Stranger in a Strange Land : the issues and challenges of cyber-space research Carol Haigh Professor in Nursing Manchester...
The focus of this presentation will be …… <ul><li>To explore the potential of the virtual world to contribute to research ...
Research in  cyberspace <ul><li>Cyberspace is a potentially useful tool for nursing research because it is; </li></ul><ul>...
Representativeness <ul><li>Techno-population </li></ul><ul><li>Use of pseudonyms </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Avatars </li></ul>
<ul><li>Virtual persona Vs Hard’ identity </li></ul><ul><li>Identity of participants </li></ul><ul><li>Disinhibition </li>...
Analysis of online information <ul><li>Copyright status of WWW information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publicly archived informa...
Consent <ul><li>Electronically if participants are >18 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only if risk is low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Public versus private conversations <ul><li>Cyberspace defies locality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a chat room a public place...
Privacy and Confidentiality <ul><li>More stringent personal data security  in EU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection in insta...
The ethical layers of cyberspace <ul><li>Cyberspace is multi layered </li></ul><ul><li>There are different levels of ethic...
Level Environment Participant ID Privacy Data  Reliability Research  Methods Ethical  dilemmas 1 Public (e.g.  web space) ...
Sources of Information <ul><li>Association of Internet Reserachers (2002)  Ethical Decision Making and Internet Research. ...
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Techno research

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A presentation about cyber-space ethics

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Techno research

  1. 1. Stranger in a Strange Land : the issues and challenges of cyber-space research Carol Haigh Professor in Nursing Manchester Metropolitan University
  2. 2. The focus of this presentation will be …… <ul><li>To explore the potential of the virtual world to contribute to research </li></ul><ul><li>To debate the effects of cyber space on respondents </li></ul><ul><li>To outline the ethical issues that are inherent within techno-research </li></ul>
  3. 3. Research in cyberspace <ul><li>Cyberspace is a potentially useful tool for nursing research because it is; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generationally appropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for large international samples to be accessed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speedy responses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But there are specific issues attached to this new research medium… </li></ul>
  4. 4. Representativeness <ul><li>Techno-population </li></ul><ul><li>Use of pseudonyms </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Avatars </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Virtual persona Vs Hard’ identity </li></ul><ul><li>Identity of participants </li></ul><ul><li>Disinhibition </li></ul><ul><li>Verification issues </li></ul><ul><li>De-brief Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Plagiarism </li></ul>Associated issues are ethical concerns …..
  6. 6. Analysis of online information <ul><li>Copyright status of WWW information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publicly archived information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Password protected archives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic sensitivity </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Consent <ul><li>Electronically if participants are >18 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only if risk is low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step-by-step online consent form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safeguard e-consent from accidental erasure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consent process should not be disruptive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parental consent <18 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal acceptable if risk is low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F2F interview for parental consent for online interviews with minors </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Public versus private conversations <ul><li>Cyberspace defies locality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a chat room a public place? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Public’ and ‘private’ are metaphors in cyberspace (Waskul,1996) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The act of observing disturbs the observed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual reality pseudonyms are as important as ‘hard world’ identities </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Privacy and Confidentiality <ul><li>More stringent personal data security in EU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection in instances where data is shared across national boundaries (AoIR, 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subject identity (Bruckman’s 4 levels of disguise) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No disguise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light disguise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate disguise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete disguise </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The ethical layers of cyberspace <ul><li>Cyberspace is multi layered </li></ul><ul><li>There are different levels of ethical concern attached to each cyber-layer </li></ul><ul><li>Deeper immersion in cyber-reality requires greater complexity of ethical consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Like this…. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Level Environment Participant ID Privacy Data Reliability Research Methods Ethical dilemmas 1 Public (e.g. web space) Accessible real world ID None Strong Neutral Superficial 2 Semi-public (e.g. e-mail) Controlled real world ID Light Strong Overt participation Minimal 3 Semi-private (e.g. listserv) Accessible virtual world ID Light moderate Moderate Overt non- participation Moderate 4 Private (e.g. Chatroom) Controlled virtual world ID Moderate Weak Covert participation Significant 5 Virtual (role-playing) Complete virtual world immersion Heavy Unreliable Covert non- participation Highly significant
  12. 12. Sources of Information <ul><li>Association of Internet Reserachers (2002) Ethical Decision Making and Internet Research. Recommendations from the AoIR ethic working committee . www.aoir.org </li></ul><ul><li>Bruckman, A (2002) Ethical guidelines for research online www.cc.gatech.edu/-asb/ethics/ </li></ul><ul><li>Haigh, C Jones, N (2005) An overview of the ethics of cyber-spece research and the implications for nurse educators. Nurse Education Today 25 3-8 </li></ul><ul><li>Waskul, D (1996) Ethics of online research: considerations for the study of computer mediated forms of interaction. </li></ul><ul><li> http://venus.soci.niu.edu/-jthomas/ethics/tis/go.dennis </li></ul>

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