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Decoding Skills


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Decoding Skills

  1. 1. Decoding Skills Developing Phonics Knowledge Structural Analysis Contractions and use of Context Clues By Problem Solution CRISS Strategy
  2. 2. <ul><li>How do you recognize </li></ul><ul><li>when a student has trouble </li></ul><ul><li>with blends, digraphs and diphthongs? </li></ul>Blends, Digraphs and Diphthongs If the student has mastered phonics in the areas of single consonants, consonant blends, consonant digraphs, and long and short vowels, then it may not be necessary to teach the vowel digraphs and diphthongs.
  3. 3. It is not necessary to teach the vowel digraphs and diphthongs if the student has mastered certain phonics concepts. It is easy to assess if a student needs explicit teaching in blends, digraphs and diphthongs. It is extremely important that students are provided with activities to immediately apply their newly learned phonics skills. - How do you assess phonics knowledge? - How do you teach phonics knowledge? - What do I have to keep in mind for ELL students? - Most importantly, REINFORCE the new skill. - Suggested Activities to teach the skill REMEMBER:
  4. 4. Problem Solution
  5. 5. <ul><li>What do we know about structural analysis? </li></ul><ul><li>Morphology is a field of linguistics focused on the study of the forms and formation of words in a language. </li></ul><ul><li>A morpheme is the smallest indivisible unit of a language that retains meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Any time a student learns a new word and immediately comes up with any number of forms for that word – past tense, plural, a noun form – they are applying the rules of morphology subconsciously to determine what the new form should be. </li></ul>Developing Structural Analysis
  6. 6. <ul><li>What is the best way to determine whether a student is having difficulty ? </li></ul>Assessing Structural Analysis Ability
  7. 7. Structural Analysis Assessment <ul><li>REFINEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Re – fine – ment </li></ul>It also provides a blueprint for instruction in specific aspects where the student is weak.
  8. 8. ELL and Structural Analysis <ul><li>To be successful, </li></ul><ul><li>these students will need to </li></ul><ul><li>master the decoding skills </li></ul><ul><li>of basic sight vocabulary, </li></ul><ul><li>phonics and context clues </li></ul><ul><li>before they can receive </li></ul><ul><li>direct instruction. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Prefix & Suffix Baseball 1) The pitcher “throws” a root word to the batter. 2) If the batter can add a prefix or a suffix to the root word, he/she hits a single . 3) If the batter can also explain the meaning of the new word, he/she hits a double . 4) If the batter can also properly use the new word in a sentence, he/she hits a triple . 5) If the batter can also add another affix to the new word, he/she hits a home run! GO!
  10. 10. Problem Solution
  11. 12. <ul><li>Developing Ability to Use </li></ul>
  12. 13. Definition
  13. 14. Assumption: Teachers assume students will learn context clues on their own. Truth: Disable readers need a considerable amount of instruction and a great deal of practice.
  14. 15. How to Assess Context Clues
  15. 16. Assessment 1:
  16. 18. Problem Solution
  17. 19. <ul><li>A part of poor oral reading is the lack of knowledge of contractions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a MINOR reading problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The best way to assess students’ understanding of contractions is to have them read to you. </li></ul><ul><li>Is the student unable to pronounce contractions? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the student know what the two words stand for? </li></ul><ul><li>Directly teach contractions to students, who need it, especially ELL & SPED students. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing what contractions mean will promote comprehension of text containing contractions. </li></ul> Contractions Assessment & Direct Instruction
  18. 20. <ul><li>Activity # 1 </li></ul>Recommendations for Teaching Contractions <ul><li>Activity # 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Activity # 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Activity # 4 </li></ul>LET US LET’S Let us go shopping with Mom. Let’s go shopping with Mom. Provide paragraphs containing contractions and have students change the contractions OR VICE-VERSA Contraction Races Provide newspaper articles and have students underline all contractions and words that could have been contracted.
  19. 21. Contraction Concentration
  20. 22. What did we learn today? Problem Solution Structural Analysis Blends, Digraphs, & Diphthongs Context Clues Contractions