Multimedia

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This is a short presentation on Multimedia and Contiguity Principales used to facilitate learning.

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Multimedia

  1. 1. MULTIMEDIA AND CONTIGUITY PRINCIPLE IN E-LEARNING Carole Seror
  2. 2. OBJECTIVE <ul><li>After viewing this presentation, the learner will be able to identify effective Multimedia that integrate image and text in a contiguous manner </li></ul>
  3. 3. MULTIMEDIA PRINCIPLE <ul><li>“ A picture is worth a thousand words”... </li></ul><ul><li>But a picture with words makes learning effective! </li></ul><ul><li>The formula for Success! </li></ul>
  4. 4. ANY GRAPHICS WILL DO? <ul><li>Any graphics won’t do! </li></ul><ul><li>Won’t do : </li></ul><ul><li>Decorative Graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Will do: </li></ul><ul><li>Representational </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational </li></ul><ul><li>Relational </li></ul><ul><li>Transformational </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretive </li></ul><ul><li>let’s see some examples: </li></ul>
  5. 5. DECORATIVE GRAPHIC: A PICTURE USED AS A DECORATIVE ELEMENT BUT THAT DOES NOT HELP YOU UNDERSTAND THE TEXT WHICH OF THESE 2 PICTURES A OR B IS A DECORATIVE GRAPHIC? <ul><li>Camera parts A </li></ul><ul><li>Camera parts B </li></ul>
  6. 6. YOUR ANSWER PLEASE! <ul><li>If you picked A, good for you! Picture A does not give any instructional information about the camera parts. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Picture B does give instructional information . </li></ul>
  8. 8. REPRESENTATIONAL GRAPHIC : JUST A PICTURE AND A TITLE. EX: THIS IS A PIPE
  9. 9. ORGANIZATIONAL GRAPHIC : A VISUAL THAT SHOWS THE RELATION BETWEEN ELEMENTS. EX: A TREE DIAGRAM OF DOGS <ul><li>A tree </li></ul>
  10. 10. RELATIONAL GRAPHIC : A VISUAL THAT SHOW A QUANTITATIVE RELATION BETWEEN ELEMENTS
  11. 11. TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAPHIC : VISUALS THAT SHOW A TRANSFORMATION. EX: FROM A SQUARE PIECE OF PAPER TO A PAPER CRANE
  12. 12. INTERPRETIVE GRAPHIC : IMAGES THAT HELPS THE LEANER VISUALIZE THE INVISIBLE <ul><li>



