EL SALVADOR EL SALVADOR Going against Sustainable Development Working against Sustainable DevelopmentPhotos taken from: http://www.unmultimedia.org/photo/detail.jsp?id=161/161207&key=18&query=subject:"International Year of Forests: Forests and People"&sf=
What is Sustainability? "Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” — from the World Commission on Environment and Development’s (the Brundtland Commission) report Our Common Future (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987). The World Bank suggests that to attain it we need to find balance between social, economic and environmental needs.* • http://www.worldbank.org/depweb/english/sd.html
RIO +20 • The RIO +20 Conference in June 2012 aimed to “shape how we can reduce poverty, advance social equity and ensure environmental protection on an ever more crowded planet to get to the future we want.” ( http://www.uncsd2012.org/about.html) • A list was presented identifying the necessary sustainability requirements as a start to the future we want for the planet. It is apparent that El Salvador is contradicting these inclusions, creating a negative impact and exacerbating the pertinent issues which shape the country’s current state of unsustainable behavior. ( http://www.un.org/en/sustainablefuture/sustainability.shtml) • In the following slides I will touch upon six of the key issues listed in RIO+20 and show how the people of El Salvador are working against sustainability. • At the end, I will list a few recommendations to create a more sustainable future for El Salvador.
1. How can we help people move out of poverty and getgood jobs, while protecting the environment? The percentage of Salvadorans living below the poverty line has risen continuously in the recent years. (http://www.indexmundi.com/g/g.aspx?c=es&v=69&l=es) The country has an unequal distribution of wealth, displaying a GINI coefficient of 52.4 (meaning that the richest 10% of the population receives incomes 57 times higher than the poorest 10%). (http://www.wfp.org/countries/El- Salvador/Overview)
2. How can we make sure that everyone can get thewater, food and nutrition they need? The Consumer Price Index has grown exponentially and shows no sign of leveling off. (http://www.indexmundi.com/facts/el-salvador/consumer-price-index) Most of the Salvadoran territory needs basic water and drainage systems. (http://www.prisma.org.sv/uploads/media/prisma42.pdf) SEE MAP IN FOLLOWING SLIDE
Indicates basic water and drainage needs by departmentin the Salvadoran territory
3. How can we shape our cities so that everyone canenjoy a decent quality of life? El Pedregal Castellana Apartments Apartments http://graficos.laprensagrafica.com/2010/04/el-espino/ Photo taken by Carolina Schildknecht • Diego de Holguin Boulevard is being built right now in El Salvador. The highway construction cuts through a sector that used to be one of the few green areas left in the capital city, destroying 30 acres of forest. • This will be a main cargo highway that passes in the middle of many residential areas, as you can see in the apartments pictured above, affecting clean air and quality of life in the area.
4. How can we build better transportation systems that allow us all toget where we want to go, without causing too much congestion andpollution? • In 2004, a group of Japanese investors came to El Salvador with the idea to fund the construction of a metro in its capital city. (http://elsalvadorposible.blogspot.com/2008/05/la-triste-historia-del-metro-de-san.html) • San Salvador mayor Norman Quijano subsequently proposed a project to build a MetroBus in the capital city. Additional funds were blocked because central government said they would invest in the project. Bureaucracy in itself has created unsustainable practices in the effort to create sustainable methods of transportation. (http://www.diariocolatino.com/es/20100105/municipalismo/75331/En-pausa-proyectos- metrob%C3%BAs-y-b%C3%B3vedas---San-Salvador-.htm) • There are no advances in the matter as traffic congestion increasingly continues to cause a polarized economic and environmental deficit for those who need the most benefit.
5. How can we make sure that our oceans are healthy and thatmarine life is not threatened by pollution and climate change? http://cleanthewater.blogspot.com/2010/11/por-que-es-importante-el-agua.html • Acelhuate River is only one example of the polluted bodies of water in El Salvador, mainly due to lack of interest in appropriate trash disposal from the general population. • Our coast is also heavily polluted by bad drainage systems that lead to the ocean.
6. How can we make sure that our communities areresilient in the face of natural disasters? “The country ranked No.1 in the world climate risk index issued by German Watch in 2009 and it is listed among the ten countries in the world that are most vulnerable to natural hazards (CRED/OFDA). More than 88% of the national territory is at risk, containing 95.4% of the total population. “ (http://www.wfp.org/countries/El-Salvador/Overview) Octobre 2011: Tropical Depression “Doce-E” http://especiales.laprensagrafica.com/2011/sucesos/tormenta-tropical-12-e/index.html
What can be done? • EDUCATION – Reducing the illiteracy rate and encouraging more people to graduate high school would improve their future in the work force and increase household earnings – Creating awareness about clean energy and waste disposal would help slow down climate change and improve our air and bodies of water
What can be done? • GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS – Enforcing the policies that are introduced to control emissions from public transportation – Industrial regulators to control waste disposal from major industrial factories in the country – As chancellor Hugo Martinez said recently in a conference hosted by CEPAL (Comisión Económica para América Latina): “El tema central ahora son las políticas estructurales necesarias para promover el crecimiento económico con más empleo y mayor igualdad.” (“The main issue is the political structures needed to promote economic growth with more equality.”) http://www.laprensagrafica.com/el-salvador/lodeldia/279735-inicia-reunion-de-cepal-en-el-pais.html
What can be done? • INVESTMENT – Allowing foreign investment by heavily regulated organizations like the World Bank to help reduce domestic bureaucracy and leaking monetary funding mechanisms – By stabilizing our economy to recover lost economic investments, unemployment will reduce through the creation of new economic sectors once completely foreign to the country, allowing investment in technology to clean our waterways, “green” transportation systems, and the investment in renewable energy[Se debe] trabajar por mantener [We must] work to keep a “prudent"prudencia económica", "fortalecer su economy", “strengthen macroeconomicgestión macroeconómica" y de paso management" as well as “maintain"sostener los esfuerzos de la política social political efforts in the social agenda andy la inversión pública" por ser claves en el public investment" because they are keydesarrollo. factors in development.- Alicia Barcena, CEPAL Executive Director - Alicia Barcena, CEPAL Executive Directorhttp://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5j1KPcuZYwtdvLl9zDfru2jJOpIoQ?docId=CNG.37113abff85936ed27d448e6cb45b98c.cc1
What can be done? • PROTECTING OUR NATURAL RESOURCES – Not many forests remain – “El Salvador lost 20.5 percent of its forest cover between 1990 and 2005. The countrys deforestation rate has increased by 18 percent since the close of the 1990s.”(http://rainforests.mongabay.com/20elsalvador.htm) – The country continues to diminish nature’s ability to protect itself and its residents from increasing carbon emissions
A Sustainable El Salvador It CAN be done, if: - We recognize the roots of the problems - We address the social, economic, and environmental impacts of each political decision we make - We shape future politics by creating awareness within those who shape the outcomes of a democratic election system of government, ie. the country’s very own population - We establish this necessary awareness through education. MY EDUCATION FOR A SUSTAINABLE EL SALVADOR CONTINUES HERE.