+How JournalistsCould FulfillTheir Role as a“Voice for theVoiceless:”Nonhuman Animalsas News Sources Carrie Packwood Free...
+ What we’ll be talkingabout today:• Importance of journalism to causes• How they typically cover nonhumans• Journalism’s ...
+Importance of Journalism News informs us of important issuesand events locally and globally and toset the agenda for wha...
+News Coverage of NonhumanAnimals (Welfare/Rights) Jones (1996) found that passage ofpro-animal ballot initiatives orhuma...
+News Coverage of NonhumanAnimals (Free/Wild) Sources for wildlife (inAmerican news) tended tofavor government officialsm...
+News Coverage of NonhumanAnimals (Fished or Farmed)Freeman (2009) found that U.S.news organizations in the early21stcentu...
+Journalism’s Ethical ObligationsAs professionals, journalistsare obligated to be:Truthful,Careful to minimize harm ands...
+Journalism’s Ethical ObligationsSociety of Professional Journalists’ Code of EthicsConsider how the code of ethics discus...
+Journalism’s Ethical ObligationsMinimizing HarmConsider the followingSPJ code under“Minimization of Harm:”“Treat sources,...
+Journalism’s Ethical ObligationsMy AssessmentIf journalists uncriticallyperpetuate stereotypes anddominant perspectives a...
+Our Key ArgumentOur request goes beyond simplyasking that journalism cover animalprotection and environmentalissues.Inste...
+How can Journalists Incorporatethe Nonhuman Animal Voice?OK. So NotThis Way.Nonhumans cannotadapt to fit the humanmodel f...
+How can Journalists Incorporatethe Nonhuman Animal Voice?To view other animals as a source with their side to a storyrequ...
+1. Observe, Listen to, andCommunicate with Animals The optimal situation wouldinvolve the journalist visitingthe animal’...
+1. Observe, Listen to, &Communicate with Animals Undercover methods ofinvestigation often becomenecessary We suggest gr...
+2. Interpret Animal Behavior &Communication In situations where uncertaintyexists, journalists shouldattempt to convey v...
+2. Interpret Animal Behavior &Communication
+2. Interpret Animal Behavior &CommunicationIn cases wherecommunication is notas easy to interpret,journalists may needto ...
+3. Consider and IncorporateAnimals’ Perspectives and Interests What are their interests? Weassume: all animals want to ...
+3. Consider and IncorporateAnimals’ Perspectives and Interests Journalists must strive toovercome their human-centered b...
+3. Consider and IncorporateAnimals’ Perspectives and InterestsTo demonstrate how newsstories could include acritique of a...
+3. Consider and IncorporateAnimals’ Perspectives and InterestsPOSITIVE EXAMPLE: journalist Charles Siebert’s (2009) in-de...
+Who Should Be the HumanSpokespeople?The primary concern ishow to determine whohas the right to speakon behalf of nonhuman...
+Who Should Be the HumanSpokespeople?Vegans make beneficial newssources not just for activism or foodstories, but also for...
+Using Respectful LanguageRemind humans they are animalsHumanlanguages tendto reflect theirhumanistorigins.So it can becha...
+Using Respectful LanguageAvoid objectifying animalsInstead OfObjectifying IndustryTermsTry Being more Preciseand Respectf...
+In ConclusionBy adopting and codifyingthese guidelines, journalismcan escape the limitations ofits humanist bias and prod...
+While the media havethe potential to be amajor force inpreventingecological collapse,we need to demanda paradigm shift in...
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Journalism as a voice for animals; seeing nonhumans as news sources

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Powerpoint presented by Dr. Carrie Freeman at Minding Animals Conference in Utrecht, The Netherlands July 2012. It represents a peer-reviewed academic article: Freeman, C. P., Bekoff, M. & Bexell, S. (2011). Giving Voice to the Voiceless: Incorporating Nonhuman Animal Perspectives as Journalistic Sources, Journalism Studies, 12(5), 590-607. I co-authored this paper with two biologists. A final draft can be viewed at http://works.bepress.com/carrie_freeman/"
ABSTRACT: As part of journalism's commitment to truth and justice by providing a diversity of relevant points of view, journalists have an obligation to provide the perspective of nonhuman animals in everyday stories that influence the animals’ and our lives. This essay provides justification and guidance on why and how this can be accomplished, recommending that, when writing about nonhuman animals or issues, journalists should: (1) observe, listen to, and communicate with animals and convey this information to audiences via detailed descriptions and audiovisual media, (2) interpret nonhuman animal behavior and communication to provide context and meaning, and (3) incorporate the animals’ stories and perspectives, and consider what is in their best interest. To fairly balance animal-industry sources and the anthropocentric biases that are traditionally inherent in news requires that journalists select less objectifying language and more appropriate human sources without a vested interest in how animals are used.

