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The effective use of powerpoint


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The effective use of powerpoint

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  3. 3.  Teacher-centered. Students often respond better when instructors have designed sessions for greater classroom interaction, such as the use of student response clickers, designing PowerPoint to facilitate case studies, or use the slides as a replacement for paper worksheets. Lack of feedback. PowerPoint-based lectures tell you nothing about student learning. Design them to include opportunities for feedback (not simply asking if there are questions, but more actively quizzing your students). This often takes the form of listing questions, not information, on the slides themselves. Student inactivity. Slide shows do little to model how students should interact with the material on their own. Include student activities or demonstrations to overcome this, either before or after the slideshow presentation. Potentially reductive. PowerPoint was designed to promote simple persuasive arguments. Design for critical engagement, not just for exposure to a ―point.‖ Presentation graphics should be about learning, not about presentation. PowerPoint presentations should help students organize their notes, not just ―be‖ the notes. This is a particular danger with students who grew up accustomed to receiving PowerPoint notes to study from. Some may require convincing that notes should be taken beyond what is already on the slides. * /technology/powerpoint/index.php *
  4. 4.  Text-heavy: this version offers complete phrases and a comprehensive recording in words of the material. The text-heavy version can be used as the lecturers speaking notes, and doubles as student notes that can be made available for download either before or after the lecture has taken place. If the information can be accessed elsewhere, such as a textbook, it may be preferable to avoid a text-heavy approach, which many students find disengaging during the delivery. Some images: this version sacrifices some of the completeness of the material to create space for accompanying images. The mixed approach appeals to more visual learners while keeping some lecture notes visible, though perhaps in a more abbreviated format. This is a common mode of delivery in large classes. However, there are still some challenges. There is enough material already present in text format that some students may feel obliged to write it all down in their own notes, thus paying less attention to the verbal lecture. Conversely, if the slides are available for download, some students may be able to eschew note-taking in class, yet be tempted to consider these fragmentary notes sufficient for studying for exams. Image-heavy: this version relies almost exclusively on images, with little text. The image- heavy approach signals to students that they will have to take their own notes, as these are plainly insufficient on their own for studying. However, lecturers often need more than visual clues to remind themselves how to propel the lecture forward, and separate notes may be required. One elegant solution is to use "Presenter View" on the speakers screen (which displays the notes only to you) and project the slides without notes onto the larger screen visible to the audience.**
  5. 5.  Elizabeth Rash (Nursing) provided PowerPoint sample for iterative case study (where parameters evolve over time) given to a midsize class. Students are required to come to class prepared having read online resources, the text, and a narrated slideshow presentation that accompanies each module. The classroom is problem-based (case- based) and interactive, where students are introduced to a young woman who ages as the semester progresses and confronts multiple health issues. Since the nurse practitioner students are being prepared to interact with patients, some slides require students to interview another classmate in a micro role-play.* ogy/powerpoint/index.php*
  6. 6.  Problem-based lectures frequently alternate between providing information and posing problems to the students, which alters the entire character of the presentation. Rather than explain and convey information, many slides ask questions that are intended to prompt critical thinking or discussion.* ningresources/technology/powerpoint/i ndex.php*
  7. 7.  Classroom response systems can improve students learning by engaging them actively in the learning process. Instructors can employ the systems to gather individual responses from students or to gather anonymous feedback. It is possible to use the technology to give quizzes and tests, to take attendance, and to quantify class participation. Some of the systems provide game formats that encourage debate and team competition. Reports are typically exported to Excel for upload to the instructors grade book.* urces/technology/powerpoint/index.php*
  8. 8.  Instructors who do not have sufficient photocopying opportunities in their departments may be less likely to use paper worksheets with their students, especially in large classes. PowerPoint offers the ability to approximate worksheets to illustrate processes or to provide "worked examples" that shows problem-solving step-by-step. One valuable technique is to first demonstrate a process or problem on one slide, then ask students to work on a similar problem revealed on the next slide, using their own paper rather than worksheets handed out.* urces/technology/powerpoint/index.php*
  9. 9.  The PowerPoint software itself includes built-in functionality to record your audio commentary. In this fashion, instructors can literally deliver their entire lecture electronically, which can be especially useful in an online course. The resulting file is still a standard PowerPoint file, but when the slideshow is "played," the recorded instructors voice narrates the action, and the slides advance on their own, turning whenever they had been advanced by the lecturer during the recording. Click here to see a sample. It is also possible to use AuthorPoint Lite, a free software download, to take the narrated PowerPoint presentation and transform it all into a Flash video movie, which plays in any Web browser. Here is a sample. To create such a video, you must first record a narrated presentation, and then use AuthorPoint Lite to convert the file.
