Usability Testing Basics: What's it All About? at Web SIG Cleveland


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Presented to Web SIG Cleveland on May 21, 2011 at Notre Dame College in South Euclid (Cleveland), Ohio.

Learn all you need to get started:
- Where you can conduct studies (does it have to be in a lab?)
- Types of studies (RITE, think aloud, etc.)
- Tips for recruiting participants
- Tips for Interacting with participants without biasing the study
- Preparing for the study (materials needed, forms, etc.)
- Guidance for analyzing the study

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Usability Testing Basics: What's it All About? at Web SIG Cleveland

  1. 1. Web SIG ClevelandMay 21, 2011<br />Usability Testing Basics: What's it All About?<br />
  2. 2. Talking About Today<br /> #WebSigCLE<br /> @carologic<br /> @sos_jr<br />
  3. 3. Agenda<br />What is Usability?<br />Why we test usability<br />Planning studies<br />Facilitating sessions<br />Analyzing data<br />
  4. 4. What is Usability?<br />
  5. 5. Usabilityis an important characteristicof what makes a good User Experience<br />
  6. 6. Functional Aspects<br />Effective<br />Efficient<br />Learnable<br />
  7. 7. User’s Perspective<br />Useful experience<br />Feel in control and supported<br />Supplements and enhances skills and expertise<br />Satisfied Delighted<br />
  8. 8. Usability Testing<br />Measures users ability to achieve specific goals of effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction.<br />
  9. 9. What is it?<br />Real Users doing real tasks<br />Being observed<br />Using prototypes or live products<br />
  10. 10. Can Test…<br />Websites, Mobile, Blenders, Airport service<br />Simulations or mockups<br />Early prototypes (paper, low-fi)<br />Production prototypes (html, hi-fi)<br />Help documentation<br />Processes (receipt of materials, purchase)<br />
  11. 11. It is not…<br />Quality testing<br />Full accessibility testing<br />System testing<br />Acceptance testing<br />
  12. 12. Do I need a lab?<br />Computer / Concept<br />Participant<br />Facilitator<br />Observer<br />Timer<br />Logger<br />Rubin, Jeffrey. Handbook of Usability Testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1994.<br />
  13. 13. Just Do It!<br />Anywhere (conference room, remotely)<br />Any Stage (earlier in process the better)<br />Anytime (un-moderated)<br />Realistic test environment<br />Photo by Roebot at<br />
  14. 14. Why we test Usability<br />
  15. 15. "The biggest waste of all is building something no one wants"<br />- @ericries #LeanStartupMI via @MelBugai<br />
  16. 16. You are not the user<br />Designing for someone else<br />Need to step back - may miss details<br />May be perfect for you, but not the user<br />Honest feedback from users<br />Validate understanding of tasks and context<br />Unforeseen requirements<br />
  17. 17. Rationale<br />Goals being met<br />Content & purpose clear<br />Match expectations<br />Verify product meets customer needs<br />Gather information for future product development <br />Comparison testing<br />
  18. 18. Save Time & Money<br />Up front by testing prototypes<br />Reduce maintenance issues<br />Reduce Customer Service requests<br />
  19. 19. Minimize Human Cost<br />Tiredness<br />Discomfort<br />Embarrassment<br />Frustration<br />Effort<br />
  20. 20. Find Design Problems<br />System status available<br />Wording choices clear<br />Placement of content <br />Consistency<br />Recognition, Not Recall<br />
  21. 21. Benefits of Good UX<br />Increased Usefulness<br />Increased Efficiency ($$$) <br />Improved Productivity<br />
  22. 22. Benefits (continued)<br />Fewer Errors<br />Reduced Training Time<br />Improved Acceptance<br />Happy Users!<br />
  23. 23. Planning studies<br />
  24. 24. Define Goals<br />Specific<br />Measurable<br />Qualitative<br />Quantitative<br />What you need to learn about the product and its audience<br />
  25. 25. Scope Effort<br />Consider budget, resources<br />Time<br />Recruiting<br />Facilitating<br />Analyzing<br />Adding participants increases budget & time<br />
  26. 26. Design the Test<br />Select Methodology<br />Based on goals<br />Identify participants <br />Tasks to be completed<br />Team roles<br />
  27. 27. Types of Usability Tests<br />Single participant<br />Co-discovery (two)<br />Group usability testing (3 or more)<br />Rapid iterative testing<br />
  28. 28. Facilitation Styles<br />Talk aloud/Think aloud<br />Task focused (limited/no discussion)<br />Cooperative usability testing<br />Video review with participant after study (Retrospective)<br />
  29. 29. Location<br />Formal Lab<br />On-site<br />Workplace, conference room<br />In home<br />At a conference<br />Remote <br />Moderated<br />Un-moderated<br />