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  • One of the missions of professional journalists is to provide a voice for the voiceless (SPJ, 1996). While this tenet was primarily intended to incorporate into public discourse the perspective of marginalized human groups, the spirit of the code could easily be expanded to include other marginalized living beings, namely our fellow animal species whose voices often go unheard regarding issues that directly influence their lives. Explain background of why I wanted to write this and why I asked Marc and Sarah to co-author it with me. Credibility.
  • While these codes were written with humans in mind, they are relevant to helping journalists get closer to the truth about any animal individual. When one considers ideas of diversity, open exchange, and giving voice to the voiceless, these principles apply not only to allowing humans to advocate on behalf of other animals but also to embracing fully the concept of diversity by including the animal’s own voice and perspective the social responsibility theory of the press (Commission on Freedom of the Press, 1947) advocates for a “comprehensive” view of the news that fairly represents all constituent groups and serves as a “forum for the exchange of comment and criticism” (Peterson, 1956, pp. 87-88). Journalists can question if they are fairly representing the views of NHAs and their advocates, even if those viewpoints are seemingly radical or nontraditional. Although the SPJ code prohibiting stereotyping does not indicate a category for different species, one could consider physical appearance, disability¹, or social status as categories relevant to protecting other animals from narrow and misleading portrayals.
  • While these codes were written with humans in mind, they are relevant to helping journalists get closer to the truth about any animal individual. When one considers ideas of diversity, open exchange, and giving voice to the voiceless, these principles apply not only to allowing humans to advocate on behalf of other animals but also to embracing fully the concept of diversity by including the animal’s own voice and perspective the social responsibility theory of the press (Commission on Freedom of the Press, 1947) advocates for a “comprehensive” view of the news that fairly represents all constituent groups and serves as a “forum for the exchange of comment and criticism” (Peterson, 1956, pp. 87-88). Journalists can question if they are fairly representing the views of NHAs and their advocates, even if those viewpoints are seemingly radical or nontraditional. Although the SPJ code prohibiting stereotyping does not indicate a category for different species, one could consider physical appearance, disability¹, or social status as categories relevant to protecting other animals from narrow and misleading portrayals.
  • While these codes were written with humans in mind, they are relevant to helping journalists get closer to the truth about any animal individual. When one considers ideas of diversity, open exchange, and giving voice to the voiceless, these principles apply not only to allowing humans to advocate on behalf of other animals but also to embracing fully the concept of diversity by including the animal’s own voice and perspective the social responsibility theory of the press (Commission on Freedom of the Press, 1947) advocates for a “comprehensive” view of the news that fairly represents all constituent groups and serves as a “forum for the exchange of comment and criticism” (Peterson, 1956, pp. 87-88). Journalists can question if they are fairly representing the views of NHAs and their advocates, even if those viewpoints are seemingly radical or nontraditional. Although the SPJ code prohibiting stereotyping does not indicate a category for different species, one could consider physical appearance, disability¹, or social status as categories relevant to protecting other animals from narrow and misleading portrayals.
  • In comparison to print, audio-visual formats, such as broadcast news, are better at enabling NHAs to communicate to audiences directly via their own body language and voice. Print news requires a human to interpret the NHA’s voice and translate it into a human written language, where meaning may be lost or less compelling than hearing and seeing animals speak for themselves. Consider the challenge of adequately expressing a wolf’s howl, a chick’s peeping, or a shark’s glance in
  • Photo is of Sid an octopus in a New Zealand aquarium who escaped and they had trouble keeping him from escaping so they freed him. The photo isn’t the exact one used by the NYT article from my thesis but it is very similar, and the reporter said there were no visible signs of distress but never really commented on the obvious fear.
  • Following Dr. Goodall’s interpretation, the journalist: acknowledged Flint’s behavior in emotional terms “inconsolable grief,” allowed us to see his individuality (not portraying his act as blindly instinctual), referred to him respectfully and accurately as he not it, and used familial terms like son instead of the clinical term offspring.
