Session 2

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  • We never know which students we’re going to get.
  • Share blog reflection from session 1
  • Read story aloud to whole group, each participant will respond to the questions individually. In small groups make connections to your school and share your insights and responses. How does this story support or contradict differentiation as you know and understand it? Us Animal School Handout
  • Who are you when you consider teaching and interacting with your students. What do your students think of you in regards to these statements Whichever one you believe speaks to who you are as a teacher Individually review each of these statements and decide what you believe: What does your belief say about your teaching? Complete the checklist about beliefs, keep confidential. Use the responses to guide your learning throughout the course. Where are you? How do your beliefs impact your teaching? What, if any, adjustments can be made to further grow your instructional practice? Use Belief Statement Handout
  • Note to facilitator: In order to prepare for a discussion of content, read pages 72-78 of How to Differentiate Instruction in the Mixed-ability Classroom by Tomlinson. Pay particular attention to the various instructional practices for differentiating content such as concept-based teaching, curriculum compacting, using varied text and resource materials, focus lessons, and varied support systems.
  • Remind participants that student engagement is a powerful motivator. Interest and choice are two key factors that lead to student engagement. Use of informal interest inventories or other teacher created inventories can provide important information on student interest.
  • You may wish to mention that teachers use formal and informal assessment to gauge and determine readiness. Also remind participants that teacher observation is important in determining readiness.
  • Remind participants that learning style (auditory, visual or kinesthetic), intelligence preference, gender, and culture can influence learning profile. Some teachers have students take multiple intelligence tests or learning styles tests. You may wish to share any personal experiences with multiple intelligence test or learning styles tests.
  • Administer Learning Style Inventory
  • Content: Materials Process: Activities Product: Assessments You may wish to have participants view the handout as you move from slide to slide. Be aware that you may get questions about some of the instructional strategies (practices) that are not familiar to participants e.g. 4MAT and orbitals. In Tomlinson’s book, “How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms” page 64 you can find the definition for 4MAT. Information about orbitals can be found on page 58.
  • Share Slide S1-23 and discuss with participants. Refer participants to Handout S1-10.
  • 2. Explain directions as shown on Slide S1-24. Have materials available from different content areas so that participants have a choice for this activity.
  • Share Slide S1-25 and discuss with participants. Refer participants to Handout S1-10.
  • Some students don’t have a solid foundation. They need groundwork laid—background knowledge supplied, and a blueprint for the construction of their understanding.
  • Some students are works in process—they have most of the pieces, but they need supports along the way. They know how to read, but they need help with critical thinking skills. Graphic organizers, non-linguistic representations, and discussions will provide help that will enable them to construct their knowledge.
  • Other students need us to get out of their way. With your more able learners, they should have opportunities to compact information, and if they know it they should be researching so whats—if that’s true, than what else is true. It’s a waste of time for them to skill and drill, or to have to relearn the same concept they got the first time. They should be extending their learning.
  • Explain directions as shown on Slide S1-26. Have materials available from different content areas so that participants have a choice for this activity.
  • Share Slide S1-27 and discuss with participants. Refer participants to Handout S1-11.
  • How do you know what they learned? It could be a test, but it could be a report, or a presentation, or a non-linguistic representation, or further research. It doesn’t have to look the same for all students, and all learners.
  • Explain directions as shown on Slide S1-28. Have materials available from different content areas so that participants have a choice for this activity.
  • We all have different things that will draw our attention and we would like to learn more about, the content of what we would like to learn may vary. For example: some of us like chocolate,
  • Some are drawn to sports and sporting events
  • Some us us are utterly inspired by cold hard cash---So one thing we can differentiate is content. For example, teaching about the Harlem Renaissance. You can have some students study about baseball and the Negro Leagues, some could study the art of the time period, some the literature, some the music. They can all present the information, and you have a deeper understanding created through student interest.
  • Share with participants the different types of grouping patterns.
