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Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Prototyping for Beginners
- Learn Ear...
Carol Smith
• 18 year user experience (UX) career
- leadership, management, and mentorship
in and consulting to Fortune 50...
What is a prototype?
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sethenfiona.jpg
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019Photo of spool holder: https://www.fli...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
A/B Testing
“Everything is a prototype”
- Kathryn McElroy
Prototyping for Designers: Developing the Best Digital
and Physical Products...
Why Prototype?
Learn
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Why?
• Minimal investment
• Change is...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Enabling humans to complete a task
• ...
Usability
degree to which something
- software, hardware or anything else –
is easy to use and a good fit
for the people w...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
How to learn?
• Humans
• Unaffiliated...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Usability Testing is…
• Attempt task ...
*All the Feels*
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
So many feelings
• Uncomfortable
– sh...
Mindset…
comfortable with testing
unfinished ideas in order
to make the best result possible
- Kathryn McElroy
Prototyping...
Types of Prototypes
Service Prototypes
Photo: https://c1.staticflickr.com/9/8113/8639449258_1e9857710d_b.jpg
Signs of a bad UI by Jeremy Keith Follow
https://www.flickr.com/photos/adactio/1423242310
Low-Fidelity Prototypes
Paper, Post-its, Cardboard
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Really rough (but readable)
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Post-its on Paper
Image by Caryn Vain...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Change prototype as you learn
• Post-...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Sizing can be very important
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Jeff Hawkins, an inventor of the Palm...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Cardboard prototypes
Haunted House Pr...
Mid-Fidelity Prototypes
Pretend Functionality
Manipulatable/Clickable
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Hand Manufacturing
Sofa manufacture w...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
No code - high functionality
https://...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
No Code MVP
• For validation
• Landin...
High-Fidelity Prototypes
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
This is what you are launching
• Ever...
Getting Started
What problem
are you trying
to solve
and for whom?
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Who are the Primary people who will u...
Focus
Who will frequently, actively
use your product?
What do they need to do?
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Benefits of a Good User Experience
• ...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Case Study
• Creating a site for Univ...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Which Student?
Rick Connie
Photos htt...
"The biggest waste
of all is building something
no one wants"
- @ericries #LeanStartupMI via @MelBugai
Activity!
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Let’s prototype!
• Mock up prototype ...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Hotel Check-In App
• New hotel check-...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
User Scenario
• Your hotel sent you a...
Challenge!
What would you improve
for users unable
to see screen?
Start Making!
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
What fidelity is right?
• Is low-fi e...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Stencils make it quick (might be too ...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Low-fidelity/Paper Prototypes
• Initi...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Low-fi Testing Methodology
• Warn par...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019Alastair Somerville viaTwitter: @Acuit...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Medium-Fidelity Tool?
• Consideration...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Clickable or Code?
• Clickable
– Easy...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Don’t worry about full functionality
...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
No BDUF*
• Just enough
• Identify and...
Think ahead
(not make ahead)
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Hosting clickable and code prototypes...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Much easier to test with Medium Fidel...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Example schedule
• Create
prototype
•...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
True Statements
• All interfaces have...
The
prototype
will fail
Goal:
Learn
and improve
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Tweak, Don’t Redesign
• Small iterati...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Summary – Think Ahead
• Think deeply ...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Recommended Readings
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Contact Carol
LinkedIn.com/in/caroljs...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Reference Sites
• Usability.gov
– htt...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
References
• Albert, Bill, Tom Tullis...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
References
• Gothelf , Jeff. http://b...
Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
References
• Mandel, Theo. The Elemen...
Prototyping for Beginners - Pittsburgh Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
Prototyping for Beginners - Pittsburgh Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019
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Prototyping for Beginners - Pittsburgh Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019

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To design for inclusion we often must try out different ideas. In this interactive session you'll learn about all types of prototyping and how to get feedback on your ideas from your users. This session will briefly introduce a variety of prototypes and materials and evaluation methods for early learning.

Participants will have time to build a quick prototype and practice getting feedback on it. We'll cover designing for accessibility and inclusion even at the prototype stage. You'll have the information you need to launch your ideas as early as possible to learn from the experience and improve more quickly.

Presented at the Pittsburgh Inclusive Innovation Summit March 30, 2019 held at Point Park University.

Published in: Design
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  • DOWNLOAD FULL eBOOK INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, CookeBOOK Crime, eeBOOK Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
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Prototyping for Beginners - Pittsburgh Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019

  1. 1. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! Carol Smith @carologic Inclusive Innovation
  2. 2. Carol Smith • 18 year user experience (UX) career - leadership, management, and mentorship in and consulting to Fortune 500 companies. • MS, Human-Computer Interaction, DePaul Univ.