  • “ After a hunter killed her mother, Dorothy was sold as a “mascot” to an amusement park in Cameroon. For the next 25 years she was tethered to the ground by a chain around her neck, taunted, teased, and taught to drink beer and smoke cigarettes for sport. In May 2000 Dorothy—obese from poor diet and lack of exercise—was rescued and relocated along with ten other primates. As her health improved, her deep kindness surfaced. She mothered an orphaned chimp named Bouboule and became a close friend to many others… Szczupider, who had been a volunteer at the center, told me: “Her presence, and loss, was palpable, and resonated throughout the group.” The management at Sanaga-Yong opted to let Dorothy's chimpanzee family witness her burial, so that perhaps they would understand, in their own capacity, that Dorothy would not return. Some chimps displayed aggression while others barked in frustration. But perhaps the most stunning reaction was a recurring, almost tangible silence. If one knows chimpanzees, then one knows that [they] are not [usually] silent creatures. “ (para. 3-4)
  • Other examples of objectification occur when journalists primarily use industry terms that describe animals as products or tools, such as livestock, poultry, seafood, or game , instead of more objectively calling them by their species name cow, chicken, fish, or deer . journalists could alternately express a species’ utility, when necessary, by following their name with a verb that expresses what humans do to them: cows raised for beef, cows used for dairy, rats used in research labs, and elephants kept in circuses. This avoids industry-biased euphemisms and increases neutrality. It also infuses the phrase with proper notions of power and agency, as far as describing who is doing what to whom and who has the freedom of choice in the relationship Plus avoid using hierarchical terms such as higher or lower species or describing some as more intelligent or more developed ; this is “cognitive speciesism,” and it is not only misleading, but it results in potential justification for animal abuse for those deemed “lower”
  • Journalism as a voice for animals; seeing nonhumans as news sources

    1. 1. +How JournalistsCould FulfillTheir Role as a“Voice for theVoiceless:”Nonhuman Animalsas News Sources Carrie Packwood Freeman,PhD (Communication) Marc Bekoff, PhD (Biology) Sarah Bexell, PhD (Biology)Published in2011 in theUK journalJournalismStudies
    2. 2. + What we’ll be talkingabout today:• Importance of journalism to causes• How they typically cover nonhumans• Journalism’s ethical obligations• 3 ways we suggest that journalistscould provide the perspective ofnonhuman animals in stories• Which humans should bespokespeople?• Appropriate and respectful language• How we as consumers/activists canimprove journalism
    3. 3. +Importance of Journalism News informs us of important issuesand events locally and globally and toset the agenda for what we andpolicy-makers consider priorities(McCombs, 2005). It’s a key source of information onthe needs and desires of nonhumananimals in societies that areincreasingly urban, high-tech, andanthropocentric. It informs us of all the ways our actionsaffect others so that we can makeeducated, responsible, and fairdecisions as citizens & consumers.When animalvoices areabsent, thosebeings appearas if they do notmatter –symbolicannihilation –reinforcing aspeciesistprivileging ofhuman interests
    4. 4. +News Coverage of NonhumanAnimals (Welfare/Rights) Jones (1996) found that passage ofpro-animal ballot initiatives orhumane legislation waspositively correlated with theamount of supportive mediacoverage the issue received. The news tends to cover animalwelfare primarily in response toanimal activism. News framed anti-vivisectionactivists more negatively than pro-vivisection activists or biomedicalscientists (Kruse, 2001).A content analysis of thefirst three quarters of the20thcentury reveals thatAmerican newspapersgenerally supported thestatus quo use of otheranimals, and, favoringhumans, were less likelyto cover nonhumananimal issues duringwartime.(Kellert & Westervelt, 1982).
    5. 5. +News Coverage of NonhumanAnimals (Free/Wild) Sources for wildlife (inAmerican news) tended tofavor government officialsmore than environmentalgroups, and focus on “game”species (Corbett, 1992; Nelkin,1987). Midwest newspapers focusedmore on animals who arehunted by humans, rather thanon endangered species inneed of help (Corbett, 1995).In general, nonhumansbecome most newsworthywhen they come in conflictwith humans or cross ahuman/animal boundary(Corbett, 2006).
