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Access to Medicines


A Role for Our Universities


    August 17, 2010
    Universities Allied for Essential Medicines
    Presentation for Universidade de SÃO
    PAULO - USP
Why Access to Medicines?

• 2 billion lack access to life saving drugs.
• Ten million people die needlessly each year because
  they lack access to medicines: 1 in 3 have no access to
  medicines, rising to 1 in 2 in Sub Saharan Africa
• Over 90% of these people live in developing countries
  and have to cover up to 90% of treatment costs
• Essential drugs are either unaffordable, unavailable or
  inappropriate
In perspective…
Real People; Real Lives
A Fatal Imbalance

• Over the past thirty years, global health has transformed at an
  unprecedented rate, with life expectancy increasing at an
  average of four months every year in developed countries.
• However, with few exceptions, people living in developing
  countries have not benefited from this revolution.
• Millions continue to die from preventable and treatable
  diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis; and
  many tropical diseases have been all but forgotten.


                                                               .
Medicines unaffordable

• Cost of medicines is the main barrier to accessing essential
  medicines
• Pharmaceutical patenting in developing countries is the most
  important factor which leads to an increase in the price of
  medicines




                                                C            .
                                                o
                                                s
Basic notions on patents

• Patents confer a 20-year monopoly on a medicine
  product/process/formulation
• International patents do not exist – patents are granted
  nationally or regionally
• Drug patents allow their owners to exclude others from using
  or producing the drug until patent expiration (usually 20 years
  form the date patent is filed)
• By excluding generic competition, patents keep prices high

                                                  C            .
                                                  o
                                                  s
HIV/AIDS

• 33.2 million people living with AIDS
• 2.1 million of these are children
• 2007 – 2.5 million new infections and 2.1 million AIDS-related
  deaths
• Only 31% of those who needed ARV treatment had access to it.
(WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF 2007)
• 6.5 million people urgently in need of treatment but because of
  high prices only 1.3 million can afford treatment.
• Nearly 80% of the 3 million who die each year from AIDS had no
  access to treatment

Information quoted by Renata Reis, Marcela Foçaça Vieira and Gabriela Chaves in         .
    “Access to Medicines and Intellectual Property in Brazil: A Civil Society Experience”
    in Intellectual Property Rights and Access to ARV Medicines: Civil Society
    Resistance in the Global South ABIA. 2009.
HIV/AIDS in Brazil in 1990s

• Implementation of universal access to ARV produced some
  important results : 1997 – 2004 saw a 40% reduction in mortality
  and 70% reduction in morbidity.
• 1993 – 2003, average life expectancy of AIDS patient rose by 5
  years; reduction of 80% in hospitalizations (saving $2.3 billion)
• How?
    - work of public health movement inputting into the reform of constitution in
       1988, collaboration between state and PLWHA, creation of National AIDS
       Policy, creation of ABIA and GAPA leading to prevention campaigns and
       growing solidarity movements/role of civil society, legal developments
       especially Sarney Law which improved structure for purchasing medicines
    - but also largely due to ability to produce ARV medicines locally at lower cost
                                                                                .
From Renata Reis, Marcela Foçaça Vieira and Gabriela Chaves. 2009. “Access to
                                                                                    .
   Medicines and Intellectual Property in Brazil: A Civil Society Experience”
r
                      Enter TRIPS…                    t

                                                     f
• World Trade Organisation officially began work 1 January
                                                     o
  1995
• Included an agreement on intellectual property rights (Trade-
  Related Intellectual Property Rights)
                                                    t
• TRIPs provides a timeline within which all WTO members are
  obliged to allow product patents on pharmaceuticals
                                                    c
• Transitional periods for developing countries (2005), least
                                                    a
  developed countries – LDCs (2016)
• Includes exceptions to protect the public interest (public
                                                    p
  health)                                           m
                                                    I       .
                                                                .
Impact of TRIPS on access to
                    medicines

