2017, from https://digitalenlightenment.org/sites/default/files/users/14/Digital%20Ethics%20Workshop%20Report%20v2.pdf A deep study on the concept of digital ethics. Maggiolini, Piercarlo. (2014).. Revista de Administração de Empresas, 54(5), 585-591. https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-759020140511 March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 39
  41. 41. Thank you Kate Carruthers k.carruthers@unsw.edu.au March 18 Kate Carruthers | UNSW 40

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