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PodCampCleveland 2011 April 30, 2011 Users, Usability & User Experience
Carol Smith Midwest Research, LLC MS in Human-Computer Interaction Education
What You’ll Learn Basics of Usability and User Experience. Quick and cheap methods you can start now.
Designing for Everyone is Impossible
Who will use your product?What do they need to do? Observing the User Experience: A Practitioner's Guide to User Research by Mike Kuniavsky
Need to Understand User’s Experience
User’s Experience Interaction with a product, service, or company Functional  Emotional Sensorial Social
Functional Able to complete task Find information Submit form Contact someone Purchase item
Sensorial Visual Layout Colors Images Auditory Video Music Ads
Emotional Bring their life with them Interface  Conveys ideas and emotions Sets the tone
Social Interactions with other people Social networking Help features Chat
Where They Overlap... ➘ Experience X Functional  Emotional Sensorial Social
Usabilityis an important characteristicof what makes a good User Experience
Functional Aspects Effective Efficient Learnable
Key Attributes Usefulness User feel in control Supports, supplements and enhances skills and expertise
Minimize Human Cost Tiredness Discomfort Embarrassment Frustration Effort
Benefits of Good User Experience Increased Usefulness Increased Efficiency ($$$)  Improved Productivity
Benefits (continued) Fewer Errors Reduced Training Time Improved Acceptance Happy Users!
Where do I start?
Who are your users?
Same Job Title, May Differ in…
Which Student? Rick Connie http://www.flickr.com/photos/mrjkbh/ via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/deed.en http://www.flickr.com/photos/caharley72/  (Christopher Alison Photography) via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/
Scope for Success Takes time, energy, budget and more to: Research and discover Document Analyze Understand
Focus Your Efforts Until… Get to 80%
We Are 80% Sure We Know… Primary user tasks. User’s goals. Prioritize as needed with: Vision Business needs Have awareness of what we don’t know (yet).
Small,Iterative Steps
Interview the Experts Customer Service Marketing (Web statistics) Training  Sales/Business development
Who Are the Users? How many are there? Common complaints? Show stoppers? Understand: Assumptions and stereotypes  Differences between users
Tasks Frequency of tasks  Importance Complexity of task
About Them Environment Experience Level, Knowledge  Technology Define Primary & Secondary Users
Now You Have User Groups [perhaps very loosely defined]
Share What You Learn
Personas Help guide decisions about: Navigation Features Design Archetype,  based on research.
Task Analysis
Actionable Gap Analysis Change Situation
Are We Confident?
Confirm Assumptions Representative users who DO the tasks. Visionaries, leaders, perhaps.
Observations
Interviews
42 Card Sorting http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosenfeldmedia/   via   http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/
Observations
Go to the user 44
Why Observe? Great way to understand your user’s situation Find “cheat sheets” and other artifacts. Learn real process they use. Number and type of interruptions. Find out more about them as people.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/heygabe/ via  http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/ Actual Photo:  http://www.flickr.com/photos/heygabe/47206241/
Sit Back and Watch Arrive when they will be doing related tasks. Observe for as long as needed: 1/2 hour each - quick repetitive tasks >1 hour for longer processes Stay out of their “space” and don’t interrupt. Take photos and videos.
Take Detailed Notes Write down questions and when they occurred. Look for patterns and differences: Style of tasks Order of operations Environment
Clarify Observations After observation ask about: Why they do task? What is their goal? How typical was this process? Parts of the process you found confusing.
Interviews
Interview to Discover/Confirm… Build on what you’ve learned: Tasks Attitudes and Opinions Problems Goals Experience level and knowledge  Technology  51
Styles Structured Question 1 Question 2 Question 3 Open-ended Combination
Use Scripts Memory tool for facilitator Don’t have to follow Promote consistency Questions Order of questions
Questions Quality of questions correlates to quality of answers: Open-ended Unbiased Don’t lead or make assumptions Use participant’s words
Facilitation Remain passive (body, face)  Don’t confirm or reject answers Listen for vocalizations  Watch non-verbal gestures Encourage participant to elaborate Ask your question and let them talk
Silence is GoldenUser’s Time to Think! 56
Card Sorting
Card Sorting Maximize probability of users finding content Explore how people are likely to group items Identify content likely to be: Difficult to categorize Difficult to find Misunderstood Gaffney, Gerry. (2000) What is Card Sorting? Usability Techniques Series, Information & Design. http://www.infodesign.com.au/usabilityresources/design/cardsorting.asp http://www.flickr.com/photos/richtpt  via   http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/
Benefits of Card Sorting Easy and inexpensive Use to determine: Order of information Relationships between info Labels for navigation Verify correct audience Gaffney, Gerry. (2000) What is Card Sorting? Usability Techniques Series, Information & Design. http://www.infodesign.com.au/usabilityresources/design/cardsorting.asp
One title/subject on each card Short for quick reading Detailed enough to understand Supplement - short description on back Use printed stickers (handwriting) Practice session first Card Basics 36 Preventive Care Guidelines
Participants Representative of users Minimum of 6  More participants = more data to analyze Allow one hour for 50 items 30 – 100 cards
Facilitation/Direction Shuffle cards Ask to:  Group items in own way Talk out loud Think about: What expect to be together When expect to see
Grouping Cards Ask to Describe groups and name them Describe overall rationale for grouping cards Show best example from groups What was difficult? What was easy? Happy with final outcome?