  30. 30. Test Roles<br />Facilitator<br />Participant<br />“Computer” (paper prototypes)<br />Note taker / data logger / timer<br />Software, recording operator<br />Product / Technical Expert(s)<br />Observers<br />
  31. 31. Use A Script/Guide<br />Memory tool for facilitator<br />Promote consistency<br />Questions<br />Order of questions<br />List out scenarios representative of typical tasks<br />
  32. 32. Test Guide Includes<br />Welcome to participants<br />Steps in study(forms, tasks, questions)<br />Notes to yourself <br />Reset/configuration prompts<br />Thank you to participants (incentives if any)<br />
  33. 33. Participant Materials<br />Provide with <br />Usernames<br />Passwords<br />Text for forms<br />Images to upload, etc.<br />Tasks in writing if complex (3x5 cards)<br />
  34. 34. Task Building<br />Rubin, Jeffrey. Handbook of Usability Testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1994.<br />
  35. 35. Questions<br />Quality of questions correlates to quality of answers:<br />Don’t lead or make assumptions<br />Use participant’s words<br />
  36. 36. Stretch & Exercise<br />36<br />
  37. 37. Question 1<br />Do you regularly book your travel online to save money?<br />
  38. 38. Alternates – Question 1<br />How often do you travel? <br /><listen> <br />What proportion of that do you book online? <br /><listen> <br />Why do you book travel online? <br /><listen> <br />
  39. 39. Rationale - Question 1<br />Do you regularly book your travel online to save money?<br />Address one issue at a time and avoid double-barreled questions.<br />
  40. 40. Question 2<br />What are your thoughts about a new feature that allows you to instant message a travel agent with any questions as you book your travel?<br />
  41. 41. Alternates – Question 2<br />Would you like to correspond with a travel agent while you are booking travel? <br /><listen> <br />What are some ways that you would like to correspond with a travel agent while you are booking travel? <br /><listen> <br />
  42. 42. Rationale – Question 2<br />What are your thoughts about a new feature that allows you to instant message a travel agent with any questions as you book your travel?<br />This question asked the participant to predict the future.<br />
  43. 43. Schedule & Recruit<br />Schedule location for pilot and study<br />Leave time between sessions<br />Sessions no longer than 2 hours<br />Invite Observers (key stakeholders, project managers, etc.)<br />
  44. 44. Pilot Study – Find Problems<br />Verify <br />Tasks are typical<br />Concept is on-track<br />Time needed to complete<br />Practice before going live with participants<br />New ideas for follow-on questions or things to observe<br />Refine script and tasks<br />
  45. 45. How Do I Find Participants?<br />
  46. 46. Create a Screener<br />List of questions to determines who will participate<br />Describe, then get details:<br />Computer activities<br />Use of product/service<br />People who pass screener = user group<br />
  47. 47. Which Student?<br />Rick<br />Connie<br /> via <br /> (Christopher Alison Photography) via <br />
  48. 48. Representative Users<br />Two weeks on average to recruit<br />Primary user population<br />People with disabilities<br />“We are all only temporarily able-bodied. Accessibility is good for us all.” <br />Get to spirit of the law (Section 508, WCAG 2.0)<br />-@mollydotcom at #stirtrek 2011 via @carologic<br />
  49. 49. Hire a Recruiter<br />Allows you to focus on activity.<br />Can tell if person will be a good participant.<br />May already have a list they can start with.<br />Good recruiters:<br />find right participants.<br />give regular updates.<br />take care of directions, confirmations, incentives, etc.<br />
  50. 50. If You Must Do it Yourself...<br />Go where users go and intercept<br />Online user groups<br />Professional organizations<br />Craigslist<br />Online tools thru your site:<br />
  51. 51. Final Recruiting<br />Final recruit by phone.<br />Ask questions that force them to talk.<br />Don’t recruit non-talkers.<br />Confirm participant eligibility<br />Note unusual issues<br />Recruit for pilot test<br />
  52. 52. Number of Participants<br />As many as possible (rarely statistically significant)<br />Usability Testing Research (in 1990’s)<br />5 from distinct sub-group of the user population will yield 80% of the findings (Nielsen, Virzi, Lewis)<br />Assumes expert has reviewed concept for obvious issues<br />Recommend: <br />Early tests with 8 – 12 users per user group<br />Iterative testing (3 per day, iterate, 3 new users)<br />Barnum, Carol M. (Jan. 2003). What’s in a Number? STC Usability SIG Newsletter, Usability Interface. Retrieved: 20080323<br />
  53. 53. Honorarium<br />Pay them or give product credits<br />Amount varies by:<br />Amount of time needed<br />Their role (doctors need more to persuade them)<br />Their interest, devotion to product<br />
