Writing Learning Objectives:Beginning With the End in Mind
By the end of class today, you willbe able to:• Write learning objectives that contain a measurable verb.• Write learning objectives which demonstrate Bloom’s higher levels of thinking.• Align learning objectives to the Tennessee Department of Education Content Standards.
What is a Learning Objective?A learning objective is astatement of what students willbe able to do when they havecompleted instruction.
What does a learning objectivelook like?“By the end of this lesson, thestudent will...
Why Do We Need Learning Objectives?Learning objectives are guides to:• Selection of content• Development of an instructional strategy.• Development and selection of instructional materials.• Construction of tests and other instruments for assessing and then evaluating student learning outcomes.
What Are the Parts of aLearning Objective?• A description of what the student will be able to do• The conditions under which the student will perform the task.• The criteria for evaluating student performance.
DescriptionWhat will the student know or beable to do after instruction?• A learning objective must describe what is to be learned in performance terms.• A learning objective has an action verb.• DO NOT use these verbs:Know Comprehend Understand Appreciate Learn
ConditionHow will it be performed?The conditions of the objective shouldcommunicate the situation, tools,references, or aids that will be provided forthe student. • By looking at photo • Using a timeline • Using a microscope • By looking at a diagram
CriteriaHow well must it be performed?Each learning objective should be measurableand include the criteria for evaluating studentperformance. Generally, the criteria provideinformation to clarify to what extent a studentmust perform to be judged adequate.
How the Parts InteractLearning Objective: The student will create atime line of the main events at Gettysburg aftergenerating a graphic organizer on Chapter 5: ADecisive Battle with a rubric rating of 3 (out of5) or better.
Aligning Learning Objectives to Curriculum StandardsLearning Objective: The student will create a time line of the mainevents at Gettysburg after generating a graphic organizer onChapter 5: A Decisive Battle with a rubric rating of 3 (out of 5) orbetter.Content Standard 5.0: History involves people, events, and issues.Students will evaluate evidence to develop comparative and casualanalyses, and to interpret primary sources. They will construct soundhistorical arguments and perspectives on which informed decisions incontemporary life can be based.Learning Expectation 5.01: Identify major events, people, and patternsin Tennessee, United States, and world history.Performance Indicator 3.5.spi.2.: use a timeline to determine the orderof a historical sequence of events.
Knowledge• Remembering previously learned material. This skill may involve recall of a wide range of material• An example - Make a list of the main events
Comprehension• The ability to grasp meaning of material. This skill may be shown by translating material from one form to another (words or numbers), by interpreting material (explaining or summarizing) and by estimating future trends (predicting consequences or effects)• An example - Retell the story in your words.
Application• The ability to use learned materiel in new and concrete situations• An example - Make a diorama to illustrate an important event.
Analysis• The ability to break down material into its component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood• An example - Write a biography of the study person.
Synthesis• The ability to put parts together to form a new whole. Use old ideas to create new ones, generalize from given facts• An Example - Design a record, book, or magazine cover for...?
Evaluation• The ability to judge the value of material (statement, novel, poem, research report) for a given purpose, Make choices based on reasoned argument• An example - Conduct a debate about an issue of special interest.
Remember!A well-written learning objective provides aclear picture of the outcome orperformance you expect as a result of thelesson. It should be specific, concise,and, most importantly, observable ormeasurable.
Now it’s your turn!• Select a VERB for performing the task.• Determine if the verb you have chosen best describes the type of behavior that the learners need to display See Writing Learning Objectives .• Under what CONDITIONS must the task be performed?• Determine what CRITERIA the task must be performed.• ALIGN learning objective to the Tennessee Department of Education curriculum standards: – Content Standard – Learning Expectation – Performance Indicator or Accomplishment Curriculum Standards Activity Learning Objectives Activity