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On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences at WUC19

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Presented at the World Usability Congress in Graz, Austria on October 16, 2019.
Self-driving vehicles are still a rarity in most cities, but as they become more common and as more and more humans interact with them we need to consider the wide variety of human experiences that occur within and along-side these vehicles. What information does the driver need when the vehicle is getting started vs. on it’s way? What information engenders trust and how much is too much? What changes due to experience level and comfort? How do we account for reliable easy commutes and people who use vehicles differently each day? How do these vehicles interact with other drivers, pedestrians, bicyclists and general society?

Published in: Design
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On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences at WUC19

  1. 1. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences Carol J. Smith, @carologic World Usability Congress in Graz, Austria October 2019
  2. 2. WHO’S HERE?
  3. 3. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Tesla Release 9, September 2019 https://youtu.be/HI23Yiy-EAE by Scott Kubo
  4. 4. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Best Practices •Autonomy’s near future •Real people, in-context •Social implications
  5. 5. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic 2017
  6. 6. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Current Vehicles •Autonomy Level 2-4
  7. 7. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Near Future Optimus Ride’s automated shuttles transport office workers (Jahi Chikwendiu/The Washington Post)
  8. 8. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Cities are hard •People everywhere •Pedestrians •Cyclists •Other vehicles •Potholes •Poorly marked roads
  9. 9. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Intersections
  10. 10. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Highways
  11. 11. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Slow people movers •Slower speeds •Less technology needed •Private property •More control •More iteration potential Self-driving buses in Montreal pilot project (Franca Mignacca/CBC )
  12. 12. Real people, In-context
  13. 13. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Who are we designing for? •Individuals •Friends and families •Mixed ages •Mixed awareness/familiarity
  14. 14. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Vulnerable populations •Women •Children •People with physical disabilities •Blind •Deaf •Limited mobility
  15. 15. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Gender •Women on public transport •France: 2/3 of users are women •US, Philadelphia: 64% •US, Chicago: 62% •England, London: Women 8% more trips per weekday than men Caroline Criado Perez, Invisible Women: Exposing the Data Bias in a World Designed for Men
  16. 16. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic What are they doing? •Commuting •Quick stops •Appointments •Shopping •Fun Outings •Traveling
  17. 17. Fear - Complex Situations
  18. 18. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Logistics •Alone •Dark streets •Late at night •Long walking distances •Confusing directions •Unfamiliar surroundings https://www.needpix.com/photo/389392/street-alley-lane-night-dark-urban-town-city-road
  19. 19. WHAT DO YOU DO DIFFERENTLY WHEN WALKING ALONE ON A DARK STREET?
  20. 20. PERCEPTION IS REALITY
  21. 21. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Fear being inside AV •Concerns for personal and family physical safety (despite interior safety) •Concerns about “AI” •“Weirdness” of steering wheel movement
  22. 22. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Inconvenient •High heels •Short skirts •Bags of groceries, suitcases •Multiple children •Strollers •Expensive gear
  23. 23. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Weather •Rain •Very high temps •Very low temps It's a raining day. faungg's photoblog https://www.flickr.com/photos/44534236@N00/5662918577
  24. 24. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Interesting problems •Strangers ride-sharing •Open door while vehicle in motion? •Reuniting with forgotten items? •Parent loading child into stroller? Ian Duncan. Autonomous shuttles in Northern Virginia suburb show why the future of robot cars might be slow. Oct. 12, 2019. Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/trafficandcommuting/autonomous-shuttles-in-northern-virginia-suburb-show-why-the-future-of-robot- cars-might-be-slow/2019/10/12/145232da-eac0-11e9-9c6d-436a0df4f31d_story.html
  25. 25. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Motion sickness •Complex factors •Women •Asian men •Children most susceptible •Age •Reduction post-childhood •Older women less susceptible
  26. 26. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Conditions can exacerbate •Looking down (reading, looking at low screen)* •Inability to see outside •Sitting backwards •Warmth, smells •Frequent side-to-side movements, curves
  27. 27. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Seating arrangement and screen locations Image from: https://images.pexels.com/photos/428614/seats-train-window-travel-428614.jpeg?w=940&h=650&auto=compress&cs=tinysrgb
  28. 28. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Include susceptible people in research •Diverse riders •Previous experience is best indicator •Pre-screen •Motion Sickness Susceptibility Questionnaire (MSSQ-Short)
  29. 29. MISBEHAVIOR?
  30. 30. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Knowledge enables preparation •Consider scenarios inside and outside vehicle •Abusability testing •Black mirror brainstorms •Mitigation planning
  31. 31. Personal Vehicles
  32. 32. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Drivers/Operators •Must actively monitor systems •Background information •Audio entertainment
  33. 33. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic 3-4 is worst for human operators •Cognitive load is high •Vehicle’s abilities are low •Vigilance decrement becomes significant within the first 15 minutes of attention