  • Session 2

    1. 1. Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five Session 2 How to Differentiate Instruction Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    2. 2. <ul><li>My momma always said, &quot;Life was like a box of chocolates. You never know what you're gonna get.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Forrest Gump </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    3. 3. Follow Up – Session I Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 - One new thing I learned was the formal definition of differentiation. It feels to me that everyone has their own definition of differentiation. Although all of these definitions may have a common denominator, this becomes a problem with the implementation. I plan to use this information when planning activities in the classroom. This will help me keep the learner in mind. One of the many questions I have is how grading by learning goals work in the classroom. I can see how it works with informal assessments but how does it work with other types of assessments. I can learn more from my colleagues and reading about it. One thing I learned in our first session is the importance of differentiated instruction. Sometimes, as a teacher, we can confuse lack of interest from our students as a sign of not wanting to learn; when in fact it might just be that they do not understand what we are teaching them. Having a full understanding of the definition of differentiated instruction and how to implement it in our classroom will certainly make us more efficient teachers. I plan to use this in my classroom when planning and teaching my lessons. Questions I might have: Can we learn how to use differentiated instruction in a way that the students do not feel &quot;singled out&quot;? I can certainly learn better if I see lessons being modeled.
    4. 4. DEFINING DIFFERENTIATION <ul><li>Animal School : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Duck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Rabbit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Squirrel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Eagle </li></ul></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    5. 5. TEACHERS’ BELIEF SYSTEM <ul><li>Research findings show that teachers’ belief systems affect learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Belief systems need to be addressed for change to happen. </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    6. 6. I BELIEVE: <ul><li>All of my students SHOULD achieve </li></ul><ul><li>All of my students CAN achieve </li></ul><ul><li>All of my students WILL achieve </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    7. 7. Some Big Ideas that Facilitate Differentiation <ul><li>Not everyone needs to do the same work at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>Students will learn as much from each other as they will from the teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Students must take responsibility for their own learning </li></ul><ul><li>There are many paths to an answer </li></ul><ul><li>Often there are many “right” answers </li></ul><ul><li>Mistakes can be valuable learning experiences </li></ul><ul><li>If it’s easy, you’re probably not learning very much </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    8. 8. Ways to Differentiate <ul><li>Readiness </li></ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Profile </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    9. 9. <ul><li>“ Interest refers to student’s affinity, curiosity, or passion for a particular topic or skill.” </li></ul><ul><li>~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>The Differentiated Classroom, p. 11 </li></ul><ul><li>“ When interest is tapped, learning is more likely to be rewarding, and the student becomes a more autonomous learner (Bruner, 1961).” </li></ul><ul><li>~ Carol Ann Tomlinson & Susan Demirsky Allan, 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership for Differentiating Schools & Classrooms, p. 19 </li></ul><ul><li>“ By helping students discover and pursue their passions, we can maximize their engagement in learning, their productivity, and their individual talents (Amabile, 1983; Collins & Amabile, 1999).” </li></ul><ul><li>~ Carol Ann Tomlinson & Susan Demirsky Allan, 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership for Differentiating Schools & Classrooms, p. 14 </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 - Interest
    10. 10. <ul><li>“ Readiness is a student’s entry point relative to a particular understanding or skill.” </li></ul><ul><li>~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>The Differentiated Classroom, p. 11 </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 - Readiness
    11. 11. <ul><li>“ Learning profile refers to ways in which we learn best as individuals. Each of us knows some ways of learning that are quite effective for us, and others that slow us down or make learning feel awkward. . . . The goals of learning-profile differentiation are to help individual learners understand modes of learning that work best for them, and to offer those options so that each learner finds a good learning fit in the classroom.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 2001 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to Differentiate Instruction in </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed-ability Classrooms , p. 60 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 - Learning Profile
    12. 12. Learning Style Inventory <ul><li>What kind of learner are you? </li></ul><ul><li>Visual </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory </li></ul><ul><li>Tactile </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    13. 13. Visual Learners Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 - <ul><li>Remember what they see </li></ul><ul><li>Recall details through picturing what they have seen </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures, Graphs, etc… </li></ul>
    14. 14. Auditory Learners <ul><li>“ one who recalls at least 75% of what is discussed or heard </li></ul><ul><li>Remembers what they hear and recreate what they hear by focusing on what was said </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    15. 15. Kinesthetic Learners <ul><li>Problems in a traditional classroom setting </li></ul><ul><li>Learn through tactile and kinesthetic experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Hands-on learning </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    16. 16. Application to the Classroom <ul><li>Understand that your students don’t all learn the same way you do </li></ul><ul><li>Children involvement is key </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize as many senses and intelligences as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Be flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Try new things </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    17. 17. Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    18. 18. Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 - multiple intelligences jigsaw taped material anchor activities varying organizers varied texts varied supplementary materials literature circles tiered lessons tiered centers tiered products learning contracts small-group instruction group instruction independent study varied questioning strategies interest centers interest groups varied homework compacting varied journal prompts complex instruction according to students’ through a range of instructional and management practices such as Content Process Product Interests Readiness Learning Profile ~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 1999 The Differentiated Classroom, p. 15