•   Before TRIPs, many developing countries (such as Brazil) did not allow
    product patents on pharmaceuticals.
•   Conscious policy decision that benefits of low cost access would
    outweigh potential negative impact that lack of patents would have on
    R&D.
•   TRIPs overturned this domestic public health policy making and
    countries are compelled to allow product patents in pharmaceuticals.
•   In Brazil these international agreements led to an overhaul of the
    existing legal regime which undermined the policy of universal access
•   Competition on manufacture of pharmaceuticals is only possible
                                                                     .
    through use of TRIPs exceptions/flexibilities by developing countries.
•   Implementation of TRIPS has rapidly eroded access to affordable      .
    medicines internationally especially since 2005 when India introduced
    pharmaceutical patents.
Where do universities fit in?
•   Of the 21 drugs with the greatest therapeutic impact, 15 were
    developed using publically funded research, most of which occurs at
    universities. [The benefits of medical research and the role of the
    NIH. United States Joint Economic Committee, 2000]
•   Every single vaccine brought to market in the past 25 years has a
    contribution from university research. [Ashley Stevens, President of
    AUTM; Access to Medicines panel discussion, Yale University March
    25, 2008]
•   More than 1/3 of HIV drugs introduced between 2002 and 2006
    involve a university patent.
•   Universities are increasingly seen by pharmaceutical companies as
    the best (and cheapest) place to carry out discovery. Interesting data
    on the increased importance of licensing agreements to pharma
    sales www.pharmafield.co.uk/article.aspx?issueID=40&
    articleID=315 predicts that 26% of pharma sales by 2009 will come
    from licensing rather than in house R&D.
Where do universities fit in?
•   Though already significant role in drug R&D, the importance of
    universities in pharmaceutical discovery is projected to continue
    increasing with the growing importance of biologic drugs (e.g. cellular
    products that have the potential for achieving an exquisite target-
    specificity that is difficult or impossible to attain with many chemically-
    based drugs).
•   The vast majority of currently available biologic drugs were
    developed with significant university participation: Epogen (University
    of Washington), Insulin (University of Toronto), human growth
    hormone (UC Berkley), Remicade (NYU), Avastin (USC).
•   Universities have a critical role to play in the future of pharmaceutical
    innovation, and the decisions being made now regarding the
    patenting and licensing policies surrounding publicly funded research
    have important implications for the future of global public health.
Uuniversities Allied for Essential
      Medicines:Ask Vision
            Our Our

Universities and publicly funded research institutions will be part of
the solution to the access to medicines crisis by promoting medical
innovation in the public interest and ensuring that all people
regardless of income have access to essential medicines and other
health-related technologies.
Universities Allied for Essential Medicines




   Our Mission:
   As a private non-profit organization rooted in a movement of university
   students, UAEM aims to
 • promote access to medicines for people in developing countries by
   changing norms and practices around university patenting and licensing
 • ensure that university medical research meets the needs of the majority
   of the world’s population
 • empower students to respond to the access and innovation crisis
Yale and d4T

• In 2001, d4T costs $1,600/patient/year
  – Doctors Without Borders (MSF) seeks Yale’s permission to
    use generic d4t in South Africa
  – Yale balks, claiming its “hands are tied” by licensee
  – Students at Yale organize
  – NY Times editorial written by discoverer William Prusoff

• March 24, 2001: Yale asks BMS to grant “patent
  relief” and price cuts

• Generic competition drops the price of d4t in
  South Africa 96% within a year, allowing Médecins
  sans Frontières to scale-up HIV treatment
  programs across Africa
Effects of Generic competition




                      C          .
                      o
                      s
UAEM Member Universities


• US (50)           New chapters in Global South
• Canada (11)       University of Lagos, Nigeria
• UK (14)           National University of Singapore
• Germany (7)       National University of Rwanda
• Norway(1)         Makarere University, Uganda
• Norway            Weill-Bugando University
• Australia (2)      College of Health Sciences,
                     Tanzania
                    Institute of Medicine, Nepal


                    And we hope now Brazil!
Why act?

