Session 3‘the elements of music’


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A musicology presenation that focuses on the relationship between the elements of music and musical form.

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Session 3‘the elements of music’

  1. 2. <ul><li>Fridays after lecture – say 1-5? </li></ul><ul><li>Groups? – I will place on Blackboard </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Elements of Music </li></ul><ul><li>Song – Arrangement – Track </li></ul><ul><li>Stan Hawkins Article </li></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>The vast majority of popular music has a specific structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Common terminologies we use in popular music include Introduction, Verse, Chorus, and Middle Section/Bridge. </li></ul><ul><li>Most popular music consists of 2 or 4 bar phrases, so the sections are often divided into 8 or 16 bars. For Example: </li></ul>
  4. 8. <ul><li>For Example: </li></ul>
  5. 10. <ul><li>Sections usually contrast with one another melodically to sustain interest, but also harmonically, texturally, lyrically, dynamically and rhythmically (or any other ‘element’). </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to examples below, how do the above factors change? </li></ul>Bleeding Love Melodically Harmonically Texturally Lyrically Dynamically Rhythmically War Of My Life Melodically Harmonically Texturally Lyrically Dynamically Rhythmically
  6. 13. <ul><li>“ Jail House Rock” Elvis Presley (Stop Time) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Pretender” Foo Fighters </li></ul>
  7. 16. <ul><li>Look for changes of harmony between sections. Although most use different harmonies between verse and chorus, others use the same. For example: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Stand By Me” Ben E King </li></ul><ul><li>“ CandyLion” Gruff Rhys </li></ul>
  8. 19. <ul><li>Self Evident </li></ul>
  9. 20. <ul><li>“ Sloop John B”:The Beach Boys </li></ul><ul><li>Note how this consists of only one section, so variety of texture is vital) </li></ul>
  10. 22. <ul><li>Listen closely for the relationships between instruments in terms of: </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency (High – Low) </li></ul><ul><li>Depth/Distance (amount of ambience) </li></ul><ul><li>Stereo Spectrum (Left – Right). Does it change? Do these changes help evoke the mood of the music? </li></ul><ul><li>General Volume </li></ul><ul><li>Is there any double tracking? </li></ul><ul><li>Use of effects) (compression, delay, chorus, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of EQ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the texture homophonic or Polyphonic? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the texture relate to the lyrics and the emotion of the piece (Texture can be ‘physical’ and ‘rhetorical’)? </li></ul><ul><li>How do the individual parts relate to the whole mix? </li></ul>
  11. 23. <ul><li>Annie Lennox: ‘Walking On Broken Glass’ </li></ul><ul><li>Feist: ‘The Water’ </li></ul>
  12. 26. <ul><li>Specific sounds can immediately inform the listener of who an artist is, and or what a style or tradition is. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>Phil Spector </li></ul><ul><li>Jimi Hendrix </li></ul>
  13. 29. <ul><li>Try and examine the nature of the individual sound. </li></ul><ul><li>For example with distortion: </li></ul><ul><li>What type of distortion is it? </li></ul><ul><li>How is it manufactured? </li></ul><ul><li>How does this relate to the style and authenticity of the artist? </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul>
  14. 30. <ul><li>Rainbow: “Since You Been Gone” </li></ul><ul><li>Saxon: “Wheels of Steele” </li></ul><ul><li>Mega death: “Holy Wars” </li></ul><ul><li>The same type of factors can be discussed for other instruments </li></ul>
  15. 33. <ul><li>A change of style: Compare “In God’s Country” ( The Joshua Tree ) to “Zoo Station” ( Achtung Baby ) U2 </li></ul>
  16. 36. <ul><li>“ That’s All Right” Elvis Presley </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Live Albums </li></ul>
  17. 38. <ul><li>They can can also allude to other styles (what Tagg calls a ‘Genre Synecdoche’) </li></ul><ul><li>For example: Distortion in Jazz </li></ul><ul><li>Violin in Rock </li></ul><ul><li>Harpsichord in Rock (The Beatles) </li></ul><ul><li>Electric instruments in Jazz or Folk </li></ul>
  18. 39. <ul><li>‘ Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds’: The Beatles </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Burnished’: White Denim. </li></ul>
  19. 42. <ul><li>As well a metre being used diachronically, it can also be used synchronically. Example: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Kashmir” (Led Zeppelin) </li></ul><ul><li>“ All I Need” (Radiohead </li></ul>
  20. 45. <ul><li>Introduction : content usually used somewhere else in the song. Not always incorporated, but always introduces the song. </li></ul><ul><li>Verse : Recurrent harmonic pattern, but different text and texture etc. Usually occurs after the introduction, but sometimes chorus can occur before it (Example “I Shot the Sheriff”, “Rock and Roll Music”) </li></ul><ul><li>Chorus : Usually a recurrent harmonic and lyrical pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>Refrain : Not a distinct section, but part of a verse or chorus. </li></ul><ul><li>Can end or start a section. Consists of a repeated subsection, often with same lyrics. For Example: </li></ul><ul><li>“ I Saw Her Standing There”: The Beatles (After Verse) </li></ul><ul><li>God Only Knows: The Beach Boys: (note how refrain repeats at end) </li></ul><ul><li>I “Want To Hold Your Hand”: The Beatles (After Verse) </li></ul><ul><li>Bridge : Connects two other sections. </li></ul><ul><li>Normally occurs once, if twice, usually has same text. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes called the ‘Middle 8’. </li></ul><ul><li>Bridges can be instrumental: “Nights in White Satin” </li></ul><ul><li>Outro : Content usually derives from elsewhere in the song. Always ends song. </li></ul>
  21. 46. <ul><li>Place at least 4 examples of the following info on my blog </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of pieces with unusual bar numbers in sections </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of how rhythm delineates form </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of verse and chorus with same chords </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of artist specific sounds </li></ul>
  22. 47. <ul><li>Examples of texture/instrumentation delineating form </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of how metre delineates form. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of how sounds allude toward change of style </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of how sounds indicate a place or time. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of textures that outline the lyrics and or Title </li></ul><ul><li>With all of these questions you need to also ask ‘how’? </li></ul>
  23. 48. <ul><li>Read Analysis on Korn (On Blackboard) </li></ul>