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Forest ppt


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Forest ppt

  1. 1. Genetic Analysis of a photosynthesizing Sea slug, Elysia chlorotica<br />LetitiaDaRos, Belinda To, Cait Murphy, Bettie Yim, Carolyn Pogorzelec<br />Forestry <br />302<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />Process of endosymbiosis<br />Elysia chlorotica<br />Vaucherialitorea<br />Maintaining the plastid<br />Incorporation of V. litoreagenes into E. chloroticagenome<br />
  3. 3. Process of Endosymbiosis<br />Primary<br />Secondary<br />Tertiary<br />Kleptoplasty<br />
  4. 4. Elysia chlorotica<br />Usually found in salt water along the east coast of the United States (particularly North Carolina) but can be found near Nova Scotia, Canada<br />Appearance<br />Vibrant green colour<br />No shell<br />Shape similar to a leaf<br />2-3cm in size, can get as big as 6cm<br />Reproduction<br /><ul><li>Hermaphrodite - Ovotestis
  5. 5. No self fertilization
  6. 6. Produce eggs and sperm
  7. 7. Maximum effective population</li></li></ul><li>Elysia chlorotica’sLife Cycle<br /><ul><li>To become a pigmented adult, the slug must consume V. litorea for several days to ensure chloroplast stability in digestive cells.</li></ul>1<br />Eggs laid by 9-10 month old E. chlorotica<br />5<br />4<br />2<br /><ul><li>Eggs hatch 4-5 days after being laid
  8. 8. Once mature larvae introduced to V. litorea, larvae transforms to a juvenile slug</li></ul>3<br /><ul><li>Larvae feed on unicellular algae for ~5 days before acquire ability to consume multi-cellular algae </li></li></ul><li>Elysia chlorotica Digestive Organs<br />
  9. 9. Vaucherialitoria<br />Appearance<br />Yellow-green colour<br />Thin cell wall, can easily be punctured by E. chlorotica’sradula<br />Incorporation into sea slug<br />Contents of algae sucked outand moved to diverticula<br />Chloroplasts phagocytosed into digestive cells<br />2 layered membrane formed<br />Waste discarded<br />
  10. 10. Juvenile slug eating V. litoria for the first time<br />
  11. 11. Plastid Stability<br />Algae nuclei<br />Animal proteins<br />Small amount of necessary proteins<br />Exceptional plastids<br />
  12. 12. Plastid Stability Continued<br />Protein production<br />Vertical gene transfer<br />Photosystem I, Calvin Cycle, Light-harvesting Complex I, Proteases<br />Horizontal gene transfer<br />
  13. 13. Horizontal Gene Transfer<br />What is it?<br />Proteins in slug directly used by plastid<br />Tree of life<br />Evidence<br />
  14. 14. Horizontal Gene Transfer<br />
  15. 15. Questions?<br />