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Chapter 2 Notes


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Chapter 2 Notes

  1. 1. South, Southwest and Central Asia: Physical Geography<br />Chapter 2 <br />
  2. 2. I. South Asia<br />A. Major Landforms of South Asia<br />1. A Natural Barrier: Himalayas form a natural barrier between South Asia and the rest of Asia. Himalayas stretch for 1,550 miles. Mount Everest is the tallest mountain in the world 29,035 ft.<br />
  3. 3. 2. Rivers of Life: Two rivers in South Asia are the Ganges and the Indus. They both begin in the mountains of the Himalayas.<br />
  4. 4. 3. Plains and Plateaus: Huge plains cover the north of the Indian subcontinent. The plains are alluvial meaning the soil is rich and fertile from the river deposits. In the south of the subcontinent lies the Deccan plain.<br />
  5. 5. B. The Climates of South Asia<br />1. The Summer Monsoons: from June to October the wind blows from the southwest . It carries moisture from the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. The air is very humid.<br />2. The Winter Monsoons: from November to April the wind blows from the Northeast bringing cooler drier air. <br />
  6. 6. C. Land Use in South Asia<br />1. Cash Crops: Crops that are sold for money include, tea, cotton, coffee, and sugar cane.<br />2. Mineral Resources: Although there is rich supplies of iron ore and coal, there is not much oil. Hydroelectricity and nuclear power supply energy needs.<br />3. Population and Land Use: Most people live in coastal areas that have lots of rain.<br />
  7. 7. II. Southwest Asia<br />A. Dry Region Bordered by Water<br />1. Two Historic Rivers: Tigris and Euphrates Rivers provide some of the most fertile land in the world. <br />2. Mountains and Plateaus: The Zargos Mountains extend along the western part of Iran. The Elburz Mountains extend along the northern coast of Iran.<br />Seas and Gulfs: This area is surrounded by water. Red Sea, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf separate this area into regions.<br />Hot, Dry, Climate: 2/3 of area is desert. This area has very little rainfall. Areas around the Mediterranean Sea are more mild.<br />
  8. 8. B. Southwest Asia’s Major Natural Resources<br />Petroleum: Southwest Asia has more than half the world’s oil. <br />Water: Irrigation must be used because there is so little water in this area. Water is also found by digging deep wells. <br />
  9. 9. C. Using the Land in Southwest Asia: People use the land for three different reasons. <br />1. Agriculture: Mostly grown in the northern part of the region, the Mediterranean climate is ideal for growing/<br />2. Nomadic Herding: Bedouins who live in the desert herd animals, moving over large areas of land.<br />3. Producing Oil: Lots of oil found here.<br />
  10. 10. III. Central Asia<br />A. Central Asia’s Main Physical Features<br />1. Highlands: Tian Shan and Pamir Mountains <br />2. Deserts: Kara Kum Desert<br />3. Steppes: Kirghiz Steppe<br />4. Climate: Most of Central Asia has a dry climate<br />5. Sea: Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea (dried up)<br />
  11. 11. B. Natural Resources in Central Asia<br />Kazakhstan has large oil and gas reserves.<br />This areas has rich deposits of coal, gold, copper, iron, ore, lead and uranium.<br />
  12. 12. C. Land Use in Central Asia<br />1. Agriculture is the primary use of land. They also need irrigation to be successful. Cotton is grown as the primary crop but they have used so much water from the Aral Sea that it has dried up the Sea.<br />