    6. 6. +News Coverage of NonhumanAnimals (Fished or Farmed)Freeman (2009) found that U.S.news organizations in the early21stcentury tended to focus onbodies not beings, objectifyingfarmed animals via threediscursive practices:1.Commodifying them,2.Discussing them en masse notindividually, and3.Failing to incorporate theirinterests or perspective. When coverage did focus onanimals themselves, itprivileged animal welfare(such as “humane farming”practices) over animal rights(such as rights for life,freedom, or ownership of one’sbody).Conclusion: For farmed animalsand fish, news is not serving asa diverse public forum, as theyfavor industry and governmentperspectives and largelysupport anthropocentrism andstatus quo utilitarian views.
    7. 7. +Journalism’s Ethical ObligationsAs professionals, journalistsare obligated to be:Truthful,Careful to minimize harm andshow sensitivity,Independent (un-influencedby commercial/powerfulinterests),Fair (culturally-open &diverse),Accountable to the public(transparent)
    8. 8. +Journalism’s Ethical ObligationsSociety of Professional Journalists’ Code of EthicsConsider how the code of ethics discusses SEEKING TRUTH inrelation to inclusion and diversity in the following tenets: Tell the story of the diversity and magnitude of the humanexperience boldly, even when it is unpopular to do so. Examine their own cultural values and avoid imposing thosevalues on others. Avoid stereotyping by race, gender, age, religion, ethnicity,geography, sexual orientation, disability, physicalappearance or social status. Support the open exchange of views, even views they findrepugnant. Give voice to the voiceless; official and unofficial sources ofinformation can be equally valid.
    9. 9. +Journalism’s Ethical ObligationsMinimizing HarmConsider the followingSPJ code under“Minimization of Harm:”“Treat sources, subjectsand colleagues as humanbeings deserving ofrespect. Show compassionfor those who may beaffected adversely bynews coverage. Usespecial sensitivity whendealing with children andinexperienced sources orsubjects.” The emphasis on showing compassion andsensitivity is presumably based on respect forsentient beings. Sentient individuals should be protectedfrom unnecessary harm, especially innocentand non-consenting beings who may beunfairly taken advantage of, like: Children and people with psychologicalimpairments, Nonhuman animals. This view fits with Cliff Christians’ (2005) claimthat ethical communicators represent: universal values of protecting theinnocent, avoiding violence, andsustaining life. multicultural sensitivity – this could beconceived as including nonhuman animalcultures.
    10. 10. +Journalism’s Ethical ObligationsMy AssessmentIf journalists uncriticallyperpetuate stereotypes anddominant perspectives abouthuman superiority and otheranimal species, they areimposing their culturalvalues and anthropocentricbiases on the public.This discrimination is sonaturalized that routinenonhuman animal exploitationcan masquerade as facts that aresimply indicative of “the way itis” rather than being perceivedas cultural constructs forjournalists to question.
    11. 11. +Our Key ArgumentOur request goes beyond simplyasking that journalism cover animalprotection and environmentalissues.Instead, we take as our premise thatas part of journalism’s commitmentto truth and justice and diversity,reporters have an obligation toprovide the perspective ofnonhuman animals in stories thataffect them. It’s not justtalking moreABOUT animals. It’s about talkingTO animals,FOR animals, &FROM theirperspective.
    12. 12. +How can Journalists Incorporatethe Nonhuman Animal Voice?OK. So NotThis Way.Nonhumans cannotadapt to fit the humanmodel for how asource is interviewedand featured, sojournalism must adaptto their ways of life.Can you respond tothe recentallegations aboutthe missing mouse?
    13. 13. +How can Journalists Incorporatethe Nonhuman Animal Voice?To view other animals as a source with their side to a storyrequires that journalists attempt both to let other animalsspeak for themselves and to have humans speak on theanimals’ behalf, through these methods:1)Observe, listen to, and try to communicate withnonhumans in their own environments and allow theaudience to share in this experience via detailed writtendescriptions or audiovisual means,2)Interpret animal behavior and communication and/orconsult an expert for interpretation, and3)Consider and incorporate the animals’ perspective andinterests (sometimes by consulting human representatives).
