An Interdisciplinary Case Study of
Tourism in the Caribbean
In this project, I will analyze the effect that globalization
has had on the tourism sector in the Caribbean region.
To un...
Global Tourism
On the global picture it accounts for “1/3rd of the global trade in services and is
expanding at twice the ...
How did globalization
affect development?
The Airplane Industry also affected tourism. For example, in the
1960s, “long-ha...
How did globalization
affect development?
The era of the Internet has
allowed for “vertical integration of
airlines, car r...
Global Entities that
Promote Tourism
Some global intergovernmental organizations that
prompted the eve of Caribbean touris...
Regional Tourism
Tourism is an essential part of the Caribbean
economy. The International Labor Organization
states that t...
(Caribbean Tourism Organization, 2014)
DOMINICAN
REPUBLIC
Economics
From an Economic Perspective,
Tourism is a key industry that has
allowed for rapid economic
development in a glo...
Pros and Cons of Tourism
Advocate Components of Tourism:
 Sustainable Development
 Alleviation of Poverty
 Integration ...
Positive Economy
GDP= estimated US$5.1 billion in foreign exchange
receipts (Economist Intelligence Unit)
Employment= betw...
Critiques of the
Economic
Development
• Critiques of Tourism and Economic Development:
– Deborah McLaren (1998) believes t...
• In A Small Place, the Caribbean writer
Jamaica Kincaid stated “Every native of
every place is a potential tourist, and e...
The Pleasure Industry
The United Nations Human Development Report stated that, “the tourism
labor force is comprised of yo...
Anthropology
From an anthropology
perspective, through the use of
ethnographies and participant
observation, tourism
under...
SAMANA TOURISM
VIDEO
Race and Tourism
Race Those with European ancestry, due to the
Dominican’s Republic colonial ancestry are at the top of t...
The Case for
Samana
The struggle began in the late 1990s “when a foreign owned
company moved into the region, with the san...
Local Sentiment
Some quotes from ethnographies that observed Local sentiments:
– “They eat meat, while we eat bones [Often...
JAMAICA
CASE STUDY #2
Economics
Like the Dominican Republic,
Jamaica has also gained much
from the tourism sector and has
increased infrastructu...
Competitive
Advantage
GDP=US$2 billion
Debt=has increased by 130% of GDP (i.e. due to the
Global Recession that decreased ...
Foreign Implications
Imports These foreign forms find it cheaper to
import their products, due to things like the “Hotel
...
Agriculture and Tourism
One of the main reasons that Jamaica
moved economically to tourism was because
of the “poor perfor...
Cruise Visitors vs.
Land Visitors
Jamaica has seen “910,000 cruise visitors in 2012” (Oxford,
2012). In Jamaica, “the aver...
Anthropology
From an anthropology
perspective, in Jamaica it is about
finding ways to preserve the local
cultural heritage...
Cultural Heritage
TourismPeter M. Burns in An Introduction to Tourism and Anthropology (1999), says “tourism
should never ...
IMPLICATIONS of TOURISM
Relying on one product creates a “crutch” and
dependency that could “weaken the overall
economy” (...
CRIME in the Caribbean
Crime has also increased in the Dominican Republic, as early as the
1990s, for example, young men k...
Regional Group
Action
• Caribbean Tourism Organization
– “The Caribbean Tourism Organization
(CTO), the region’s tourism
d...
“The World Commission on Environment and Development defines sustainable
development as ‘development that meets the needs ...
VIDEO LINKS/SOURCES:
Find your Sun Mate:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3KXvdT
XOKo8
Dominican Republic has it All:
http:/...
Authority on World Travel and Tourism (2014). Travel and Tourism: World Economic Impact 2014 . World Travel
and Tourism Co...