  3. 3. What is a prototype?
  4. 4. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sethenfiona.jpg
  5. 5. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019Photo of spool holder: https://www.flickr.com/photos/creative_tools/15646389161 3D Modeling and Printing
  6. 6. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 A/B Testing
  7. 7. “Everything is a prototype” - Kathryn McElroy Prototyping for Designers: Developing the Best Digital and Physical Products by Kathryn McElroy IBM Design Thinking: https://www.ibm.com/design/thinking/principles/restless-reinvention
  8. 8. Why Prototype?
  9. 9. Learn
  10. 10. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Why? • Minimal investment • Change is easy and cheap
  11. 11. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Enabling humans to complete a task • Find information • Submit form • Contact someone • Purchase item A Scrum board suggesting to use Kanban by Jeff.lasovski https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Simple-kanban-board-.jpg
  12. 12. Usability degree to which something - software, hardware or anything else – is easy to use and a good fit for the people who use it. Definition from UXPA Usability Body of Knowledge: http://usabilitybok.org/glossary/19#letteru
  13. 13. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 How to learn? • Humans • Unaffiliated with project • Representative users – Matching need – Expected user
  14. 14. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Usability Testing is… • Attempt task without help • Do real tasks • You only observe • Painful and wonderful Image: http://www.flickr.com/photos/raphaelquinet/513351385/sizes/l/in/photostream/
  15. 15. *All the Feels*
  16. 16. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 So many feelings • Uncomfortable – showing ugly, unfinished work (at first) • Sad – cringes when people struggle to get through task • Happy – learn a great deal very quickly! Adapted from Prototyping for Designers: Developing the Best Digital and Physical Products by Kathryn McElroy IBM Design Thinking: https://www.ibm.com/design/thinking/principles/restless-reinvention
  17. 17. Mindset… comfortable with testing unfinished ideas in order to make the best result possible - Kathryn McElroy Prototyping for Designers: Developing the Best Digital and Physical Products by Kathryn McElroy, IBM Design Thinking: https://www.ibm.com/design/thinking/principles/restless-reinvention
  18. 18. Types of Prototypes
  19. 19. Service Prototypes
  20. 20. Photo: https://c1.staticflickr.com/9/8113/8639449258_1e9857710d_b.jpg
  21. 21. Signs of a bad UI by Jeremy Keith Follow https://www.flickr.com/photos/adactio/1423242310
  22. 22. Low-Fidelity Prototypes Paper, Post-its, Cardboard
  23. 23. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Really rough (but readable)
  24. 24. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Post-its on Paper Image by Caryn Vainio, Jun 26, 2013 https://medium.com/@hellchick/the-right-fidelity-for-the-job-2d767a5309d4
  25. 25. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Change prototype as you learn • Post-its • Clear cover for dry erase markers • Give participants sharpie and post-its • Co-creation at its best • Take photos! *Paper prototypes are not accessible – think through unintended consequences/implications
  26. 26. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Sizing can be very important
  27. 27. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Jeff Hawkins, an inventor of the Palm Pilot My favorite pretotype story by Alberto Savoia August 20, 2010 http://pretotyping.blogspot.com/2010/08/one-of-my-favorite-pretotype-stories.html
  28. 28. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Cardboard prototypes Haunted House Prototype by Fabrice Florin https://www.flickr.com/photos/fabola/29002046354/in/photostream/
  29. 29. Mid-Fidelity Prototypes Pretend Functionality Manipulatable/Clickable
  30. 30. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Hand Manufacturing Sofa manufacture worker handmade furniture https://pixabay.com/en/artisan-sofa-manufacture-worker-895670/
  31. 31. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 No code - high functionality https://www.axure.com
  32. 32. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 No Code MVP • For validation • Landing page with an email signup form • Determine interest • Get early adopters • Invite to feedback sessions
  33. 33. High-Fidelity Prototypes
  34. 34. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 This is what you are launching • Everything is a prototype! • Make it small and learn from it 36
  35. 35. Getting Started
  36. 36. What problem are you trying to solve and for whom?
  37. 37. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Who are the Primary people who will use this? • What are their goals? • Common complaints/biggest issues? • Most important/frequent tasks?
  38. 38. Focus
  39. 39. Who will frequently, actively use your product? What do they need to do?