Online Tools Moderated Un-moderated Optimal Sort, Optimal Workshop - http://www.optimalworkshop.com/ Demo: https://livedemo.optimalworkshop.com/optimalsort/supermarketdemo
How Do I Find Participants?
Create a Screener Guide that helps determine who will participate. Ask people to describe, then get details: Highest level of education. Computer activities.  Web use.  People who pass the screener should closely match your user group definition
Hire a Recruiter Allows you to focus on activity. Can tell if person will be a good participant. May already have a list they can start with. Good recruiters: find right participants. give regular updates. take care of directions, confirmations, incentives, etc.
If You Must Do it Yourself... Go where users go and intercept Online user groups Professional organizations Craigslist Online tools thru your site:http://ethnio.com Final recruiting by phone. Ask questions that force them to talk. Don’t recruit non-talkers.
Number of Users to Test As many as possible (rarely statistically significant) Usability Testing Research (in 1990’s) 5 from distinct sub-group of the user population will yield 80% of the findings (Nielsen, Virzi, Lewis) Assumes expert has reviewed for obvious issues Recommend:  Early tests with 8 – 12 users per user group Iterative testing (3 per day, iterate, 3 new users) Barnum, Carol M. (Jan. 2003). What’s in a Number? STC Usability SIG Newsletter, Usability Interface. http://www.stcsig.org/usability/newsletter/0301-number.html Retrieved: 20080323
70
Welcome & Prepare Participation will help team and is appreciated. Purpose of research. Expectations of the participant. Sign paperwork: Non-Disclosure Agreement(s) Consent Form
We’re Looking for Patterns Identify repetition After pattern is found, continuation of study  Adds cost  Delays reporting Low probability of many new findings
Update Communications
Do UX Early & Often 74
Go to Your Users Find out: Goals Tasks Share the information with your team
Recommended Readings
References Cato, John. User-Centered Web Design. Addison Wesley Longman; 2001.  Gaffney, Gerry. (2000) What is Card Sorting? Usability Techniques Series, Information & Design. http://www.infodesign.com.au/usabilityresources/design/cardsorting.asp Hackos, JoAnn T., PhD and Redish, Janice C. User and Task Analysis for Interface Design. Wiley; 1998.   Henry, S.L. and Martinson, M. Evaluating for Accessibility, Usability Testing in Diverse Situations.  Tutorial, 2003 UPA Conference.  (Activity) Kuniavsky, Mike. Observing the User Experience: a Practitioner's Guide to User Research. Morgan Kaufmann, 2003. Mandel, Theo. The Elements of User Interface Design. Wiley; 1997. Nielsen, Jakob and Robert L. Mack.  Usability Inspection Methods.  John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1994. Powell, Thomas A.  The Complete Reference: Web Design. Osborne/McGraw-Hill; 2000. Rubin, Jeffrey.  Handbook of Usability Testing.  John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1994.
Thank You! Carol Smith Midwest Research, LLC http://www.mw-research.com  Twitter: @carologic Cell: (773) 218-6568 Email: carol@mw-research.com

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Users, Usability & User Experience - at PodCamp Cleveland 2011

  • 1. PodCampCleveland 2011 April 30, 2011 Users, Usability & User Experience
  • 2. Carol Smith Midwest Research, LLC MS in Human-Computer Interaction Education
  • 3. What You’ll Learn Basics of Usability and User Experience. Quick and cheap methods you can start now.
  • 4. Designing for Everyone is Impossible
  • 5. Who will use your product?What do they need to do? Observing the User Experience: A Practitioner's Guide to User Research by Mike Kuniavsky
  • 6. Need to Understand User’s Experience
  • 7. User’s Experience Interaction with a product, service, or company Functional Emotional Sensorial Social
  • 8. Functional Able to complete task Find information Submit form Contact someone Purchase item
  • 9. Sensorial Visual Layout Colors Images Auditory Video Music Ads
  • 10. Emotional Bring their life with them Interface Conveys ideas and emotions Sets the tone
  • 11. Social Interactions with other people Social networking Help features Chat
  • 12. Where They Overlap... ➘ Experience X Functional Emotional Sensorial Social
  • 13. Usabilityis an important characteristicof what makes a good User Experience
  • 14. Functional Aspects Effective Efficient Learnable
  • 15. Key Attributes Usefulness User feel in control Supports, supplements and enhances skills and expertise
  • 16. Minimize Human Cost Tiredness Discomfort Embarrassment Frustration Effort
  • 17. Benefits of Good User Experience Increased Usefulness Increased Efficiency ($$$) Improved Productivity
  • 18. Benefits (continued) Fewer Errors Reduced Training Time Improved Acceptance Happy Users!
