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  1. 1. The Use of Technology In the K-8 Science Curriculum
  2. 2. Technology and Learning in Science Roles of Technology Science Instruction Technology in the Learning Process Levels of Interaction Knowledge Acquisition History of Technology in Science Education Identifying Strengths and Limitations Culture and Linguistic Considerations
  3. 3. History of Technology <ul><li>1890’s Magic Lanterns </li></ul><ul><li>1900’s Instructional Film Clips </li></ul><ul><li>1910’s Educational radio broadcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Tape Recorders </li></ul><ul><li>1930’s Slide Projectors </li></ul><ul><li>1940’s Training Film/ Overhead Projectors </li></ul><ul><li>1950’s Educational Movies/ Programmed Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>1960’s Controlled Readers </li></ul><ul><li>Projecting Microscopes </li></ul><ul><li>Film Loop Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Stations </li></ul><ul><li>1970’s Educational Television </li></ul><ul><li>1980’s Computers/ Camcorders/ VCR’s </li></ul><ul><li>1990’s/ 2000’s Telecommunications </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-Based </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul>
  4. 4. Knowledge Acquisition in Science <ul><li>Teaching and Learning in the Science classroom involves the interplay between pedagogy and technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Wheatley’s view: </li></ul><ul><li>-”Knowledge or meaning is not simply transferred and received, but is built within individual children through their interactions with the natural world. It is also a social process that occurs as children interact with adults and with each other (Vgotsky).” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Technology in the Learning Process <ul><li>New technology motivates students. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology empowers students. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology provides fun. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Roles of Technology in Science Instruction <ul><li>Levels of Interaction between technology and the learner </li></ul><ul><li>-Student Centered </li></ul><ul><li>-Computer Centered </li></ul>
  7. 7. Student Centered <ul><li>Reactive Level: The learner’s response to a stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive Level: Learner construction of knowledge and generative learning activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual Level: Learner and software are mutually adaptive, and where each is capable of changing based on encounters with each other. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Computer Centered <ul><li>Reinforcement Level: One way interaction, computer provides information to the learner. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-Solving Level: Interactions between the program and the learner. </li></ul><ul><li>Production Level: Two way interactions between the learner and the program results in new product or information. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Identifying Strengths and Limitations of Materials <ul><li>Basic Elements that should be reviewed when evaluating technology based materials for Science: </li></ul><ul><li>-Technical considerations: Hardware platform, peripheries, ease of operation, color, animation, photo quality, sound, visual layout or screen design. </li></ul><ul><li>-Content: Accuracy, range, examples, balance between principles and applications, connections to related content. </li></ul><ul><li>-Learner-Centered Concerns: Knowledge and skills, motivation, level of interactivity, locus of control. </li></ul><ul><li>-Instructional Strategies and Logistics: Effective and appropriate presentation of content in a variety of modalities, nature of interactivity, time, use by individuals or groups, tracking progress, feedback, record keeping, supporting materials. </li></ul><ul><li>-Additional Design Elements: Choice, Branching, individual interests, depth vs. requirements, linear coverage, standardization, breadth. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Characteristics of Successful Instructional Packages <ul><li>Appropriate for multicultural classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting, motivating topics </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum meets instructional objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Equal and effective way of providing information and instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Easily accessible materials </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Manageable </li></ul><ul><li>Cost effective </li></ul>
  11. 11. Teaching Science with Technology <ul><li>Building Units of Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing Science Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Productivity and Management of the Learning Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher as Researcher in the Science Classroom </li></ul>
  12. 12. Building Units of Instruction Planning for a Constructivist Learning Environment Unit Plan Content integration Integrating Technology Instructional Strategies Process
  13. 13. Planning for a Constructivist Learning Environment Learning as Cyclic and Continual Existing Knowledge Base Adding to working knowledge base Transferring knowledge to new Situations, applying knowledge to Solve problems, using knowledge For own purposes Making sense of new Knowledge, generalizing, testing for consistency Exploration of new ideas, Characteristics of materials, and behaviors, New parameters