  10. 10.  Using this mode of PowerPoint, your slides are projected as usual on the big screen and fill the entire space, but the computer used by the lecturer displays the slides in preview mode, with the space for notes visible at the bottom of the screen. In this fashion, lecturers can have a set of notes separate from what is displayed to the students, which has the overall effect of increasing the engagement of the presentation.* esources/technology/powerpoint/index.php*
  11. 11.  Avoid reading: if your slides contain lengthy text, lecture "around" the material rather than reading it directly. Dark screen: an effective trick to focus attention on you and your words is to temporarily darken the screen, which can be accomplished by clicking the "B" button on the keyboard. Hitting "B" again will toggle the screen back to your presentation. Navigate slides smoothly: the left-mouse click advances to the next slide, but its more cumbersome to right-click to move back one slide. The keyboards arrow keys work more smoothly to go forward and backward in the presentation. Also, if you know the number of a particular slide, you can simply type that number, followed by the ENTER key, to jump directly to that slide.* ogy/powerpoint/index.php*
  12. 12.  Text size: text must be clearly readable from the back of the room. Too much text or too small a font will be difficult to read. Avoid too much text: one common suggestion is to adhere to the 6x6 rule (no more than six words per line, and no more than six lines per slide). The "Takahasi Method" goes so far as to recommend enormous text and nothing else on the slide, not even pictures, perhaps as little as just one word on each slide. Contrast: light text on dark backgrounds will strain the eyes. Minimize this contrast, and opt instead for dark text on light backgrounds. Combinations to avoid, in case of partial color blindness in the audience, include red-green, or blue-yellow. Transitions and animations should be used sparingly and consistently to avoid distractions. Template: do not change the template often. The basic format should be consistent and minimal. Use graphics and pictures to illustrate and enhance the message, not just for prettiness.* x.php*
  13. 13.  Change font Shapes Clip art Images Charts Tables Transitions Animations Animating text or chart* ology/powerpoint/index.php*
  14. 14.  1. Plan your content first Many experts warned about the dangers of planning your presentation in PowerPoint: Ellen Finkelstein: Many people start the process of creating a presentation in PowerPoint, by entering text on the slides. Bad idea. The content should drive the design. Bert Decker: The end result is totally PowerPoint driven, and we have information without influence and data without emotion. So the most important recommendation is to plan your content first. This recommendation came up time and time again. In some cases, it was the only recommendation that contributors made: Joey Asher: Here’s what I’d like to see going forward. Let’s start creating presentations by taking out a blank sheet of paper and writing down what we want to accomplish and what our audience cares about. Geetesh Bajaj: Always start your presentation on paper — draw your ideas, link relationships between concepts, and create a storyboard. George Torok: The first thing that presenters need to do is to ask these important questions before creating their presentation. What’s the purpose of your presentation? What do you want you audience to do because of your presentation? What message do you want to deliver that will help you achieve that purpose? tips/ *
  15. 15.  2. Use a plain background and remove any unecessary detail Delete that powerpoint template. Powerpoint templates come from the mindset that PowerPoint slides are like documents and so should be branded. Templates add clutter and distract from the visual impact of a slide. Here are just 3 suggestions representative of those made: M J Plebon: Let the majority of people start creating with a clean white canvas. Jeromy Timmer: All of the standard Microsoft PowerPoint templates stink. Horribly. The ones that aren’t completely awful are so overused that they’ve become a cliche. Don’t use any of them. Christophe Harrer: When it comes to slide design, you shouldn’t think of decoration, but of communication. Everything you add to your slides should have a positive impact on the message you are communicating. This is why I always use a very simple design theme for my slides. recommended-tips/ *
  16. 16.  The research There is no direct research on the use of templates in PowerPoint. However, there is research that shows that any material (pictures, sounds or information ) which is not conceptually relevant to the topic harms learning. Cliff Atkinson: The fundamental research results remain as true in 2009 as in 2008 – removing extraneous information from a screen actually increases learning. Jennifer Kammeyer: PowerPoint with irrelevant pictures can be detrimental to learning (Bartsch, R.A. & Cobern, K.M. (2003). Effectiveness of PowerPoint presentations in lectures. Computers & Education, 41, 77-86.) design-recommended-tips/ *
  17. 17.  3. One idea per slide So now you have your plain background instead of a cluttered and distracting PowerPoint template. Use each slide to express one idea: Ellen Finkelstein Presenters can completely transform their presentations from boring bullets to high-impact visuals by putting one point on a slide. Robert Lane Presenters must assure that slides follow good cognitive design principles. Something as simple as having only one main idea per slide makes a huge difference. The research Michael Alley is the lead researcher in this area. His research suggests that the idea should be expressed as a full sentence. Jennifer Kammeyer says: Alley (et. al.) found that students were better able to recall the main assertion of slides when presented with a full-sentence headline written as an assertion compared to a word or phrase headline. Alley, M., Schreiber, M., Ramsdell, K., & Muffo, J. (2006). How the Design of Headlines in Presentation Slides Affects Audience Retention. Technical Communication, 53, 225-234. Michael Alley reiterates this in his contribution to this project: Fewer words on each slide (ideally one sentence headline, no more than two lines, that states the assertion of the slide). *
  18. 18.  4. Support the headline with graphic evidence Instead of bullets, support your points with graphic evidence. This can include photos, images, charts and diagrams. Christophe Harrer: Say the words and put the visuals on your slides. Lisa Braithwaite: Support your points with creative and relevant images. Michael Alley: Use graphics rather than bullet lists to support the headline. owerpoint-design-recommended-tips/ *
  19. 19.  5. You don’t always need a slide Not every point in your presentation needs a slide: Andrew Lightheart: You only need a visual aid in a presentation if you would need one in conversation. Michael Alley: Slides should be projected only when they serve the presentation. What do you do when you’re not showing a slide? You insert a plain black slide into your slideshow. Bert Decker: This is a simple concept, and yet it is profound when you use it all the time. It’s a game changer! Or maybe, PowerPoint is not the most appropriate tool at that time in your presentation. Lisa Braithwaite: Just like no one person can meet all of your relationship needs, no one tool can meet all of your presentation needs. I like to use flip charts with or without PowerPoint; flip charts used to sketch out an idea, get input from the audience or provide a group activity keep a presentation lively. There’s movement, there’s interaction, there’s problem solving, and the activity is spontaneous, created on the spot. tips/ *
  20. 20.  Respectfully Submitted to Prof. Erwin M. Globio