    14. 14. +1. Observe, Listen to, andCommunicate with Animals The optimal situation wouldinvolve the journalist visitingthe animal’s home space. Actively seek permission toobserve industrial spaces suchas agribusinesses, zoos, orlaboratories to independentlyverify and describe livingconditions without having totake the word of the “owner.” Greater access and time givento observation will yield greaterdepth. With companion animals, two-way communication with thejournalist is easier and moretactile. With non-companion animals, thejournalist’s communication willlikely be more nonverbal or relymore on listening and patientlyobserving, perhaps even fromafar.Watching naturedocumentaries is another option. Use Film! Audio-visual mediabest allows animals to speak forthemselves.
    15. 15. +1. Observe, Listen to, &Communicate with Animals Undercover methods ofinvestigation often becomenecessary We suggest greaterproactive cooperationbetween reporters andanimal advocates ininvestigative reporting.
    16. 16. +2. Interpret Animal Behavior &Communication In situations where uncertaintyexists, journalists shouldattempt to convey variousinterpretations of whatparticular behavior patternsmight mean in terms of theanimal’s intentions or theirmental and physical state. In many cases, the journalist’scommon-sense judgmentcan accurately assess basicanimal emotions when self-evident, as much animalcommunication isstraightforward andtransparent. Give all animals the benefit ofthe doubt that they have somelevel of sentience andcognition, as accumulatingscientific data support this.Is it safe to say these ducks are scared?
    17. 17. +2. Interpret Animal Behavior &Communication
    18. 18. +2. Interpret Animal Behavior &CommunicationIn cases wherecommunication is notas easy to interpret,journalists may needto consult experts orguidebooks.Consider this examplefrom a NewYork Timesarticle by sciencewriter Natalie Angier(2008) whocontextualizesprimatologist JaneGoodall’s findings tobuild a case foranimals’ capacity toexperience grief:“Juvenile chimpanzees displaysigns of genuine grief when theirmothers die. In one famous casein Gombe, when a matriarch of thetroop named Flo died at the ageof 50-plus years, her son, Flint,proved inconsolable. Flint was 8years old and could easily havecared for himself, but he hadbeen unusually attached to hismother and refused to leave hercorpse’s side. Within a month,the son, too, died.” (para. 6)Agencynot justinstinctReal emotions notjust “stress”Personifyingterms
    19. 19. +3. Consider and IncorporateAnimals’ Perspectives and Interests What are their interests? Weassume: all animals want to live, and it’s not in any being’sinterest to be exploited foranother’s gain or to be usedagainst their will. When it comes to humanexploitation or enslavement,the unjustness is more obviousto journalists and newsaudiences so it can be openlycriticized – a point made easierwhen laws protect humanrights. Yet human society is heavilyinvested in exploitation anduse of other animals for theproposed benefit ofhumankind.Thus, nonhumananimal exploitation haslargely gone unnoticed oruncriticized as it is taken forgranted as routine, normal, oreven acceptable/beneficial.
    20. 20. +3. Consider and IncorporateAnimals’ Perspectives and Interests Journalists must strive toovercome their human-centered bias andacknowledge that other animalshave the right to have theirinterests in life, liberty, and thepursuit of happinessconsidered newsworthy. This requires more than just acritique of industry’s treatmentof animals. It requires includinga more overt critique ofroutine animal use anddomestication. A paradigm shift of this sortwould test the bounds ofjournalistic objectivity andfairness more so than perhapsany other social reform. AG STORY EXAMPLE: Don’t frame theEuropean foot and mouth diseaseoutbreak mainly as an economiccrisis for farmers. Include a debate over right to kill. Some stories could portray thetragedy from the perspective of asingle cow slated for killing,adding a face to the thousands ofanimals shown dumped in massgraves. ENVIRONMENTAL STORY EXAMPLE:Profile animals who may lose theirlives or homes due to deforestation,development, sprawl, or hunting.
    21. 21. +3. Consider and IncorporateAnimals’ Perspectives and InterestsTo demonstrate how newsstories could include acritique of animalexploitation as well as tellthe story of an emotionalnonhuman individual,consider the followingexcerpt from NationalGeographic (Berlin, 2004)accompanying aphotograph of sanctuarychimpanzees grieving theloss of an older chimpfriend, Dorothy … Photo by Monica Szczupider, National Geographic
    22. 22. +3. Consider and IncorporateAnimals’ Perspectives and InterestsPOSITIVE EXAMPLE: journalist Charles Siebert’s (2009) in-deptharticle on the plight of whales “Watching Whales Watching Us.”Seibert describes his whale-watching experience here:It wasn’t until I got back to our base camp on the dayof my first close whale encounter that I could beginto parse what happened in a calm and coherent fashion:the seemingly undeniable fact, for example, that themother whale’s first pass that morning was areconnaissance mission to check out our boat, and us,before offering up her calf for review: his of us andours of him. (p. 5) (New York Times Magazine)Not only does Siebert share his personal interpretations of themother whale’s behavior, he credits her with a perspective and asense of agency.