  40. 40. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Benefits of a Good User Experience • Increased Usefulness • Increased Efficiency • Improved Productivity • Fewer Errors • Reduced Training Time • Improved Acceptance Image - Natural Smile by Bradley Davis: https://www.flickr.com/photos/backpackphotography/1375817337
  41. 41. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Case Study • Creating a site for University students • Think about the student you are designing for – What kind of program? – How old are they? – What else?
  42. 42. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Which Student? Rick Connie Photos http://www.flickr.com/photos/mrjkbh/ via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/deed.en http://www.flickr.com/photos/caharley72/ (Christopher Alison Photography) via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/
  43. 43. "The biggest waste of all is building something no one wants" - @ericries #LeanStartupMI via @MelBugai
  44. 44. Activity!
  45. 45. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Let’s prototype! • Mock up prototype (10 minutes) • Conduct guerilla usability test (10 minutes) • What would you change?
  46. 46. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Hotel Check-In App • New hotel check-in app – Request room type – Check into room – Request transportation to hotel from airport
  47. 47. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 User Scenario • Your hotel sent you a link to their new app to check in, and you decide to try it. • You need to: – Check in (prefer 1 King, non-smoking) – Request transportation to hotel
  48. 48. Challenge! What would you improve for users unable to see screen?
  49. 49. Start Making!
  50. 50. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 What fidelity is right? • Is low-fi enough? • If medium necessary keep it simple – resist overbuilding • Time box yourself – set a deadline and keep it • Goal is to learn quickly
  51. 51. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Stencils make it quick (might be too pretty) UI Stencils https://www.uistencils.com/collections/stencils
  52. 52. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Low-fidelity/Paper Prototypes • Initial feedback - concept, organization, feasibility • Study participants may – Not understand how to use/think about – Not act same • Issues with prototype vs. format? • Always test with more realistic prototype 54
  53. 53. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Low-fi Testing Methodology • Warn participant – Not everything will work – May get frustrated • You adjust interface • Only observe – no discussion
  54. 54. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019Alastair Somerville viaTwitter: @Acuity_Design https://twitter.com/Acuity_Design/status/937673959021178880
  55. 55. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Medium-Fidelity Tool? • Considerations • Time • Tools available (PowerPoint vs. Figma) • Team – Skill set and size? – What does it need to do?
  56. 56. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Clickable or Code? • Clickable – Easy and quick to create – Easy to change • Real Code – Risky – more time invested – Great if it’s the right solution
  57. 57. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Don’t worry about full functionality • Focus on what you need to learn • Dead ends = great learning opportunity – Let them attempt to go where they want – Don’t worry about making everything “clickable”
  58. 58. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 No BDUF* • Just enough • Identify and solve problems • Use each study to pick up information *Big Design Up Front
  59. 59. Think ahead (not make ahead)
  60. 60. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Hosting clickable and code prototypes • Where do I put it? – Intellectual property (IP) considerations – Security may make access difficult • Reliability – What if server goes down? – Who contact for help? – When available?
  61. 61. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Much easier to test with Medium Fidelity • Match participant expectations • Easier to determine what is/is not working • Takes more time/thinking to create • Test pilot study first
  62. 62. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Example schedule • Create prototype • Recruit Create: Day 1-3 • Usability study Learn: Day 4-7 • Based on learnings Improve: Day 8 Repeat
  63. 63. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 True Statements • All interfaces have usability problems • Limited resources to fix • More problems than resources • Less serious problems distract • Intense focus on fixing most serious problems first Rocket Surgery Made Easy: The Do-It-Yourself Guide to Finding and Fixing Usability Problems. By Steve Krug
  64. 64. The prototype will fail
  65. 65. Goal: Learn and improve
  66. 66. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Tweak, Don’t Redesign • Small iterative changes – Make it better now – Don’t break something else • Take something away – Reduce distractions – Don’t just add – question it Rocket Surgery Made Easy: The Do-It-Yourself Guide to Finding and Fixing Usability Problems, by Steve Krug