  • 19. Where do I start?
  • 20. Who are your users?
  • 21. Same Job Title, May Differ in…
  • 22. Which Student? Rick Connie http://www.flickr.com/photos/mrjkbh/ via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/deed.en http://www.flickr.com/photos/caharley72/ (Christopher Alison Photography) via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/
  • 23. Scope for Success Takes time, energy, budget and more to: Research and discover Document Analyze Understand
  • 24. Focus Your Efforts Until… Get to 80%
  • 25. We Are 80% Sure We Know… Primary user tasks. User’s goals. Prioritize as needed with: Vision Business needs Have awareness of what we don’t know (yet).
  • 27. Interview the Experts Customer Service Marketing (Web statistics) Training Sales/Business development
  • 28. Who Are the Users? How many are there? Common complaints? Show stoppers? Understand: Assumptions and stereotypes Differences between users
  • 29. Tasks Frequency of tasks Importance Complexity of task
  • 30. About Them Environment Experience Level, Knowledge Technology Define Primary & Secondary Users
  • 31. Now You Have User Groups [perhaps very loosely defined]
  • 32. Share What You Learn
  • 33. Personas Help guide decisions about: Navigation Features Design Archetype, based on research.
  • 34.
  • 36. Actionable Gap Analysis Change Situation
  • 38.
  • 39. Confirm Assumptions Representative users who DO the tasks. Visionaries, leaders, perhaps.
  • 42. 42 Card Sorting http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosenfeldmedia/ via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/
  • 44. Go to the user 44
  • 45. Why Observe? Great way to understand your user’s situation Find “cheat sheets” and other artifacts. Learn real process they use. Number and type of interruptions. Find out more about them as people.
  • 46. http://www.flickr.com/photos/heygabe/ via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/ Actual Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/heygabe/47206241/
  • 47. Sit Back and Watch Arrive when they will be doing related tasks. Observe for as long as needed: 1/2 hour each - quick repetitive tasks >1 hour for longer processes Stay out of their “space” and don’t interrupt. Take photos and videos.
  • 48. Take Detailed Notes Write down questions and when they occurred. Look for patterns and differences: Style of tasks Order of operations Environment
  • 49. Clarify Observations After observation ask about: Why they do task? What is their goal? How typical was this process? Parts of the process you found confusing.
  • 51. Interview to Discover/Confirm… Build on what you’ve learned: Tasks Attitudes and Opinions Problems Goals Experience level and knowledge Technology 51
  • 52. Styles Structured Question 1 Question 2 Question 3 Open-ended Combination
  • 53. Use Scripts Memory tool for facilitator Don’t have to follow Promote consistency Questions Order of questions
  • 54. Questions Quality of questions correlates to quality of answers: Open-ended Unbiased Don’t lead or make assumptions Use participant’s words
  • 55. Facilitation Remain passive (body, face) Don’t confirm or reject answers Listen for vocalizations Watch non-verbal gestures Encourage participant to elaborate Ask your question and let them talk
  • 56. Silence is GoldenUser’s Time to Think! 56
  • 58. Card Sorting Maximize probability of users finding content Explore how people are likely to group items Identify content likely to be: Difficult to categorize Difficult to find Misunderstood Gaffney, Gerry. (2000) What is Card Sorting? Usability Techniques Series, Information & Design. http://www.infodesign.com.au/usabilityresources/design/cardsorting.asp http://www.flickr.com/photos/richtpt via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/
  • 59. Benefits of Card Sorting Easy and inexpensive Use to determine: Order of information Relationships between info Labels for navigation Verify correct audience Gaffney, Gerry. (2000) What is Card Sorting? Usability Techniques Series, Information & Design. http://www.infodesign.com.au/usabilityresources/design/cardsorting.asp
  • 60. One title/subject on each card Short for quick reading Detailed enough to understand Supplement - short description on back Use printed stickers (handwriting) Practice session first Card Basics 36 Preventive Care Guidelines
  • 61. Participants Representative of users Minimum of 6 More participants = more data to analyze Allow one hour for 50 items 30 – 100 cards
  • 62. Facilitation/Direction Shuffle cards Ask to: Group items in own way Talk out loud Think about: What expect to be together When expect to see
  • 63. Grouping Cards Ask to Describe groups and name them Describe overall rationale for grouping cards Show best example from groups What was difficult? What was easy? Happy with final outcome?
