Spanish Grammar Book


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Spanish Grammar Book

  1. 1. Grammar BookBy: Carmen Adair
  2. 2. Table of Contents1. Nationalities2. Stem Changing Verbs3. Para4. Indirect Object Pronouns5. Pronoun Placement6. Gustar7. Affirmative and Negative Words8. Superlatives9. Reflexives10. Affirmative Tu Commands + Irregulars + Pronoun Placement11. Negative Tu Command + Irregulars + Pronoun Placement12. Sequencing Events
  3. 3. Nationalities
  4. 4. Stem Changing Verbso ue (ex: devolver devuelvo)e ie (ex: empezar empiezo)o ue (ex: dormir duermo)e i (ex: pedir pido) The stem doesn’t change for the nosotros or vosotros forms.
  5. 5. Para Parameans for or in order to. Use para to indicate:  The recipient of items. Ex: El regalo para tú mama.  Purpose. Ex: Vamos al restaurante para comer.  Implied purpose. Ex: Tengo dinero para [comprar] algo.
  6. 6. Indirect Object Pronouns Me  To/for whom? Te  Put the indirect object pronoun (IOP) Le before the conjugated verb.  Attach the IOP to an infinitive (an Nos unconjugated verb form). Os  Attach the IOP to a gerund (-ing Les verb forms).  The pronouns le and les can also refer to indirect object pronouns.  To clarify what they mean they are often accompanied by a + a noun, pronoun, or name.
  7. 7. Pronoun Placement1. Attach the pronoun to the infinitive2. Attach the pronoun to an progressive tense3. Attach the pronoun to an affirmative command4. Place the pronoun before a conjugated verb
  8. 8. Me T e Gustar Singular: Gust Me gusta…Le Le Te gusta…s Le gusta… a Nos gusta… Les gusta… No Plural: s Me gustan… Te gustan… • The form of gustar Le gustan… matches the noun. Nos gustan… Les gustan…
  9. 9. Affirmative and Negative WordsWhen you want to talk about an indefinite or negative situation, Affirmative affirmative or a negative word. you use an Words Negative Words  Algo  Nada  Alguien  Nadie  Algûn/alguno(a)  Ningún/ninguno(a)  Nunca  Siempre  tampoco  Tambien  If a verb is preceded by no, words that follow must be negative. Alguno(a) and ninguno(a)  A double negative is required inmust match the gender of Spanish when no precedes the verb.the noun they replace or  However, if a negative word comes modify. before the verb, a second negative is not needed.
  10. 10. Superlatives -ísimo  Expresses extremes in most -ísimos adjectives. -ísima  The adjective must agree in -ísimas gender and number with the noun it modifies.  when the lost consonant is c, g, or z, spelling is required.
  11. 11.  Describes people doing things for themselves. Reflexive pronouns are Reflexives used with reflexive verbs to indicate that the subject Reflexives: of the sentence receives  me –o the action of the verb.  te -as Include the concept of possession.  se -a The object (subject) does  nos -amos and receives the action.  se -an Subject, pronoun, and verb Position: are all in the same form.  In front of the conjugated Not all verbs can be reflexive. verb All reflexive verbs end in –  Attached to a gerund se. Steps to make a verb  Attached to an infinitive reflexive:  Attached to an affirmative 1. Conjugate the verb as command. always. 2. Add the reflexive
  12. 12. Affirmative Tu Commands + Irregulars Affirmative Tú + Pronoun Placement Commands Give instructions or commands to Irregular Affirmative Tú someone by using the affirmative tú commands of irregular verbs. Commands Ends like a 3rd house form. Infinitive AffirmativeExamples: Tú Command Caminar- ¡Camina! ¡Camina en el Decir Di parque! Hacer Haz Comer- ¡Come! ¡Come toda la Ir Ve hamburgesa! Abrir- ¡Abre! ¡Abre la puerta, quiero Poner Pon entrar! Salir SalPronoun Placement Ser Sé When you use a pronoun with an Tener Ten affirmative command, the pronoun attaches to the command. When using an object pronoun, attach the pronoun to the end of the
  13. 13. Negative Tu Command + Irregulars + Pronoun Placement Irregular Negative TúNegative Tú Commands Commands When you tell someone what not to do, use a negative Infinitive (Yo Negative Tú command. form) Command Formed by taking you from the present tense, dropping the –o, Dar (Doy) No le des mi and adding an appropriate dirección a ending. nadie.Examples: Estar (estoy) No estés ¡No hables! triste. ¡No vuelvas! Ir (voy) No vayas a laPronoun Placement tiends. Object pronouns precede the Ser (soy) No seas mala. verbs in negative commands, None of the yo forms of just as with other conjugated these verbs end in –o. verbs.
  14. 14. Sequencing Events First: prfimero Then: entonces Later/after: luego/después Finally: por fin Before/after: antes de/ después de In/during the…: por la mañana/tarde/noche  No specific time given On Mondays, on Tuesdays, etc: los lunes, los martes, etc.