Tainted Paradise: Caribbean Tourism
Tainted Paradise: Caribbean Tourism
Tainted Paradise: Caribbean Tourism
Tainted Paradise: Caribbean Tourism
Tainted Paradise: Caribbean Tourism
Tainted Paradise: Caribbean Tourism
Tainted Paradise: Caribbean Tourism
Tainted Paradise: Caribbean Tourism
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Tainted Paradise: Caribbean Tourism

  1. 1. An Interdisciplinary Case Study of Tourism in the Caribbean
  2. 2. In this project, I will analyze the effect that globalization has had on the tourism sector in the Caribbean region. To understand this topic, from an International Studies perspective, I will look at the disciplines of Economics and Anthropology to help explain both the positive and negative effects of tourism. The following countries will be looked to as Case Studies: The Dominican Republic and Jamaica. This is crucial to understanding the implications of a world that values vacationing in paradise. Note: Videos will play automatically and some may be only accessible by clicking the links. Thank You! Research Thesis
  3. 3. Global Tourism On the global picture it accounts for “1/3rd of the global trade in services and is expanding at twice the growth rate of world output” (Cabezas 2008). GDP “2013 GDP gain was USD6,990.3bn (9.5% of GDP) 2014 it is forecast to rise by 4.3% 2024 it is expected to rise by 4.2% pa to USD10,965.1bn (10.3% of GDP)” (World Travel and Tourism, 2014). EMPLOYMENT 2013 (including jobs indirectly ported by the industry) was 8.9% of total employment (265,855,000 jobs). 2014 expected to rise by 2.5% to 272,417,000 jobs 2024 expected to rise by 2.4% pa to 346,901,000 jobs (Authority, 2014) In today’s global economy tourism in the Caribbean has made a shift from “independently owned and owner-operated hotels to the multinational hotel chains” (Cabezas, 2008). Examples:  CendantThe largest hotel chain in the world, operates 6,000 hotels with 500,000 rooms  Best WesternOperates in almost 100 countries (Cabezas, 2008).
  4. 4. How did globalization affect development? The Airplane Industry also affected tourism. For example, in the 1960s, “long-haul jet service brought the Caribbean within reach of the ordinary holiday-maker” by “reducing travel time from Europe to the Caribbean from three weeks by sea to eight hours by air” (Gmeich, 2012). The airplane industry also established U.S. and European control, as they were the ones who funded the subsidies for aircrafts. For example, “in the 1950s the U.S. Senate authorized more than US$12 million to support the development of improved transport aircrafts” (Cabezas, 2008). Most of the airplanes are also “foreign owned” like “American, KLM, British, Air, and Air France” therefore the money does not stay in the Caribbean islands (Gmeich, 2012).
  5. 5. How did globalization affect development? The era of the Internet has allowed for “vertical integration of airlines, car rental, and tour operators”, making it as simple as a click of a button (Cabezas, 2008). For example, “the ILO (2001) indicates that major multinational corporations such as Hyatt and Starwood are partnering with Microsoft’s Expedia” (Cabezas, 2008).
  6. 6. Global Entities that Promote Tourism Some global intergovernmental organizations that prompted the eve of Caribbean tourism include:  The World Bank and the United Nations who “endorsed tourism for the Third World as a ‘promising new resource’”.  World Tourism Organization (WTO) “was the biggest cheerleader for the industry”.  Organization of American States said it “would not only help raise the standard of living…but encourage integration of people through the interchange of ideas” (Gmeich, 2012). Why? Simply, because “it relied on natural resources that were already in place-sand, sun, and sea, and friendly people-and it was thought to require low capital investments in infrastructure”, however infrastructure projects turned out to be costly for it required much capital to make “Western-style amenities” (Gmeich, 2012).
  7. 7. Regional Tourism Tourism is an essential part of the Caribbean economy. The International Labor Organization states that the Caribbean is the “largest tourism- oriented region in the world”, where “a fifth of the gross domestic product is produced for tourists, directly or indirectly, by one out of every seven workers” (Cabezas, 2008). According to Polly Pattullo, “the Caribbean conjures up the idea of ‘Heaven on Earth’ or ‘a little bit of paradise’” (Gmeich, 2012).
  8. 8. (Caribbean Tourism Organization, 2014)
  9. 9. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
  10. 10. Economics From an Economic Perspective, Tourism is a key industry that has allowed for rapid economic development in a globalized world economy.
  11. 11. Pros and Cons of Tourism Advocate Components of Tourism:  Sustainable Development  Alleviation of Poverty  Integration into the globalized Economy Supported by:  Inter-American Development Bank  The World Bank  The International Monetary Fund  The United Nations  As a “viable mechanism for economic and social development” (Cabezas 2008). Critiques of Tourism:  Ecological deterioration  Profit leakage  Social displacement  Distorted cultural patterns  Rising land values  Drugs  Prostitution and Trafficking of Women and Children  Commodification of Culture Supported By:  Scholars and Activists groups like MODEMU (Moviemento de Mujeres Unidas/Movement of United Women (Cabezas, 2008)
  12. 12. Positive Economy GDP= estimated US$5.1 billion in foreign exchange receipts (Economist Intelligence Unit) Employment= between 1996 and 2000 generated 290,000 new jobs in the formal sector and 380,000 jobs in the informal sector (Payne 2010). Due to the “multiplier effect” (a macro-economics term) tourism was projected to be an “outward ripple of tourist dollars [that] fosters demand for goods in other areas” (Gmeich, 2012). However, in the Dominican Republic, “leakage” and “all-inclusive packages” hindered local development (Cabezas, 2008; Gmeich, 2012).
