Confronted with the digital age most of the recording industry bristled. They saw changing modality, a shift to digital music as a threat to their entrenched distribution channels. Rather than embrace digital distribution the likes of the RIAA, when confronted with innovation in their sector, lashed out with lawsuit after lawsuit, starting with the famous case against Napster. The RIAA's strategy was built on the sole premise of trying to prevent people from using file sharing networks so their existing distribution networks could be propped up indefinitely, and they celebrated Napster's decline into bankruptcy as a sign of success for this strategy.Clearly most saw the writing on the wall, but rather than change, the RIAA and the industry as a whole buried their head in the sand, hoping to limp along till change was absolutely inevitable, or worse thinking that they were immune to change. By all accounts, the RIAA was woefully unsuccessful in this strategy. Today, new artists live or die based on their ability to move product in the digital space, and The Beatles move at long last into the digital space singles that the last bastions of support for traditional, physical music distribution is crumbling. In fact, physical "record" sales peaked in 1999 at $14.65 Bn. By 2007 Physical sales of music content were already less than in 1993 having reduced to around $10 Bn, and by then end of 2010 it is expected digital music sales will finally overtake physical sales all together. Clearly the sector was in massive trouble with its decision to resist digital sales and the hundreds of millions spent by the RIAA on legal bills were largely a complete and utter waste of money. Those precious funds should have instead been put into revitalizing the industry digitally. The RIAAs actions in this light were reprehensible.
Some examples of OER are – Learning Activity Management System/ LAMS software
music<br />Apple had net revenue of $4.9 billion for “Other music related products and services”. According to a footnote in the 10-K, that includes “iTunes Store sales, iPod services, and Apple-branded and third-party iPod accessories.” The category represented 7.6 percent of total net revenue.<br />http://www.bnet.com/blog/technology-business/itunes-scores-with-the-beatles-but-apple-8217s-music-sales-still-lag/6807<br />
"If they want to raise the prices, it means they are getting greedy." [...] Jobs <br />
“Others have faced similar battles in recent times, including Blockbuster who filled for Chapter 11 in September of this year, clearly signaling the near death of physical distribution of DVDs.”<br />http://www.finextra.com/community/fullblog.aspx?ID=4754<br />vídeo<br />
“Roll over, Gutenberg! Publishing legend Jason Epstein says the only way to save the book industry is to get rid of all the books.”<br />http://www.thedailybeast.com/blogs-and-stories/2009-01-08/an-autopsy-of-the-book-business/full/<br />livros<br />
O que está sob ataque aqui não é o DVD, não são os Beatles, livros ou CDs e vinil – o que está sob ataque é a distribuição física de mercadorias que podem ser facilmente digitalizadas.<br />
3) Ruptura no mercado editorial de livros didáticos e científicos <br />
iChapters<br />iChapters is Cengage Learning's discount online store for more than 15,000 printed textbooks, eTextbooks, individual eChapters, study help tools, including online homework solutions like CengageNow, OWL, Aplia, Personal Trainer etc. [...,] audio study tools sold as a complete audio book or individual eChapters and select video study tool products" <br />All materials fall under traditional copyright. Downloadable materials are PDFs secured with DRM software from Oracle's SealedMedia and require a proprietary special "unsealer" plug-in for Adobe Acrobat to read the electronic content <br />
“Digital textbooks done wrong”<br />E-textbooks are too expensive<br />• The e-textbooks we surveyed cost on average exactly the same as a new hard copy of the same title bought and sold back to the bookstore.• The e-textbooks we surveyed cost on average 39% more than a used hard copy of the same title bought and sold back online.<br />Printing is costly and difficult<br />• Printing was limited to 10 pages per session for each of the e-textbooks we surveyed.• Buying and printing half of an e-textbook was three times the cost of buying a used hard copy and selling it back to the bookstore, for the books we surveyed.<br />E-textbooks are difficult to access<br />• Students have to choose between using the book online or using it offline - they cannot do both.• Most (75%) of the e-textbooks we surveyed expired after 180 days, so students do not have the option to access their books in the future.<br />http://www.studentpirgs.org/textbooks/reports/course-correction<br />
Preço e acesso <br />Preco médio do livro didático sofreu um aumento de 217% no período de 1994 a 2005, subindo de R$2,20 para R$6,97. (IPEA (2007) <br />
Abertura e acesso<br />“…The open provision of educational resources enabled by information and education technologies, for consultation, use and adaptation by a community of users…” <br />(UNESCO, 2002)<br />
IP<br />Tools<br />Learning Content<br />Intellectual property licenses to promote open publishing of materials, design-principles, and localization of content.<br />Full courses, course materials, content modules, learning objects, collections, journals<br />Software to support the creation, delivery, use and improvement of open learning content including searching and organization of content, content and learning management systems, content development tools, and on-line learning communities.<br />
Tools</li></li></ul><li>Abertura e acesso: Livros didáticos abertos<br />“open source textbooks” <br />Open textbooks "are textbooks that are freely available with nonrestrictive licenses. Covering a wide range of disciplines, open textbooks are available to download and print in various file formats from several web sites and OER repositories. Open textbooks can range from public domain books to existing textbooks to textbooks created specifically for OER. Open textbooks help solve the problems of the high cost of textbooks, book shortages, and access to textbooks as well as providing the capacity to better meet local teaching and learning needs" (ISKME).<br />http://cnx.org/content/m15767/latest/<br />
<ul><li>"Flexbook” - "high quality educational content that will serve both as core text as well as provide an adaptive environment for learning"
"through a combination of author donations, licensing partnerships, incentives for community-based authorship, and university collaborations"
Future content is planned to be commons-based peer-produced and moderated by CK-12 to align with "an expanding base of learning standards like McRELCompendium“
Content is available under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike licenses with any on-demand printing costs born by users (print on home computer or through on-demand company).