•   Moral and ethical obligation
•   Commitment to creating and disseminating
    knowledge for the public good
•   University research is heavily funded by taxpayers
•   Maintain competitiveness in attracting talent
     – Top research scientists and students drawn to
       schools with demonstrated global public
       commitment
•   Global impact through institutional policies, not just
    scholarship
Consensus Statement
Seed signatories:




                          Jonathan Quick
 Former Director of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy at the WHO
Paul Farmer, Presley Professor of Medical Anthropology, Harvard University
       President and CEO of Management Sciences for Health
     Edwin Cameron, Justice, South African Supreme Court of Appeal
                John Sulston, Nobel Laureate in Medicine
Bernard Pecoul, Executive Director, Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative
   Zackie Achmat, Founder and Chairman, Treatment Action Campaign
Universities Know They Need to Change


 “Universities should strive to construct
 licensing arrangements in ways that ensure
 that these underprivileged populations have
 low- or no-cost access to adequate
 quantities of these medical innovations.”

                  White Paper “In the Public Interest”
                    AKA “The Stanford Nine Points”
World Health Organization

The Netherlands and Kenya, on behalf of the
WHO African member states, explicitly
recommended that UAEM’s policies be included in
the final WHO “Plan of Action” on IP and Health
(2007)

Endorsing countries included:
Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde,
Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic
Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali,
Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome
and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Swaziland, Togo,
Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Obama-Biden Plan to Combat HIV/AIDS

               I support “the adoption of humanitarian
             licensing policies that ensure medications
              developed with U.S. taxpayer dollars are
                  available off-patent in developing
                              countries.”
Statement of Principles and Strategies for the Equitable
       dissemination of Medical Technologies

 Signed by Harvard, Yale, Boston, Brown, Oregon and
 Pennsylvania on 9 November 2009 “after campus student groups
 pushed for policies to make new drugs available at low cost to
 poor patients. The statement commits the schools to make
 “vigorous efforts” to promote global access to drugs through
 licensing strategies.” John Lauerman at Bloomberg.com

 “We agree that it’s important that our intellectual property doesn’t
 serve as a barrier -- and in some cases should be used as
 leverage -- to help ensure that drugs, vaccines and other
 technologies reach the developing world,” Maryanne Fenerjian,
 Harvard’s director of technology-transfer policy
Technology Transfer at Sao Paolo


USP is a public university

Missão Agencia USP de inovação
Promover a utilização do conhecimento científico, tecnológico e
cultural produzido na Universidade de São Paulo em prol do
desenvolvimento sócio-econômico do Estado de São Paulo e do País.

Objetivos
Identificar, apoiar, promover, estimular e implementar parcerias com
os setores empresariais, governamentais e não governamentais na
busca de resultados para a sociedade.
Examples of exciting (patented)
      Discovery at Johns USP
            discoveries at Hopkins
http://www.patentes.usp.br/Catalogo/pdf/6.pdf last download 11 August 2010

PI0502172‐3TITLE: FORMULATION PROCESS OF INCLUSION COMPLEX
    OF3‐(4‐BROMINE‐(1,1‐BYPHENYL)‐4‐IL)‐3‐(4‐BROMOFENIL)‐N,N‐DIMETHYL‐2‐PROPEN‐1‐A
    MINE AND ß‐CYCLODEXTRIN AND TRYPANOCIDAL ACTIVITY, ANTI‐ LEISHMANIASIS AND
    ANTI-MYCOBACTERIALACTIVITY.

PI0805492‐4: TITULO: SIGILO ‐ DESCRIÇÃO: TERAPIA PARA PREVENÇÃO E TRATAMENT DA
    DOENÇA DE CHAGAS. TITLE: SECRET ‐ DESCRIPTION: PREVENTION THERAPY AND
    TREATMENT OF CHAGAS DISEASE. RESUMO: SIGILO

PI0804314‐0: TITULO: SIGILO ‐ DESCRIÇÃO: FORMULAÇÃO FARMACÊUTICA E SEU USO,
    PARA DOENÇA NEGLIGENCIADA. TITLE: SECRET ‐ DESCRIPTION: PHARMACEUTICAL
    FORMULATION AND ITS USE FOR NEGLECTED DISEASE. RESUMO: SIGILO