  13. 13. Critiques of the Economic Development • Critiques of Tourism and Economic Development: – Deborah McLaren (1998) believes that “tourism exerts a greater, more pervasive influence on the countries and cultures of the world than any imperial power” for “The sun never sets on the tourist empire” (Gmeich, 2012). – There is also inequality in the division of wealth in the Dominican Republic, as many workers including natives and those from “South and Southeast Asia” are “paid as low as US $1.55 per hour” (Cabezas, 2008). – Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is a way that attracts foreign capital but does not keep money in the local economy (Ripton 2013).
  14. 14. • In A Small Place, the Caribbean writer Jamaica Kincaid stated “Every native of every place is a potential tourist, and every tourist is a native of somewhere. But some natives-most natives in the world-cannot go anywhere. They are too poor. They are too poor to go anywhere” (Cabezas 2008).
  15. 15. The Pleasure Industry The United Nations Human Development Report stated that, “the tourism labor force is comprised of young women, over half of them younger than 39 and with fewer than eight years of schooling” (Cabezas, 2008). This has thus forced girls to take up some form of employment, especially in the sex industry. According to UNDP reports, HIV rates in the Dominican Republic are highest in places with high tourism, therefore regional organizations like MODEMU have tried to spread awareness (Cabezas, 2008). Example: – Miriam, “a 23-year-old mother of two” who met her daughter’s father (an African American police officer from New York) when he was on vacation, supports her daughter by having sexual relationships with “foreign and local men” (Cabezas, 2008). She stated, “From luck and death no one can escape” (Cabezas, 2008).
  16. 16. Anthropology From an anthropology perspective, through the use of ethnographies and participant observation, tourism undermines local economies and people, and thus hurts cultural traditions.
  17. 17. SAMANA TOURISM VIDEO
  18. 18. Race and Tourism Race Those with European ancestry, due to the Dominican’s Republic colonial ancestry are at the top of the hierarchy. Two ideas form this discussion: – “Pigmentocracy” refers to the darkest skinned individuals, or those associated with Haiti, and by extension Africa, “occupy the lowest end of the economic strata” (Skoczen, 2008). – “Blanquiando” is the idea that to “protect one’s family from discrimination” one should find ways to “whiten the family” (Skoczen, 2008). However Tourism has also allowed this hierarchy to be challenged, for the “selling of Dominican culture is a key enticement in an extremely competitive tourist market” (Skoczen, 2008). This allows for “Dominican-ness” to prefer the native culture that was once discriminated against (Skoczen, 2008).
  19. 19. The Case for Samana The struggle began in the late 1990s “when a foreign owned company moved into the region, with the sanction of the national government, and attempted to usurp power” by marketing the spot for being an untouched cultural paradise (Skoczen, 2008). In 2009 the government continued to push for more growth by investing in new hotels, and marketing projects to draw tourism to these “natural wonders” (Ripton, 2013). Inequality is rampant, for example in Las Terrenas, Samana a woman named Altagracia remembers visiting the old fishing village which is now a tourism hotspot. In tourism, she only makes US$180 a month and her home has no electricity as she struggles to feed her child in a “one-room house” (Ripton, 2013).
  20. 20. Local Sentiment Some quotes from ethnographies that observed Local sentiments: – “They eat meat, while we eat bones [Often heard sentiment in Samana in reference to foreigner-owened businesses in Samana]” (Skoczen, 2008). – “They are offering a lot to buy property, if they offer me all the money in the world, I am not going to sell because I live here, I love it here and no one is going to take me (sacarme) from the (water) front and throw me behind, it’s the truth. They can offer me a million Canadian or American and they won’t take me from here [A Dominican living along the waterfront in Samana, 2004]” (Skoczen, 2008). *The natives of Samana find it important to “appeal to, or at least newly promote aspects of their history, folklore, culture, and identity” (Skoczen, 2008). Tourism has created a new identity in Samana. For example,” Ethnoscapes” are defined as “groups that are ‘no longer tightly territorialized, spatially bounded, historically unselfconscious, or culturally homogenous’” (Skoczen, 2008). As a result of the process of global tourism, “people of different interests (i.e. hotel workers, hustlers, expatriates, developers, government officials, etc.) converge bringing with them different visions of the world”, thus creating different realities and redefining the “self” and their “nation” (Skoczen, 2008).