  67. 67. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Summary – Think Ahead • Think deeply about – Problem you are solving – People who will use your solution • Lowest possible fidelity to learn • Emphasize learning and continuous improvement • Use time and learning as your measures
  68. 68. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Recommended Readings
  69. 69. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Contact Carol LinkedIn.com/in/caroljsmith Twitter - @Carologic Slides - Slideshare.net/carologic
  70. 70. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 Reference Sites • Usability.gov – https://www.usability.gov/ • W3C Web Accessibility Initiative – http://www.w3.org/WAI/ • Accessibility Standards in US (Section 508) – https://www.access-board.gov/ • Jakob Nielsen – http://www.useit.com UXPA – User Experience Professionals Association – http://uxpa.org/ Information Architecture Institute – http://iainstitute.org/ IxDA – Interaction Designers Association – https://ixda.org/
  71. 71. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 References • Albert, Bill, Tom Tullis, and Donna Tedesco. Beyond the Usability Lab. • Bank, Christopher. 15 ways to test your minimum viable product by Christopher, Nov 12, 2014 in Design & Dev, The Next Web. https://thenextweb.com/dd/2014/11/12/15-ways-test-minimum-viable-product/ • Barnum, Carol M. (Jan. 2003). What’s in a Number? STC Usability SIG Newsletter, Usability Interface. http://www.stcsig.org/usability/newsletter/0301-number.html Retrieved: 20080323 • Beyer, Hugh. User-Centered Agile Methods (Synthesis Lectures on Human-Centered Informatics) • Cato, John. User-Centered Web Design. Addison Wesley Longman; 2001. • Dickie, Sam. Time to create a landing page and test your MVP by Sam Feb 8, 2017 https://medium.com/lean-startup-circle/time-to-create-a- landing-page-and-test-your-mvp-acc028c0f8fe • Dini, Dino. (March 2008). Wikipedia: Design. 2005 Game Design and Technology Workshop, Liverpool JM University. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Design Retrieved on 2008-03-23. Retrieved: 20080323 • Faulkner, Christine. The Essence of Human-Computer Interaction. Prentice Hall PTR; 1997. • Gale, S. A Collaborative Approach to Developing Style Guides. Conference proceedings on Human factors in Computing Systems April 13 - 18, 1996, Vancouver Canada. ACM Press, (pp. 362-367). • Gaffney, Gerry. (2000) What is Card Sorting? Usability Techniques Series, Information & Design. http://www.infodesign.com.au/usabilityresources/design/cardsorting.asp • Galitz, W. O. (2002). The essential guide to user interface design: An introduction to GUI design principles and techniques (Second Edition). Wiley: New York, NY.
  72. 72. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 References • Gothelf , Jeff. http://blog.usabilla.com/5-effective-ways-for-usability-testing-to-play-nice-with-agile/ • Grudin, J. 1989. The case against user interface consistency. Commun. ACM 32, 10 (Oct. 1989), 1164-1173. • Hackos, JoAnn T., PhD and Redish, Janice C. User and Task Analysis for Interface Design. Wiley; 1998. • Henry, Shawn Lawton. Just Ask: Integrating Accessibility Throughout Design. • Henry, S.L. and Grossnickle, M. Accessibility in the User-Centered Design Process. Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Inc; Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 2004. http://uiaccess.com/accessucd/personas.html • Henry, S.L. and Martinson, M. Evaluating for Accessibility, Usability Testing in Diverse Situations. Tutorial, 2003 UPA Conference. • Kuniavsky, Mike. Observing the User Experience: a Practitioner's Guide to User Research. Morgan Kaufmann, 2003. • Krug, Steve. Rocket Surgery Made Easy: The Do-It-Yourself Guide to Finding and Fixing Usability Problems. • Lewis, Clayton and Rieman, John. (1993, 1994) Task-Centered User Interface Design A Practical Introduction. http://hcibib.org/tcuid/chap-4.html
  73. 73. Prototyping for Beginners - Learn Early! @carologic Inclusive Innovation Summit 2019 References • Mandel, Theo. The Elements of User Interface Design. Wiley; 1997. • McElroy, Kathryn. Prototyping for Designers: Developing the Best Digital and Physical Products. O’Reilly Media, Inc. 2017 • Neisser, Ulric. (1967) Cognitive Psychology • Nielsen, Jakob and Robert L. Mack. Usability Inspection Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1994. • Powell, Thomas A. The Complete Reference: Web Design. Osborne/McGraw-Hill; 2000. • Ratcliffe, Lindsay and Marc McNeill. Agile Experience Design: A Digital Designer's Guide to Agile, Lean, and Continuous. • Rubin, Jeffrey and Dana Chisnell. Handbook of Usability Testing: How to Plan, Design, and Conduct Effective Tests. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. • Schaffer, Eric. Institutionalization of Usability: A Step by Step Guide. Human Factors International, 2004. • Slatin, John M. and Sharron Rush Maximum Accessibility: Making Your Web Site More Usable for Everyone. Addison- Wesley Pub Co., 2002. • W3C Web Accessibility Initiative - http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/accessibility

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