PI0802164‐3: TITULO: SIGILO ‐ DESCRIÇÃO: PROCESSO DE PRODUÇÃO DE NANO
    PARTÍCULAS PARA TRATAMENTO DE TUBERCULOSE POR MEIO DE AEROSSÓIS,
    INALADORES E NEBULIZADORES. TITLE: SECRET ‐ DESCRIPTION: PRODUCTION
    PROCESS OF NANOPARTICLES TO TREAT TUBERCULOSIS BY AEROSOL, INHALERS
    AND NEBULIZERS. RESUMO: SIGILO.
Examples of medical patents at USP
  Discovery at Johns Hopkins

http://www.patentes.usp.br/Catalogo/pdf/6.pdf last download 11 August 2010

PI0802285‐2: TITLE: SECRET ‐ DESCRIPTION: SYMBIOTIC FUNCTIONAL NURTURE PRODUCT
    WITH REDUCED CALORY CONTENT AND ITS MANUFACTURING PROCESS.

PI0801094‐3: TITLE: SECRET ‐ DESCRIPTION: PREPARATION PROCESS OF MOLECULES TO
    PRODUCE BIOPROSTHESIS.

PI0700698‐5: TITULO: USO DE BAIXAS DOSES DE DNA PLASMIDEAL NO CONTROLE DA
    RESPOSTA IMUNE E VACINA PARA TRATAR DOENÇAS AUTO‐IMUNES, INFLAMATÓRIAS,
    ALÉRGICAS E/OU INFECCIOSAS.TITLE: USE OF PLASMID DNA LOW DOSIS IN
    CONTROLLING THE IMMUNE RESPONSE AND VACCINE TO TREAT SELF-IMMUNE,
    INFLAMMATORY, ALLERGIC AND/OR INFECTIOUS DISEASES.

PI0705395‐9: TITULO: SISTEMA DE DETECÇÃO DE PARVOVÍRUS, ANTÍGENO
   RECOMBINANTE, MÉTODO DE OBTENÇÃO DEANTÍGENOS E USO. TITLE: DETECTION
   SYSTEM OF PARVOVIRUS, RECOMBINING ANTIGEN, ANTIGEN OBTAINMENT METHOD
   AND USE.
Technology Transfer Statistics 2009
What can USP do for Access to
               Medicines?
• Follow its mission - The mission of USP is “do
  desenvolvimento sócio-econômico do Estado de São Paulo
  e do País.” A Global Access Licensing Policy is an essential
  step.

• Invest Ethically - Make sure the hard work and investment
  of USP research pays off for the greatest number of people
  and the people who need it most.

• Be part of the solution – a leader at the forefront not only of
  innovation, but also of access for all.
Global Access Licensing Impact


 $1600
         96%
                    $55
Want to know more?


Visit
• www.essentialmedicine.org

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Panel 1 rachel kiddell-monroe

