Relative Clauses

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This is a basic approach to (non)-defining relative clauses

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Relative Clauses

  1. 1. Definition A relative clause is a part of a sentence beginning with a relative pronoun (although this pronoun can be omitted in certain cases). RELATIVE CLAUSES C/ San Rafael, 25 46701-Gandia Tfno. 962 965 096 [email_address] www.escolapiasgandia.es COLEGIO ESCOLAPIAS GANDIA
  2. 2. There are two types Can you notice any difference in their meaning? The boys in my class who wear glasses are attractive The boys in my class, who wear glasses, are attractive
  3. 3. <ul><li>The boys who wear glasses are attractive </li></ul><ul><li>These relative clauses give you the information you need to understand the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>There are no commas. </li></ul><ul><li>If you take the relative clause away, the sentence doesn't make sense. </li></ul><ul><li>In these kind of sentences WHO can be replaced by THAT </li></ul><ul><li>These are called Defining Relative Clauses </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The boys, who wear glasses, are attractive </li></ul><ul><li>These are the ones that give extra information. </li></ul><ul><li>They are always written between commas. </li></ul><ul><li>If you leave out the relative clause between the commas it still makes sense. </li></ul><ul><li>In these kind of sentences WHO cannot be replaced by THAT </li></ul><ul><li>These are known as Non-Defining Relative Clauses </li></ul>
  5. 5. The relative pronoun you use depends on the thing you're talking about. Generally speaking, the most basic ones are these: DEPARTAMENTO DE CIENCIAS SOCIALES – HISTORIA DEL ARTE Copyright Colegio Escolapias Gandia info@escolapiasgandia.es www.escolapiasgandia.es Basic relative pronouns for people who/that for objects which/that for places where for reasons why for time for possession when whose
  6. 6. <ul><li>An architect... </li></ul><ul><li>A burglar... </li></ul><ul><li>A vegetarian... </li></ul><ul><li>A customer... </li></ul><ul><li>- A shoplifter... </li></ul>Complete the following sentences using WHO
  7. 7. Trickier relative pronouns
  8. 8. This can be used to refer to the whole part of the sentence that went before. Usually a pronoun refers to a noun, but this refers to more. My dad has broken his leg, which worries me I've still got some money left, which is surprising . DEPARTAMENTO DE CIENCIAS SOCIALES – HISTORIA DEL ARTE Copyright Colegio Escolapias Gandia info@escolapiasgandia.es www.escolapiasgandia.es WHICH
  9. 9. This is used to show possession. It can always be used for people and animals, but also for things. My pupils, whose homework is never done, will fail the exam. The homework belongs to the students, it's theirs, so possessive. The city, whose football team lost the match, never wins anything. The city's made up of people, so it sounds OK. . DEPARTAMENTO DE CIENCIAS SOCIALES – HISTORIA DEL ARTE Copyright Colegio Escolapias Gandia info@escolapiasgandia.es www.escolapiasgandia.es WHOSE
  10. 10. . WHOM *It sounds very formal to most people. Therefore, it is hardly ever used in spoken English. *If you're going to use it at all, then only use it after prepositions. The boy to whom I was talking is my cousin *However, there's usually another less formal way to say the same thing. The boy that/who I was talking to is my cousin
  11. 11. Use the correct Relative Pronoun
  12. 12. <ul><li>The hotel _________ we stayed was very good for the price </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The hotel WHERE we stayed was very good for the price </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>The books, ___________ I ´d ordered over the internet, took nearly three weeks to arrive </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>The books, WHICH* I ´d ordered over the internet, took nearly three weeks to arrive </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>My parents, __________ were born in north Wales, moved to London to find work </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>My parents, WHO* were born in north Wales, moved to London to find work </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>The employee to __________ you refer is no longer working here </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The employee to WHOM* you refer is no longer working here </li></ul>
  20. 20. -My neighbour, __________ son is studying in Germany, is quite impolite
  21. 21. -My neighbour, WHOSE son is studying in Germany, is quite impolite
  22. 22. SUBJECT OR OBJECT? The woman who was talking to David suffered from heart problems SUBJECT VERB The woman who I was talking to suffered from heart problems OBJECT SUBJECT VERB When the Relative Pronoun is the object it can be left out: The woman I was talking to suffered from heart problems

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