    23. 23. +Who Should Be the HumanSpokespeople?The primary concern ishow to determine whohas the right to speakon behalf of nonhumananimals.The best choice wouldbe someone who canrepresent the animals’interests withcredibility, familiarity,expertise, and withoutany vested interest.Our spokespeople suggestions include amix of scientific & non-scientific sources:Scientists (including vets) can helpprovide behavioral, evolutionary, mentaland physical, biological, andcultural/social explanations for animalactions.The animal’s human companions willlikely add more personal details that canhelp the journalist apply a human-interestwriting style to the story, andActivists and attorneys can providethe legal and justice angles for hard newsstories.
    24. 24. +Who Should Be the HumanSpokespeople?Vegans make beneficial newssources not just for activism or foodstories, but also for animal storiesfocusing on business, policy, health,lifestyle, or science.Those humans who advocate for lessexploitative/utilitarian treatment ofnonhumans and value them moreinherently than instrumentallyprovide a fair balance to animal-based industry sources (i.e. CEOs,farmers, trainers, hunters, industryvets, and animal researchers).
    25. 25. +Using Respectful LanguageRemind humans they are animalsHumanlanguages tendto reflect theirhumanistorigins.So it can bechallenging tofind respectful,familiarterminology todescribe themore-than-human world. A dualistic misnomer such as “people andanimals” perpetuates a false human/animaldichotomy, when it should more accuratelybe phrased as “people and other animals” or“animals including humans” (Dunayer, 2001;Bekoff, 2010). If writers mean to describe all members ofthe animal kingdom except humans, ratherthan just saying animals, journalists shoulduse more precise terms such as nonhuman animals, other animal species, animals excluding humans, or specific categories such as farmed animals,companion animals, or wild animals.
    26. 26. +Using Respectful LanguageAvoid objectifying animalsInstead OfObjectifying IndustryTermsTry Being more Preciseand RespectfulIt,that or which,somethingHe/she, they,who,someone or somebodyIndustry terms:livestock,poultry,pork,seafood,gameSpecies:cows, sheep, etc.chickens or turkeys,pigs,fish, salmon, shrimp, etc.deerdairy cows,beef cattle,lab rat,circus elephantCows used for dairy,Cows raised for beef,Rats used in research labs,Elephants kept in circuses
    27. 27. +In ConclusionBy adopting and codifyingthese guidelines, journalismcan escape the limitations ofits humanist bias and producenews that questions society’sinherent speciesism so thatstatus quo and time-wornvalues and views no longermasquerade as “objectivity.”By incorporating the animalsvoice, the press can live up toits ideals of being a sociallyresponsible and diversepublic forum, truly serving asa voice for the voiceless.We call upon journalists to besensitive and accountable onbehalf of those who cannot beamong their ranks inproducing the news, but whoare certainly affected by it.We should expect those whowrite about animals torepresent them accurately asthe unique, sentient beingsthey are, not primarily as whowe want them to be,background objects, or asmeans to our own ends
    28. 28. +While the media havethe potential to be amajor force inpreventingecological collapse,we need to demanda paradigm shift inmainstream mediavalues that currentlyput profit,consumerism, andamusement beforethe long-termplanning, problem-solving, and re-assessment of corevalues that will berequired to save lifeon Earth.Citizens should:monitor and reward ecologically-responsible mediaby supporting media watchdog groups.write to media producers to express praise orcriticisms, and financially support media that stand upfor animals and nature.use and support public, non-commercial, and non-profit media, including emerging non-profit journalismorganizations that may require donations to produceinvestigative reports.take advantage of public access channels,community radio, web sites/blogs, and social mediaas ways to start producing your own public affairsprogramming or airing documentaries.present messages that include hard facts while alsoopenly speaking to your ideals and moral vision.

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