  34. 34. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) https://www.avl.com/adas
  35. 35. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic
  36. 36. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic What information needed? •In context •Changes due to experience level/comfort? •Different/changing use? •Indicate how will interact with others?
  37. 37. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Passenger information
  38. 38. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Routing awareness
  39. 39. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic UCD/HF best practices •Keep attention •Re-attain early •Display a minimum of information •Enough to engender trust •No more
  40. 40. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Smart Summon (video no longer available) https://youtu.be/QeNP4lUktPE?t=225
  41. 41. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Entertainment •Background music •Family movies for road trips •Space is tight •What would I transfer to large screen? •My privacy? •Managing separate experiences
  42. 42. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Time •Commutes are long •Road trips are rare •Smartphones more common •When is entertainment needed? https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2019/10/07/nine-days-road-average-commute-time-reached-new-record-last-year/
  43. 43. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Will entertainment sizzle out? •Airplanes 10+ years ago •Now BYOD
  44. 44. Social Implications
  45. 45. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Community Considerations •Friendly, informative introduction •Work with neighborhood, city, state, region •Impacts on traffic (at intersection level), infrastructure •Appropriate vehicle behavior
  46. 46. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic External fear as community •Concerns for physical safety •School crossings – start and end of day •Bikes •Shorter people •Concerns about “AI” •How do I communicate with it? •What’s it going to do?
  47. 47. Pedestrian looks at me How do I know we agree with the car?
  48. 48. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Safety •Speed - law isn’t always safe •Observance varies •Highly congested city areas •Jaywalkers •Law breaking •Weather
  49. 49. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Localization – “Pittsburgh Left” https://youtu.be/dsPyKnB7j8o?t=46
  50. 50. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Future •50/50 autonomous and people •75/25? •100% •Smarter cities
  51. 51. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Best Practices •Near future - slow, shared rides •We need more knowledge •Real people, in-context •Social implications
  52. 52. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Continue the conversation... LinkedIn: CarolJSmith Twitter: @Carologic Slideshare: carologic
  53. 53. Appendix
  54. 54. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic The Trolley Problem • The problem with the trolley problem. Quartz https://qz.com/1716107/the- problem-with-the-trolley-problem/ • Does theTrolley Problem Have a Problem?What if your answer to an absurd hypothetical question had no bearing on how you behaved in real life? By Daniel Engber. Slate.com. June 18, 2018. https://slate.com/technology/2018/06/p sychologys-trolley-problem-might- have-a-problem.html
  55. 55. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic In Use… •Industrial (e.g. mining) •Transportation of goods •Food delivery •Community transportation (trains and busses)
  56. 56. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Directional confusion - wayfinding •15-26% of humans face some degree of left/right challenges (directional confusion) •Inability to easily orient themselves in relation to a map •If providing walking directions •Reduce walking distances •Provide detailed walking directions •Identify obvious landmarks to help sighted
  57. 57. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic Standards • ISO 26262 –The Second Edition: what’s in it… and what isn’t. https://www.techdesignforums.com/practice/technique/iso-26262-the-second- edition-whats-in-it-and-what-isnt/ • Comparison of the FMEA and STPA safety analysis methods–a case study https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11219-017-9396-0 • "Here'sWhy Everyone Is Using RTI Connext DDS forAutonomousVehicles.” https://www.rti.com/blog/heres-why-everyone-is-using-rti-connext-dds-for- autonomous- vehicles?utm_source=twitterp&utm_campaign=automotive&utm_content=tierone
  58. 58. On the Road: Best Practices for Autonomous Experiences | @carologic References • Christopher Ingraham. Nine days on the road. Average commute time reached a new record last year.The Washington Post. October 7, 2019. https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2019/10/07/nine-days-road-average-commute-time-reached-new- record-last-year/ • Franca G. Mignacca. Self-driving buses hit Montreal streets for first time as part of pilot project. CBC News · Posted: Jun 30, 2019 4:32 PM ET | Last Updated: July 1https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/self-driving-bus-1.5195915 • Fred Lambert. Driverless Tesla gets pulled over by police on ‘Smart Summon’ — staged or not? Oct. 3rd 2019. https://electrek.co/2019/10/03/tesla-driverless-pulled-over-police-on-smart-summon/ • Ian Duncan. Autonomous shuttles in NorthernVirginia suburb show why the future of robot cars might be slow. Oct. 12, 2019. Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/trafficandcommuting/autonomous-shuttles-in-northern-virginia- suburb-show-why-the-future-of-robot-cars-might-be-slow/2019/10/12/145232da-eac0-11e9-9c6d-436a0df4f31d_story.html • Michael J. Coren. A Peleton self-driving semi on the test track. From: Self-driving platoons of trucks are coming to a highway near you. July 19, 2019. https://qz.com/1669462/pelotons-self-driving-semi-truck-is-coming/ • PennLive. Video: How common is the Pittsburgh left? Mar 21, 2017. PennLive.com https://youtu.be/dsPyKnB7j8o?t=46 • Scott Kubo. Current State ofTesla Autopilot - My Commute inTraffic. Sep 16, 2019. https://youtu.be/HI23Yiy-EAE

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