  14. 14. Unit Plan Process <ul><li>Mapping out your plans: (Creating a generic map of your plans) </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying learning goals and objectives ( What are the </li></ul><ul><li>long term and short term goals of the unit for the learner) </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying Instructional Procedures (How will </li></ul><ul><li>you carry out the instruction) </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Technology (Using different types of technology in the </li></ul><ul><li>lesson and activities) </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Other Content Areas (Unit should be integrated with other units of science and other subject areas) </li></ul><ul><li>Providing Instructional Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing different types of learners (Recognizing the abilities of </li></ul><ul><li>the learners, their family and social background, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Plans for Assessments (How will you assess the learners?) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Examples of Technology that support Unit Planning <ul><li>Word Processing: (Reports, plans, schedules, worksheets, overhead transparency masters, other instructional materials). </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications (The Internet): (Sources for content information; current data, graphics, photographs) </li></ul><ul><li>Education networks and data bases/ Email: (Curriculum Materials, test banks; Contact with experts and colleagues) </li></ul><ul><li>FAX: (Rapid contact with experts, purchasing agents, other individuals and agencies) </li></ul><ul><li>Diagramming, mapping, outlining programs: (Generating and organizing ideas) </li></ul><ul><li>File Programs: (Organizing and accessing data, activities, references, resources, other information) </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheets, statistics programs: (Organizing, summarizing, analyzing data) </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic Programs: (Display Data </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics, Scanners: (Prepare graphics for instructional materials production) </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Calendar: (Schedule) </li></ul><ul><li>Videotape, video camera, VCR: (Local examples, video-based assessment, other productivity) </li></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM: (Prepare self-paced instruction stations, resources, applications programs </li></ul><ul><li>Videodisc, barcodes, computer interface: (Prepare video presentations, pictorial resources, self-paced instruction stations) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ready to Go Instruction <ul><li>Computer Assisted Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Explorations with Browse Ready Media </li></ul><ul><li>Combinations </li></ul>
  17. 17. Instructional Strategies <ul><li>Lesson for Information Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson for Skill Development </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson for Concept Attainment </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry Lesson to Develop Problem Solving and Thinking Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson on Values Awareness </li></ul>
  18. 18. Assessing Science Knowledge <ul><li>Teacher observations </li></ul><ul><li>Projects, products, and investigations </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional paper/pencil testing </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolios </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Still image and video-based assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Concept mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoned drawing and writing </li></ul>
  19. 19. Teacher Productivity and Management of the Learning Environment <ul><li>Teacher Productivity: </li></ul><ul><li>-Adapting and generating instructional and assessment materials </li></ul><ul><li>-Organizing and Maintaining a professional portfolio </li></ul><ul><li>-Accessing professional resources and making professional contributions. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Management: </li></ul><ul><li>-Maintaining and using student records </li></ul><ul><li>-Managing science time, materials, and the physical environment. </li></ul><ul><li>-Providing access to science for all students </li></ul>
  21. 21. Teacher as Researcher in the Science Classroom <ul><li>Becoming a reflective practitioner </li></ul><ul><li>Carrying out action Research </li></ul><ul><li>Posing problems, questions. Using investigative approaches . Evaluating results. Planning action. </li></ul><ul><li>Using technology tools for research </li></ul><ul><li>Investigating technology in instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Investigating student thinking and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Investigating management and teacher- centered issues. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Conclusion <ul><li>Science and technology should be accessible to all students. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology for science should be accessible for all teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Technology in science at the elementary and middle levels provides opportunities for students to explore and construct understandings of the natural world in a learning environment that supports their success as learners </li></ul><ul><li>Academics and fun are compatible! </li></ul>
  23. 23. Check out these websites! <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>www.inconstantmooncom/inconstant.htm </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  24. 24. Resources: <ul><li>Technology for the Teaching and Learning of Science </li></ul><ul><li>Science in the Multicultural Classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Online Activities for Kids </li></ul>
  25. 25. Thank You!! Have Fun!!