  21. 21. JAMAICA CASE STUDY #2
  22. 22. Economics Like the Dominican Republic, Jamaica has also gained much from the tourism sector and has increased infrastructure drastically because of it.
  23. 23. Competitive Advantage GDP=US$2 billion Debt=has increased by 130% of GDP (i.e. due to the Global Recession that decreased tourism) (Oxford, 2012). • Tourism is an “invisible export” and “multifaceted” for it “touches every available part of the economy (Oxford, 2012). • Jamaica has a Competitive Advantage: 1. Geographical Location=near the richest country in the world and South America. 2. Natural Product=“natural beauty…weather, diversity of attraction assets, culture and brand” (Oxford, 2012).
  24. 24. Foreign Implications Imports These foreign forms find it cheaper to import their products, due to things like the “Hotel Incentive Act” which allows hotels to import their products without paying taxes. For example, “of the 5,000 rooms built recently in Jamaica, not one single room was furnished by a Jamaican manufacturer” (Oxford, 2012). From an economic perspective, however, imports must exist relative to the large amount of tourism and small amount of agriculture, “however, there needs to be greater collision between the sectors to allow the strengthening of existing linkages further and to plan ahead” (Oxford, 2012).
  25. 25. Agriculture and Tourism One of the main reasons that Jamaica moved economically to tourism was because of the “poor performances in sugar and bauxite exports pushed Jamaica toward greater tourist activity” (Gmeich, 2012). In 2010 the tourism industry garnered more than 6.8 times in export revenues than the traditional agricultural exports (Oxford, 2012). There are several initiatives for joint action that include the Tourism Product Development Company (TPDCo), the Jamiaca Hotel and Tourist Association and the Rural Agricultural Development Agency (Holding and Hal, 2006).
  26. 26. Cruise Visitors vs. Land Visitors Jamaica has seen “910,000 cruise visitors in 2012” (Oxford, 2012). In Jamaica, “the average expenditure by cruise visitors on transportation, food and beverage has been recorded as less than US$5 and just US$10 is the average spend on attractions” while stopover visits amount to “US$102 per person per night” (Holding and Hal, 2006). “The average cruise visitor spends less than US$100 per visit while the average stopover visitor spends nearly US $1,000 per visit” (Oxford, 2012). Cruise ships are part of a Jamaican “export-based development cruise tourism” (Chase and McKee, 2003). “Leakages” in this industry are a major problem (i.e. revenue flowing out of the country) and include: Consumer Goods (especially Food and Drink) Repatriation of Profits Overseas Promotional Expenseses (Chase and McKee, 2003).
  27. 27. Anthropology From an anthropology perspective, in Jamaica it is about finding ways to preserve the local cultural heritage in a modern world
  28. 28. Cultural Heritage TourismPeter M. Burns in An Introduction to Tourism and Anthropology (1999), says “tourism should never be viewed as merely ‘business’ that produces revenue for individuals, and/or countries, but must be analyzed in an effort to understand the complexities, social interaction, rules…[and] other elements that make up culture” (Francis-Lindsay, 2013). FALMOUTH HISTORIC DISTRICT – Developed in the 18th century as a result of hard work from newly freed slaves and hailed as the “best planned town in Jamaica” and a site of “Georgian buildings”. – Declared a “Historic District” in 1996 and “Worlds Monuments Fund 100 Most Endangered Sites”. – In 2008 the Falmouth Heritage Renewal Program (FHR) announced a project to “provide job skills to even more local youth in town”. – Implications of Tourism include a way for the Jamaica National Heritage Fund (JNHT) to ensure that the environment is protected and the local population (Francis-Lindsay, 2009). – Another major issue is to ensure that locals have a responsibility to the area to prevent the “Development and Consolidation stages” wherein there is “overuse and deterioration” due to tourism. (Francis-Lindsay, 2009).
  29. 29. IMPLICATIONS of TOURISM Relying on one product creates a “crutch” and dependency that could “weaken the overall economy” (Payne, 2010). Tourism has created a ONE market based economy, that is now vulnerable to fluctuations in the global economy. Example, the Global Recession decreased tourism in the region, although they are now recovering due to the fact that the tourist industry is “volatile” and therefore can be “long term” (Holding and Hal, 2006). There are also a lot of environmental concerns like ocean pollution (Holding and Hal, 2006).