  • 64. Online Tools Moderated Un-moderated Optimal Sort, Optimal Workshop - http://www.optimalworkshop.com/ Demo: https://livedemo.optimalworkshop.com/optimalsort/supermarketdemo
  • 65. How Do I Find Participants?
  • 66. Create a Screener Guide that helps determine who will participate. Ask people to describe, then get details: Highest level of education. Computer activities. Web use. People who pass the screener should closely match your user group definition
  • 67. Hire a Recruiter Allows you to focus on activity. Can tell if person will be a good participant. May already have a list they can start with. Good recruiters: find right participants. give regular updates. take care of directions, confirmations, incentives, etc.
  • 68. If You Must Do it Yourself... Go where users go and intercept Online user groups Professional organizations Craigslist Online tools thru your site:http://ethnio.com Final recruiting by phone. Ask questions that force them to talk. Don’t recruit non-talkers.
  • 69. Number of Users to Test As many as possible (rarely statistically significant) Usability Testing Research (in 1990’s) 5 from distinct sub-group of the user population will yield 80% of the findings (Nielsen, Virzi, Lewis) Assumes expert has reviewed for obvious issues Recommend: Early tests with 8 – 12 users per user group Iterative testing (3 per day, iterate, 3 new users) Barnum, Carol M. (Jan. 2003). What’s in a Number? STC Usability SIG Newsletter, Usability Interface. http://www.stcsig.org/usability/newsletter/0301-number.html Retrieved: 20080323
  • 70. 70
  • 71. Welcome & Prepare Participation will help team and is appreciated. Purpose of research. Expectations of the participant. Sign paperwork: Non-Disclosure Agreement(s) Consent Form
  • 72. We’re Looking for Patterns Identify repetition After pattern is found, continuation of study Adds cost Delays reporting Low probability of many new findings
  • 74. Do UX Early & Often 74
  • 75. Go to Your Users Find out: Goals Tasks Share the information with your team
  • 77. References Cato, John. User-Centered Web Design. Addison Wesley Longman; 2001. Gaffney, Gerry. (2000) What is Card Sorting? Usability Techniques Series, Information & Design. http://www.infodesign.com.au/usabilityresources/design/cardsorting.asp Hackos, JoAnn T., PhD and Redish, Janice C. User and Task Analysis for Interface Design. Wiley; 1998. Henry, S.L. and Martinson, M. Evaluating for Accessibility, Usability Testing in Diverse Situations. Tutorial, 2003 UPA Conference. (Activity) Kuniavsky, Mike. Observing the User Experience: a Practitioner's Guide to User Research. Morgan Kaufmann, 2003. Mandel, Theo. The Elements of User Interface Design. Wiley; 1997. Nielsen, Jakob and Robert L. Mack. Usability Inspection Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1994. Powell, Thomas A. The Complete Reference: Web Design. Osborne/McGraw-Hill; 2000. Rubin, Jeffrey. Handbook of Usability Testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1994.
  • 78. Thank You! Carol Smith Midwest Research, LLC http://www.mw-research.com Twitter: @carologic Cell: (773) 218-6568 Email: carol@mw-research.com

Editor's Notes

  1. A measure of the degree to which a product can be used by specified users or groups to achieve specific goals of effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a specified context of use- U BoK
  2. ExperienceNoviceAdvanced beginnersCompetent performerExpert performerFrequency of usePriority of tasksCharacteristics – personal, physical, culturalMotivations and attitudeExpectationsPersonal Characteristics: Learning Style, ChangePhysical Characteristics: Disabilities, Color Blindness, VisionCultural Characteristics: Corporate, CulturalMotivations and Attitude: Threats, Naiveté, Hostile, LazyStage of use: NoviceFear of the unknown, fear of failureFocus on accomplishing real workImpatient learning concepts rather than performing tasksTheoretical understanding only – no experienceAdvanced BeginnersFocus on accomplishing real workImpatient learning concepts rather than performing tasksRandomly access tasksEmpirical based mental modelCompetent PerformersFocus on performing more complex tasksAbility to plan and perform complex series of tasks to achieve a goalWillingness to learn new technologies and tasksInterested in applying conceptual frameworks to solve problemsExpert PerformersFocus on developing mental models of system functionalityAbility to understand complex problems and find solutionsInterested in learning about concepts and theories behind a system’s design and useInterest in interacting with other expert users
  3. Model and describe specific user group’s:GoalsNeedsCharacteristicsArchetype - not real individual or average userSynthesized from research – interviews, observations, etc.Include personal details found during researchOne primary, some secondary per site/feature
  4. Interviews (many styles)ObservationsSurveysLiterature reviewsMarket research documents
  5. frequency, importance, complexityPrioritiesCurrent process