Users are encouraged to customize the downloadable content as well
a Physics Flexbook for use in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Thirteen scientists, teachers, and professors volunteered to write the book with CK-12's support. The book was written in 2.5 months, including diagrams in high resolution (added to the CK-12 reposition, "keeping in line with the philosophy of open content"), "with another two weeks for quality assurance". (Park 2008)</li></ul>CK-12<br />
<ul><li>Bloomsbury Academic is a new imprint of Britian's Bloomsbury Publishing Group Plc focused on academic works in the humanities and social sciences.
All works can be leased for free online under a Creative Commons non-commercial license, and print-on-demand (POD) copies are available "at reasonable prices“. Some will also be available for purchase in a number of e-book formats, many with enhanced features.
A presentation by Dr. Pinter: http://webcast.oii.ox.ac.uk/?view=Webcast&ID=20081121_268</li></ul>Bloomsbury Academic<br />
Modelos de Negócio Aberto<br />Caso de Estudo:<br />The Flatworld Model<br />
<ul><li>Flatworld Knowledgee umaeditora startup de livrosdiadticosabertosque opera com base emrendaproveniente de modelosopcionais de consumo de recursoseducacionaiscomocopiasimpressas, digitais e materiaiscomplementares (“study aids”).
Dr. Mason Carpenter, um autortanto da Flat World e Pearson, afirmaqueos royalties provenientes de seuslivrosabertosestaalcancando o proveniente de seuslivrosabertos. </li></li></ul><li>Open Textbooks<br />The Flatworld Model<br />Make Money<br />Grow Value<br />Get Adoptions<br />Social Learning<br />Affordable Choices<br />Authors<br />
ttt<br />Forthcoming Titles<br />Basics of Oral Business Communication by McLean (Nov 09)<br />Basics of Written Business Communication by McLean (Nov 09)<br />Exploring Business by Collins (Dec 08)<br />Financial Accounting by Hoyle and Skender (Nov 09)<br />Franchising: A Graphic Novel by Combs, Ketchen, Short,, & Simon (Aug 09)<br />Fundamentals of Income Tax Theory & Practice by Kiefer (Jan 09)<br />Introduction to Economic Analysis (Iterm. Micro) by McAfee (Jan 09)<br />Launch! Advertising and Promotion by Solomon, Duke, & Nizan (Dec 08)<br />Digital Compass: A Managers Guide to Harnessing IT by Gallaugher (Mar 09)<br />Managing to Succeed: A Graphic Novel by Short, Bauer, Simon, & Ketchen (Mar 09)<br />Money and Banking by Wright & Quadrini (May 09)<br />Organizational Behavior by Bauer and Erdogan (Mar 09)<br />Principles of Management by Carpenter, Bauer, & Erdogan (Mar 09)<br />Principles of Marketing by Tanner, Raymond, & Schuster (Mar 09)<br />Principles of Microeconomics by Rittenberg and Tregarthen (Dec 08)<br />Principles of Macroeconomics by Rittenberg and Tregarthen (May 09)<br />Principles of Economics by Rittenberg and Tregarthen (Jun 09)<br />Risk Management by Baranioff, Brockett, and Kahane (Jun 09)<br />The Path to Sustainable Business by Larson<br />Creative Destruction: The Economics of E-Commerce and the Internet by James Koch<br />Project Management in a Virtual World by Darnall & Preston<br />Personal Finance by Siegel<br />Allyn & Bacon<br />Allyn & Bacon<br />McGraw Hill<br />McGraw Hill<br />Cal Tech / Yahoo<br />Prentice Hall<br />Boston College<br />McGraw Hill<br />NYU / USC<br />Portland State<br />Prentice Hall<br />McGraw Hill<br />Bedford Freeman Worth<br />Bedford Freeman Worth<br />Bedford Freeman Worth<br />Bedford Freeman Worth<br />Harcourt<br />U of VA – Darden School<br />Norton<br />Prentice Hall<br />
Top 10 - Razões<br />Get a great books & supplements.<br />Use new editions on your terms.<br />Make your book like your course (or not).<br />Don’t change your life very much.<br />Do change theirs – choice for the first time.<br />Level the playing field – everyone has access. And Immediately.<br />No more access codes. Ever. <br />Integration into your LMS. <br />Did we say no more access codes? <br />Support a market-based solution. <br />
Pearson, US CEOPeter Cohen<br />“We are now in a transformational period. Everything we have has to be two worlds: print and digital.” <br />“The future of learning is going to be high-quality online material and, to a lesser extent, textbooks.’’<br />
Houghton MifflinWendy Colby, senior vice president <br />“The textbook is no longer the center of the educational universe.”<br />
Conclusões <br />Existem forças e tendências que estão “rompendo” radicalmente as indústrias de conteúdo e essas não vão desaparecer<br />Novos modelos de negócio estão absorvendo essas forças e tendências mas esses modelos ainda estão sob prova<br />Voce deveria começar a experimentar com conteúdo aberto e agregação dentro de seus modelos de negócios<br />
Mais sobre a Flat World Knowledge <br />http://publishingperspectives.com/2010/08/flat-world-knowledges-freemium-textbooks-gain-140000-users-average-34-per-sale/<br />http://creativecommons.org/tag/flatworld-knowledge<br />http://arstechnica.com/old/content/2008/09/flat-world-knowledge.ars<br />http://www.bnet.com/blog/media/flat-world-knowledge-a-disruptive-business-model/3790<br />http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE52U3OQ20090331<br />