    19. 19. Definition of Content <ul><li>Content is what the students learn and the materials or mechanisms through which learning is accomplished. It is what a student should come to know (facts), understand (concepts and principles), and be able to do (skills) as a result of a given assignment of study (a lesson, learning experience, a unit). </li></ul><ul><li>~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>How to Differentiate Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>in Mixed-ability Classrooms </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    20. 20. Ways to Differentiate Content <ul><ul><li>Reading Partners / Reading Buddies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read/Summarize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read/Question/Answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Organizer/Summarizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel Reading with Teacher Prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choral Reading/Antiphonal Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flip Books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Split Journals (Double Entry – Triple Entry) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Books on Tape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlights on Tape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digests/ “Cliff Notes” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note-taking Organizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varied Texts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varied Supplementary Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlighted Texts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think-Pair-Share/Preview-Midview-Postview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary presentation styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of video, music, role play </li></ul></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    21. 21. Content: Application <ul><li>At your table decide on a piece of text (from a textbook, a novel, a newspaper, or magazine). </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm possibilities for differentiating content for this piece of text as it relates to readiness, interest, and learning profile. </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    22. 22. Definition of Process <ul><li>Process is how the students make sense of the content. Process describes activities designed to ensure that students use key skills to make sense of essential ideas and information. </li></ul><ul><li>~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>How to Differentiate Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>in Mixed-ability Classrooms </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    23. 23. Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 - Differentiating Process Front-Loading
    24. 24. Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 - Differentiating Process Scaffolding
    25. 25. Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 - Differentiating Process Enrichment
    26. 26. WAYS TO DIFFERENTIATE PROCESS <ul><ul><li>Fun & Games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RAFTs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cubing, Think Dots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choices (Intelligences) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiered lessons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use manipulatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary questioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use peer mentors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide varied activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of flexible grouping </li></ul></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    27. 27. Process: Application <ul><li>At your table using the same piece of text brainstorm possibilities for differentiating process for this piece of text. </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    28. 28. Definition of Product <ul><li>Products are assessments or demonstrations of what students have come to know, understand, and be able to do as the result of an extended sequence of learning. A product is the student’s opportunity to show what she has learned throughout a unit. </li></ul><ul><li>~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>How to Differentiate Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>in Mixed-ability Classrooms </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    29. 29. Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 - Differentiating Product
    30. 30. WAYS TO DIFFERENTIATE PRODUCT <ul><ul><li>Choices based on readiness, interest, and learning profile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product Guides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rubrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjust difficulty of task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow choice of assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a tiered approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use independent and group products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portfolios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student led assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use menu/agenda </li></ul></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    31. 31. Product: Application <ul><li>At your table using the same piece of text brainstorm possibilities for differentiating products for this piece of text. </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    32. 32. Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 - Why do we need to differentiate instruction?
    33. 33. Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    34. 34. Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    35. 35. Quote <ul><li>“ In differentiated classrooms, teachers begin where students are, not the front of a curriculum guide.” </li></ul><ul><li>~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 1999 The Differentiated Classroom: Responding </li></ul><ul><li>to the Needs of All Learners , p. 3 </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    36. 36. Flexible Grouping <ul><li>“ No single-faceted plan…will meet the requirements of every student. As we move toward alternative grouping plans, we must be careful to avoid the rigidity that characterizes traditional ability grouping and offer students dynamic and flexible opportunities responsive to curricular goals and individual needs. </li></ul><ul><li>~ M. Radenrich and L. McKay </li></ul><ul><li>quoted by Michael F. Opitz in </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible Grouping in Reading, (1999), p. 77. </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    37. 37. Grouping Patterns <ul><li>Whole Class </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Special Need or Skill </li></ul><ul><li>Paired </li></ul><ul><li>Individual </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    38. 38. <ul><li>When a teacher tries to teach something to the entire class at the same time, chances are </li></ul><ul><li>one-third of the kids already know it one-third will get it </li></ul><ul><li>and the remaining third won’t. </li></ul><ul><li>So, two-thirds of the children are wasting their time. </li></ul><ul><li>Lilian Katz </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -

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