 </li></ul>
  13. 13. NOW YOU HAVE AN IDEA OF WHAT GRAPHICS CAN DO TO SUPPORT LEARNING. BUT THAT’S NOT ALL. TO MAKE LEARNING EFFECTIVE GRAPHICS AND WORDS NEED TO BE CLOSE TO EACH OTHER ... THE CONTIGUITY PRINCIPLE
  14. 14. THE CONTIGUITY PRINCIPLE <ul><li>“ Out of sight out of ...... Understanding”... </li></ul><ul><li>To be effective, graphics and printed words need to be placed near each other and not separated in space. </li></ul><ul><li>The formula for </li></ul><ul><li>Success! </li></ul>
  15. 15. GOOD USE OF SPACE OR HOW TO AVOID SEPARATION <ul><li>Text and graphics have to be on the same page </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic at the top, and text at the bottom of the page is not a good idea </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback has to be seen along wit the questions </li></ul><ul><li>Directions for activities must be next to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s see some examples! </li></ul>
  16. 16. HERE ARE 2 VISUALS DEPICTING CAMERA PARTS. WHICH ONE, A OR B IS MORE EFFECTIVE? <ul><li>Visual A </li></ul><ul><li>Visual B </li></ul>
  17. 17. YOU SELECTED B AND YOU ARE RIGHT: THE TEXT IS RIGHT BY THE PICTURE AND THE LEARNER KEEPS HIS/HER ATTENTION ON THE LESSON <ul><li>Visual B </li></ul>
  18. 18. HERE THE LEARNER HAS TO LOOK FOR THE CORRESPONDING TEXT SOME WHERE ELSE AND LOOSES FOCUS <ul><li>Visual A </li></ul>Where is the text?
  19. 19. ANATOMY OF A TOBACCO PIPE. EXAMPLE 1 1. BOWL - THIS IS WHERE THE TOBACCO IS BURNED 2. SHANK - GENERALLY PART OF THE BOWL IS USED TO NECK THE PIPE DOWN. 3. STEM - STEM FITS TIGHTLY INTO THE SHANK VIA A MORTISE AND TENON JOINT 4. LIP - RAISE RING AROUND THE STEM 5. FILTER - GENERALLY A METAL PIECE ATTACHED TO THE STEM
  20. 20. ANATOMY OF A TOBACCO PIPE. EXAMPLE 2 BELOW YOU WILL FIND A DIAGRAM OF A PIPE AND THE 5 DIFFERENT PARTS THAT MAKE UP A PIPE. BOWL - THIS IS WHERE THE TOBACCO IS BURNED . SHANK - GENERALLY PART OF THE BOWL IS USED TO NECK THE PIPE DOWN. STEM - STEM FITS TIGHTLY INTO THE SHANK VIA A MORTISE AND TENON JOINT LIP RAISE RING AROUND THE STEM . FILTER GENERALLY A METAL PIECE ATTACHED TO THE STEM
  21. 21. WHICH OF THE 2 EXAMPLES WAS THE MOST EFFECTIVE? <ul><li>Anatomy of a Tobacco Pipe. Example 1 1. Bowl - This is where the tobacco is burned 2. Shank - Generally part of the bowl is used to neck the pipe down. 3. Stem - Stem fits tightly into the shank via a mortise and tenon joint 4. Lip - Raise ring around the Stem 5. Filter - Generally a metal piece attached to the Stem   </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy of a Tobacco Pipe. Example 2 Below you will find a diagram of a pipe and the 5 different parts that make up a pipe. </li></ul><ul><li>Bowl - This is where the tobacco is burned </li></ul><ul><li>. Shank - Generally part of the bowl is used to neck the pipe down. </li></ul><ul><li>Stem - Stem fits tightly into the shank via a mortise and tenon joint </li></ul><ul><li>Lip - Raise ring around the Stem </li></ul><ul><li>. Filter - Generally a metal piece attached to the Stem </li></ul>
  22. 22. EXAMPLE 1 HAS A PRETTY PICTURE, BUT WHICH PARTS ARE WHICH? <ul><li>Anatomy of a Tobacco Pipe. Example 1 1. Bowl - This is where the tobacco is burned 2. Shank - Generally part of the bowl is used to neck the pipe down. 3. Stem - Stem fits tightly into the shank via a mortise and tenon joint 4. Lip - Raise ring around the Stem 5. Filter - Generally a metal piece attached to the Stem   </li></ul>
  23. 23. EXAMPLE 2 IS MORE EFFECTIVE: THE LEARNER IS NOT CONFUSED TRYING TO FIGURE OUT WHICH PARTS ARE WHICH . <ul><li>Anatomy of a Tobacco Pipe. Example 2 Below you will find a diagram of a pipe and the 5 different parts that make up a pipe. </li></ul><ul><li>Bowl - This is where the tobacco is burned </li></ul><ul><li>.Shank - Generally part of the bowl is used to neck the pipe down. </li></ul><ul><li>Stem - Stem fits tightly into the shank via a mortise and tenon joint </li></ul><ul><li>Lip - Raise ring around the Stem </li></ul><ul><li>. Filter - Generally a metal piece attached to the Stem </li></ul>
  24. 24. GIVING FEEDBACK : IN THE PREVIOUS EXAMPLES, WHICH DO YOU FIND MORE EFFECTIVE AS FEEDBACK? A OR B <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the 2 examples was the most effective? </li></ul><ul><li>Example 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Example 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Or .... </li></ul>
  25. 25. B WHICH OF THE 2 EXAMPLES WAS THE MOST EFFECTIVE? <ul><li>Anatomy of a Tobacco Pipe. Example 1 1. Bowl - This is where the tobacco is burned 2. Shank - Generally part of the bowl is used to neck the pipe down. 3. Stem - Stem fits tightly into the shank via a mortise and tenon joint 4. Lip - Raise ring around the Stem 5. Filter - Generally a metal piece attached to the Stem   </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy of a Tobacco Pipe. Example 2 Below you will find a diagram of a pipe and the 5 different parts that make up a pipe. </li></ul><ul><li>Bowl - This is where the tobacco is burned </li></ul><ul><li>. Shank - Generally part of the bowl is used to neck the pipe down. </li></ul><ul><li>Stem - Stem fits tightly into the shank via a mortise and tenon joint </li></ul><ul><li>Lip - Raise ring around the Stem </li></ul><ul><li>. Filter - Generally a metal piece attached to the Stem </li></ul>
  26. 26. YOU SELECTED B Bravo! In answer B, the learner does not have to refer to another space to view the answers. There is no separation
  27. 27. IN CONCLUSION <ul><li>What makes a learning using multimedia effective? </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal representations </li></ul><ul><li>Text and pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Text and relevant pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Text and relevant pictures in proximity </li></ul><ul><li>None of the above </li></ul>
  28. 28. E!! YOU ROCK!
  29. 29. RESOURCES <ul><li>www.google.com </li></ul><ul><li>E-learning, Ruth Colvin & Richard E. Mayer </li></ul>

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