  • 1. Access to Medicines A Role for Our Universities August 17, 2010 Universities Allied for Essential Medicines Presentation for Universidade de SÃO PAULO - USP
  • 2. Why Access to Medicines? • 2 billion lack access to life saving drugs. • Ten million people die needlessly each year because they lack access to medicines: 1 in 3 have no access to medicines, rising to 1 in 2 in Sub Saharan Africa • Over 90% of these people live in developing countries and have to cover up to 90% of treatment costs • Essential drugs are either unaffordable, unavailable or inappropriate
  • 5. A Fatal Imbalance • Over the past thirty years, global health has transformed at an unprecedented rate, with life expectancy increasing at an average of four months every year in developed countries. • However, with few exceptions, people living in developing countries have not benefited from this revolution. • Millions continue to die from preventable and treatable diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis; and many tropical diseases have been all but forgotten. .
  • 6. Medicines unaffordable • Cost of medicines is the main barrier to accessing essential medicines • Pharmaceutical patenting in developing countries is the most important factor which leads to an increase in the price of medicines C . o s
  • 7. Basic notions on patents • Patents confer a 20-year monopoly on a medicine product/process/formulation • International patents do not exist – patents are granted nationally or regionally • Drug patents allow their owners to exclude others from using or producing the drug until patent expiration (usually 20 years form the date patent is filed) • By excluding generic competition, patents keep prices high C . o s
  • 8. HIV/AIDS • 33.2 million people living with AIDS • 2.1 million of these are children • 2007 – 2.5 million new infections and 2.1 million AIDS-related deaths • Only 31% of those who needed ARV treatment had access to it. (WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF 2007) • 6.5 million people urgently in need of treatment but because of high prices only 1.3 million can afford treatment. • Nearly 80% of the 3 million who die each year from AIDS had no access to treatment Information quoted by Renata Reis, Marcela Foçaça Vieira and Gabriela Chaves in . “Access to Medicines and Intellectual Property in Brazil: A Civil Society Experience” in Intellectual Property Rights and Access to ARV Medicines: Civil Society Resistance in the Global South ABIA. 2009.
  • 9. HIV/AIDS in Brazil in 1990s • Implementation of universal access to ARV produced some important results : 1997 – 2004 saw a 40% reduction in mortality and 70% reduction in morbidity. • 1993 – 2003, average life expectancy of AIDS patient rose by 5 years; reduction of 80% in hospitalizations (saving $2.3 billion) • How? - work of public health movement inputting into the reform of constitution in 1988, collaboration between state and PLWHA, creation of National AIDS Policy, creation of ABIA and GAPA leading to prevention campaigns and growing solidarity movements/role of civil society, legal developments especially Sarney Law which improved structure for purchasing medicines - but also largely due to ability to produce ARV medicines locally at lower cost . From Renata Reis, Marcela Foçaça Vieira and Gabriela Chaves. 2009. “Access to . Medicines and Intellectual Property in Brazil: A Civil Society Experience”
  • 10. r Enter TRIPS… t f • World Trade Organisation officially began work 1 January o 1995 • Included an agreement on intellectual property rights (Trade- Related Intellectual Property Rights) t • TRIPs provides a timeline within which all WTO members are obliged to allow product patents on pharmaceuticals c • Transitional periods for developing countries (2005), least a developed countries – LDCs (2016) • Includes exceptions to protect the public interest (public p health) m I . .
  • 11. Impact of TRIPS on access to medicines • Before TRIPs, many developing countries (such as Brazil) did not allow product patents on pharmaceuticals. • Conscious policy decision that benefits of low cost access would outweigh potential negative impact that lack of patents would have on R&D. • TRIPs overturned this domestic public health policy making and countries are compelled to allow product patents in pharmaceuticals. • In Brazil these international agreements led to an overhaul of the existing legal regime which undermined the policy of universal access • Competition on manufacture of pharmaceuticals is only possible . through use of TRIPs exceptions/flexibilities by developing countries. • Implementation of TRIPS has rapidly eroded access to affordable . medicines internationally especially since 2005 when India introduced pharmaceutical patents.
