MODAL VERBS: MAINCHARACTERISTICS•Modal verbs don’t change at all.Ex.: I/He/We/They can speak English•They needn’t use auxiliary verbs for questionsor negatives.Ex.: Could you open the door? They shouldn’t speak in class.•They are followed by the bare infinitive.•Ex.: He must be her brother / She may have myumbrella.
MODAL VERBS MODAL USE EXAMPLECAN ABILITY Mary can swim very fast. REQUEST Can you call me tonight? POSSIBILITY I can meet you later.CAN’T INABILITY I can’t speak German. PROHIBITIO You can’t drive without a driving licence. N That can’t be the price – it’s too cheap! DISBILIEFCOULD PAST She could run fast. ABILITY Could you help me wiht the suitcase? POLITE You could exercise and eat healthier food. REQUEST POLITE Mark coul join us at the cinema. SUGGESTION POSSIBILITYMAY POSSIBILITY It may rain tomorrow. POLITE May I come in, please? REQUEST
MODAL USE EXAMPLEMIGHT POSSIBILITY It might rain tomorrow.WILL FUTURE I’ll go to Uni next year. PROMISES I will study harder OFFERS I will help you with you homework. INSTANT DECISIONS I’ll have the tomato soup.WOULD FORMAL REQUEST Would you open the window, please? OFFERS Would you like something to drink?SHALL SUGGESTIONS Shall we go?MUST OBLIGATION You must study harder for the exam. CERTAINTY She’s got a great job. She must be very THAT SOMETHING IS happy. TRUEMUSTN’T PROHIBITION You mustn’t exceed the speed limit.SHOULD ADVICE, You should improve your pronunciation. OPINIONOUGHT ADVICE, You ought to eat less fast food if you want to OPINIONTO keep fit.
SEMIMODAL VERBS: MAINCHARACTERISTICS•Semimodal verbs are used in all tenses andchange for the third person singular.Ex.: He has to help his father. She was able to swim well when she wasonly 3 years old.•They may need auxiliary verbs for questions ornegatives.Ex.: do you have to study at the weekend? They don’t have to train this afternoon.
SEMIMODAL VERBS SEMI USE EXAMPLEMODALSBE ABLE ABILITY I was able to finish my homework on time.TOHAVE TO OBLIGATION I have to buy the tickets today.DON’T/ LACK OF I don’t have to get up early on Saturday.DOESN’T OBLIGATIONHAVE TOTHESE VERBS ARE NOT SEMIMODALS, BUT THEY SHARE SOME USES WITH MODALVERBS.NEED OBLIGATION I need to cook dinner tonight/ He needs to cook dinner tonight.NEEDN’T LACK OF You needn’t bring anything to the party / You didn’t OBLIGATION need to bring anything to the party..HAD ADVICE/ You’d better go to the doctorBETTER PERSONAL You’d better not to take my car! OPINION No negative
MODAL PERFECTS: MAINCHARACTERISTICS•Modal verbs don’t change at all and are followed by“have + past participle”.Ex.: I/He/We/They should have studied harder.•They needn’t use auxiliary verbs for questions ornegatives.Ex.: Could you have passed the exam withoutstudying? They shouldn’t have eaten so much.
MODAL PERFECTS MODAL USE EXAMPLEPERFECTSMUST CERTAINTY THAT Rob has arrived late. He must have SOMETHINGWAS been in a traffic jam. TRUEMAY A GUESS ABOUT A She may /might have taken the wrong/MIGHT PAST ACTION busCOULD PAST ABILITY You could have asked the doctor /ABILITY TO DO before taking that medicine. SOMETHING IN THE PAST THAT IN THE END WAS NOT DONECOULDN’T CERTAINTY THAT He couldn’t have gone to the party SOMETHING DID because he was ill. NOT HAPPEN
MODAL USE EXAMPLEPERFECTSWOULD DESIRE TO DO I would have gone to the party, but I was too SOMETHING IN THE PAST WHICH busy. IN FACT COULD NOT BE DONESHOULD CRITICISM OR You should have told me before. REGRET AFTER AN EVENTOUGHT CRITICISM OR You ought to have studied harder for the final REGRET AFTERTO AN EVENT exam.NEEDN’T AN You needn’t have bought a present for me. UNNECESSARY PAST ACTION
Some practise 1-I have no time. I________ leave now or I ________ miss the bus. 2-I wish I _________ buy a new mobile phone but I dont have enough money. 3-She looks tired; she ___________ take some days off. 4-Judy is not at home. She__________ have gone to Madrid, I dont know. 5-Tom __________ play tennis quite well. I usually play with him every weekend. 6- _________ we go out tonight, please? Yes, but you __________ be late. 7-I havent decided yet where I __________ go in my next holidays. I think I __________ go to Paris. 8- ___________ you water my plants while I am away? If they dont get enough water they __________certainly die. 9-Jack ____________ come to our wedding, but we arent sure. 10 -__________ I buy the tickets for the concert? I see youre too busy. 11-We __________ pay the fees at the fixed time. 12-You __________ clean your room more often. 13-If it rains on Saturday, we __________ go to the beach. 14-Jane ___________ not play the violin when she was five, but now she ___________ play it very well. 15-You __________ not be so nervous. I think it ___________ be very easy.