  30. 30. CRIME in the Caribbean Crime has also increased in the Dominican Republic, as early as the 1990s, for example, young men known as ‘tigres’ or ‘buscones’ have become more aggressive since there are “few prospects of employment” and target “unattended yachts and vulnerable expatriates” (Skoczen, 2008). One community leader and local businessman the author spoke to, “lamented the actions of these young men who they feel are ‘ruining business for everyone’” (Skoczen, 2008). Some also blame crime on the “visibility and disproportionate distribution of wealth through tourism, the lack of opportunity and exposure to violent films” (Skoczen, 2008). For example, it not only directly hurts the marketplace by tourists not wanting to leave the resorts, but also creates a perception that discourages spending in the local economy (Oxford, 2012).
  31. 31. Regional Group Action • Caribbean Tourism Organization – “The Caribbean Tourism Organization (CTO), the region’s tourism development agency, has 30 country members, including Dutch, English, French and Spanish, as well as a myriad of private sector allied members. The CTO’s vision is to position the Caribbean as the most desirable, year-round, warm weather destination. Its purpose is Leading Sustainable Tourism-One Sea, One Voice, One Caribbean” (Website: http://www.onecaribbean.org)
  32. 32. “The World Commission on Environment and Development defines sustainable development as ‘development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’ (Owen, Witt and Gammon, 1993)” (Jayawardena 2007). OBJECTIVES: 1. Social Objectives: to enhance the well-being of visitors and local residents. 2. Environmental Objectives: to make sure tourism protects the local environment. 3. Economic Objectives: To make a profit and benefit the local economy by creating tourism that is based in the local areas. • This type of tourism might allow for “cultural diversity and community pride and sense of identity through promotion and celebration of cultural differences…and traditional festivals” (Jayawaderna, 2007). A new SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
  33. 33. VIDEO LINKS/SOURCES: Find your Sun Mate: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3KXvdT XOKo8 Dominican Republic has it All: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tORVM M7y3Wk In Focus Dominican Republic: Sex workers Confront HIV: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GHGCe V-9WEg Samana, a “Jewel in the Crown” Dominican Republic: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LY1HSZ a0SGI Jamaica Travel Film: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xt6Ll eYAH8A Jamaica For Sale Trailer: http://www.imdb.com/video/wab/vi3207 464729/ Tourism in Jamaica 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bE_2 exvgwp4 Royal Caribbean’s Falmouth Jamaica: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bE_2 exvgwp4 Some other worthwhile links: http://www.imdb.com/video/wab/vi3660 449561/
  34. 34. Authority on World Travel and Tourism (2014). Travel and Tourism: World Economic Impact 2014 . World Travel and Tourism Council. Cabezas, A.L. (2008). Tropical Blues: Tourism and Social Exclusion In The Dominican Republic. Latin American Perspectives, 35(3), 21-36. Caribbean Tourism Organization. (2014, March 31). Latest Tourism Statistics Tables. Retrieved May 5,2014 from http:// www.onecaribbean.org/statistics/latest-tourism-statistics-tables/ Chase, G.L & McKee, D.L (2003). The Economic Impact of Cruise Tourism on Jamaica. The Journal of Tourism Studies 14 (2), 16-22. Economist Intelligence Unit (2014). Dominican Republic: Tourist arrivals Grow in 2013, lifting revenue. http:// performance.ey.com/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2014/02/EY-Performance- Tourism-in-the-DR.pdf Francis-Lindsay, J. (2009). The Intrinsic Value of Cultural Heritage and its Relationship to Sustainable Tourism Development: The Constrasting Experiences of Jamaica and Japan. Caribbean Quarterly, 55(2), 151-167. Gmeich, G. (2012). Behind the Smile: the Working Lives of Caribbean Tourism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Holding, R. & Hal, K.O. (2006). Tourism: The Driver of Change in the Jamaican Economy. Kingston: Ian Randle. Jayawardena, C. (2007). Caribbean Tourism: More than Sun, Sand, and Sea. Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers. Oxford Economics (2012). Travel and Tourism as a Driver of Economic Development in Jamaica. Oxford Economics, 1-43. Payne, S. (2010). Tourism in the Dominican Republic: Social and Economic Effects. Gatton Student Research Publication 3(1), Gatton College of Business and Economics. Ripton, J. (2013). Developing Paradise: Tourism, the Local Community, and Nature in Las Terrenas, Dominican Republic. Journal of International Global Studies, 5(1), 34-60. Retrieved April 27, 2014, from the EBSCO database. Skoczen, K.N. (2008). Almost Paradise: The Cultural Politics of Identity and Tourism in Samana, Dominican Republic. Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Anthropology, 13(1), 141-167. REFERENCES

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