  • 12. Where do universities fit in? • Of the 21 drugs with the greatest therapeutic impact, 15 were developed using publically funded research, most of which occurs at universities. [The benefits of medical research and the role of the NIH. United States Joint Economic Committee, 2000] • Every single vaccine brought to market in the past 25 years has a contribution from university research. [Ashley Stevens, President of AUTM; Access to Medicines panel discussion, Yale University March 25, 2008] • More than 1/3 of HIV drugs introduced between 2002 and 2006 involve a university patent. • Universities are increasingly seen by pharmaceutical companies as the best (and cheapest) place to carry out discovery. Interesting data on the increased importance of licensing agreements to pharma sales www.pharmafield.co.uk/article.aspx?issueID=40& articleID=315 predicts that 26% of pharma sales by 2009 will come from licensing rather than in house R&D.
  • 13.
  • 14. Where do universities fit in? • Though already significant role in drug R&D, the importance of universities in pharmaceutical discovery is projected to continue increasing with the growing importance of biologic drugs (e.g. cellular products that have the potential for achieving an exquisite target- specificity that is difficult or impossible to attain with many chemically- based drugs). • The vast majority of currently available biologic drugs were developed with significant university participation: Epogen (University of Washington), Insulin (University of Toronto), human growth hormone (UC Berkley), Remicade (NYU), Avastin (USC). • Universities have a critical role to play in the future of pharmaceutical innovation, and the decisions being made now regarding the patenting and licensing policies surrounding publicly funded research have important implications for the future of global public health.
  • 15. Uuniversities Allied for Essential Medicines:Ask Vision Our Our Universities and publicly funded research institutions will be part of the solution to the access to medicines crisis by promoting medical innovation in the public interest and ensuring that all people regardless of income have access to essential medicines and other health-related technologies.
  • 16. Universities Allied for Essential Medicines Our Mission: As a private non-profit organization rooted in a movement of university students, UAEM aims to • promote access to medicines for people in developing countries by changing norms and practices around university patenting and licensing • ensure that university medical research meets the needs of the majority of the world’s population • empower students to respond to the access and innovation crisis
  • 17. Yale and d4T • In 2001, d4T costs $1,600/patient/year – Doctors Without Borders (MSF) seeks Yale’s permission to use generic d4t in South Africa – Yale balks, claiming its “hands are tied” by licensee – Students at Yale organize – NY Times editorial written by discoverer William Prusoff • March 24, 2001: Yale asks BMS to grant “patent relief” and price cuts • Generic competition drops the price of d4t in South Africa 96% within a year, allowing Médecins sans Frontières to scale-up HIV treatment programs across Africa
  • 18. Effects of Generic competition C . o s
  • 19. UAEM Member Universities • US (50) New chapters in Global South • Canada (11) University of Lagos, Nigeria • UK (14) National University of Singapore • Germany (7) National University of Rwanda • Norway(1) Makarere University, Uganda • Norway Weill-Bugando University • Australia (2) College of Health Sciences, Tanzania Institute of Medicine, Nepal And we hope now Brazil!
  • 20. Why act? • Moral and ethical obligation • Commitment to creating and disseminating knowledge for the public good • University research is heavily funded by taxpayers • Maintain competitiveness in attracting talent – Top research scientists and students drawn to schools with demonstrated global public commitment • Global impact through institutional policies, not just scholarship
  • 21. Consensus Statement Seed signatories: Jonathan Quick Former Director of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy at the WHO Paul Farmer, Presley Professor of Medical Anthropology, Harvard University President and CEO of Management Sciences for Health Edwin Cameron, Justice, South African Supreme Court of Appeal John Sulston, Nobel Laureate in Medicine Bernard Pecoul, Executive Director, Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative Zackie Achmat, Founder and Chairman, Treatment Action Campaign