  54. 54. Facilitating sessions<br />
  55. 55. Welcome & Prepare<br />Offer beverage<br />Express appreciation for help<br />Explain purpose of research<br />Sign paperwork<br />Consent Form<br />Non-Disclosure Agreement(s)<br />
  56. 56. Participant Reassurance<br />Make sure they are comfortable<br />Not testing them, rather testing…<br />Encourage feedback (positive and negative)<br />“I was not involved in the design of this so you can’t hurt my feelings”<br />
  57. 57. During Session<br />Remain passive (body, face) <br />Don’t confirm or reject answers<br />Use participant’s words<br />Listen for vocalizations <br />Watch non-verbal gestures<br />Encourage participant to elaborate<br />Ask your question and let them talk<br />
  58. 58. Silence is GoldenUser’s Time to Think!<br />58<br />
  59. 59. Get Them Unstuck<br />Progressively give assistance<br />What are you trying to do right now?<br />What do you think the next step is?<br />What would you do in this situation if you were at work?<br />Hints<br />Do you see anything that might help you? (small hint)<br />Have you checked the Help? (medium hint)<br />What do you think the xxx button does? (large hint)<br />
  60. 60. Debrief Participant<br />Post-Study questionnaire<br />Thank for participation<br />Explain honorarium and delivery<br />
  61. 61. Analyzing data<br />
  62. 62. Look for Patterns<br />Identify repetition<br />Continuation of study <br />Adds cost <br />Delays reporting<br />Low probability of many new findings<br />
  63. 63. Measurements<br />Success<br />Time on task<br />% of tasks completed/not completed<br />Number of steps to accomplish task<br />Learning time<br />Number of errors<br />Number of times help consulted<br />Satisfaction<br />
  64. 64. Transform Data<br />Create Findings and Recommendations<br />High level or detailed report<br />Think about audience<br />How will it be used?<br />
  65. 65. Reporting Includes<br />Executive summary<br />Positive findings<br />Provide solutions for negative findings<br />Provide level of effort and prioritize<br />Examples, screen shots<br />Quotes<br />Appendix with questionnaires, test materials<br />
  66. 66. Do UX Early & Often<br />Put it on the Wall as information radiators<br />Test findings<br />Artifacts<br />Competitor info<br />
  67. 67. Recommended Readings<br />67<br />
  68. 68. Contact<br />Carol J. Smith<br /> @carologic<br /><br /> <br />
  69. 69. References<br />Cato, John. User-Centered Web Design. Addison Wesley Longman; 2001. <br />Hackos, JoAnn T., PhD and Redish, Janice C. User and Task Analysis for Interface Design. Wiley; 1998. <br />Henry, S.L. and Martinson, M. Evaluating for Accessibility, Usability Testing in Diverse Situations. Tutorial, 2003 UPA Conference. (Activity)<br />Krug, Steve. Don't Make Me Think: A Common Sense Approach to Web Usability.<br />Kuniavsky, Mike. Observing the User Experience: a Practitioner's Guide to User Research. Morgan Kaufmann, 2003.<br />Nielsen, Jakob and Robert L. Mack. Usability Inspection Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1994.<br />Redish, Janice (Ginny). Letting Go of the Words: Writing Web Content that Works.<br />Rubin, Jeffrey and Dana Chisnell. Handbook of Usability Testing: How to Plan, Design, and Conduct Effective Tests. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.<br />
  70. 70. Tool Considerations<br /><ul><li>In person or remote?
  71. 71. Lab or on-site?
  72. 72. Prototype limitations (can it be online?, is it a document or a clickable site?)
  73. 73. Number of observers, number of participants?
  74. 74. Number of facilitators?
  75. 75. Logging and video editing needs (time on task, highlight video creation)?
  76. 76. Surveys before or after?
  77. 77. Eye tracking?</li></li></ul><li>Usability Testing Software<br /><ul><li>Morae
  78. 78. Ovo
  79. 79. SilverBack (Mac only)
  80. 80. UserWorks
  81. 81. Noldus
  82. 82. Tobii (Eye-tracker)
  83. 83. SMI (Eye-tracker)
  84. 84. SurveyMonkey</li></li></ul><li>Screen Sharing Software<br />GoToMeeting – <br />Lotus SametimeUnyte –<br />YuuGuu -- <br />WebEx –<br />Yugma -- <br />Trouble Shooting: CoPilot - <br />
  85. 85. Satisfaction Questionnaires<br />Standard Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI) <br />office/desktop software, purchase<br />50 questions<br />Website Analysis and MeasureMent Inventory (WHAMMI)<br />Purchase<br />20 questions<br />System Usability Scale (SUS) <br />Free<br />10 questions<br />
  86. 86. Recommended Sites<br /><br />W3C Web Accessibility Initiative <br /><br />Accessibility Standards in US (Section 508)<br /><br />Jakob Nielsen <br /> <br />UPA – professional usability organization<br /> <br />