  • 22. Universities Know They Need to Change “Universities should strive to construct licensing arrangements in ways that ensure that these underprivileged populations have low- or no-cost access to adequate quantities of these medical innovations.” White Paper “In the Public Interest” AKA “The Stanford Nine Points”
  • 23. World Health Organization The Netherlands and Kenya, on behalf of the WHO African member states, explicitly recommended that UAEM’s policies be included in the final WHO “Plan of Action” on IP and Health (2007) Endorsing countries included: Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Swaziland, Togo, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe
  • 24. Obama-Biden Plan to Combat HIV/AIDS I support “the adoption of humanitarian licensing policies that ensure medications developed with U.S. taxpayer dollars are available off-patent in developing countries.”
  • 25. Statement of Principles and Strategies for the Equitable dissemination of Medical Technologies Signed by Harvard, Yale, Boston, Brown, Oregon and Pennsylvania on 9 November 2009 “after campus student groups pushed for policies to make new drugs available at low cost to poor patients. The statement commits the schools to make “vigorous efforts” to promote global access to drugs through licensing strategies.” John Lauerman at Bloomberg.com “We agree that it’s important that our intellectual property doesn’t serve as a barrier -- and in some cases should be used as leverage -- to help ensure that drugs, vaccines and other technologies reach the developing world,” Maryanne Fenerjian, Harvard’s director of technology-transfer policy
  • 26. Technology Transfer at Sao Paolo USP is a public university Missão Agencia USP de inovação Promover a utilização do conhecimento científico, tecnológico e cultural produzido na Universidade de São Paulo em prol do desenvolvimento sócio-econômico do Estado de São Paulo e do País. Objetivos Identificar, apoiar, promover, estimular e implementar parcerias com os setores empresariais, governamentais e não governamentais na busca de resultados para a sociedade.
  • 27. Examples of exciting (patented) Discovery at Johns USP discoveries at Hopkins http://www.patentes.usp.br/Catalogo/pdf/6.pdf last download 11 August 2010 PI0502172‐3TITLE: FORMULATION PROCESS OF INCLUSION COMPLEX OF3‐(4‐BROMINE‐(1,1‐BYPHENYL)‐4‐IL)‐3‐(4‐BROMOFENIL)‐N,N‐DIMETHYL‐2‐PROPEN‐1‐A MINE AND ß‐CYCLODEXTRIN AND TRYPANOCIDAL ACTIVITY, ANTI‐ LEISHMANIASIS AND ANTI-MYCOBACTERIALACTIVITY. PI0805492‐4: TITULO: SIGILO ‐ DESCRIÇÃO: TERAPIA PARA PREVENÇÃO E TRATAMENT DA DOENÇA DE CHAGAS. TITLE: SECRET ‐ DESCRIPTION: PREVENTION THERAPY AND TREATMENT OF CHAGAS DISEASE. RESUMO: SIGILO PI0804314‐0: TITULO: SIGILO ‐ DESCRIÇÃO: FORMULAÇÃO FARMACÊUTICA E SEU USO, PARA DOENÇA NEGLIGENCIADA. TITLE: SECRET ‐ DESCRIPTION: PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION AND ITS USE FOR NEGLECTED DISEASE. RESUMO: SIGILO PI0802164‐3: TITULO: SIGILO ‐ DESCRIÇÃO: PROCESSO DE PRODUÇÃO DE NANO PARTÍCULAS PARA TRATAMENTO DE TUBERCULOSE POR MEIO DE AEROSSÓIS, INALADORES E NEBULIZADORES. TITLE: SECRET ‐ DESCRIPTION: PRODUCTION PROCESS OF NANOPARTICLES TO TREAT TUBERCULOSIS BY AEROSOL, INHALERS AND NEBULIZERS. RESUMO: SIGILO.
  • 28. Examples of medical patents at USP Discovery at Johns Hopkins http://www.patentes.usp.br/Catalogo/pdf/6.pdf last download 11 August 2010 PI0802285‐2: TITLE: SECRET ‐ DESCRIPTION: SYMBIOTIC FUNCTIONAL NURTURE PRODUCT WITH REDUCED CALORY CONTENT AND ITS MANUFACTURING PROCESS. PI0801094‐3: TITLE: SECRET ‐ DESCRIPTION: PREPARATION PROCESS OF MOLECULES TO PRODUCE BIOPROSTHESIS. PI0700698‐5: TITULO: USO DE BAIXAS DOSES DE DNA PLASMIDEAL NO CONTROLE DA RESPOSTA IMUNE E VACINA PARA TRATAR DOENÇAS AUTO‐IMUNES, INFLAMATÓRIAS, ALÉRGICAS E/OU INFECCIOSAS.TITLE: USE OF PLASMID DNA LOW DOSIS IN CONTROLLING THE IMMUNE RESPONSE AND VACCINE TO TREAT SELF-IMMUNE, INFLAMMATORY, ALLERGIC AND/OR INFECTIOUS DISEASES. PI0705395‐9: TITULO: SISTEMA DE DETECÇÃO DE PARVOVÍRUS, ANTÍGENO RECOMBINANTE, MÉTODO DE OBTENÇÃO DEANTÍGENOS E USO. TITLE: DETECTION SYSTEM OF PARVOVIRUS, RECOMBINING ANTIGEN, ANTIGEN OBTAINMENT METHOD AND USE.
  • 30. What can USP do for Access to Medicines? • Follow its mission - The mission of USP is “do desenvolvimento sócio-econômico do Estado de São Paulo e do País.” A Global Access Licensing Policy is an essential step. • Invest Ethically - Make sure the hard work and investment of USP research pays off for the greatest number of people and the people who need it most. • Be part of the solution – a leader at the forefront not only of innovation, but also of access for all.
  • 31. Global Access Licensing Impact $1600 96% $55
  • 32. Want to know more? Visit • www.essentialmedicine.org