4Paddle Canada is a member based not-for-profit organization that was found in 1972. They currentlyhave over 1500 members that include instructor and individual members. They are linked to eightregional paddling associations and two affiliate member associations. Paddle Canada hosts severalregional paddling events in different part of Canada such as National Paddling Week. They arepartnered with Rapid Media in which provides members with a magazine of their choice. The missionat Paddle Canada is "to promote all forms of recreational paddling emphasizing safety and instruction,to Canadians of diverse abilities, cultures, and ages and to thus deepen our collective appreciation ofour land and paddling heritage." Paddle Canada values safety, educational programs, environmentalawareness, and heritage in their organization. We interviewed executive director, Graham Ketcheson,to gather information to analyze the operations at Paddle Canada.Key PublicsAt Paddle Canada they have thirteen Regional Directors in which one is from each province/territory inCanada. One of these Regional Directors is the President, Priscilla Haskin from Alberta. RegionalDirectors are currently vacant in Nunavut, Manitoba, Prince Edward Island, and Northwest Territories.In addition to the Regional Directors, Paddle Canada also has an Executive Director, GrahamKetcheson.Paddle Canada also has four program committees: canoeing, sea kayaking, river kayaking, and sup.These committees are responsible for promoting safe recreational paddling through the developmentand maintenance of a program of skill, instructor and instructor training. There are also three task forcecommittees at Paddle Canada: communications, environment, and member services.They key publics at Paddle Canada are the ones whos support and cooperation is necessary to achievethe short-term and long-term goals of the organization. In order for things to run smoothly the Boardof Directors and the committees must be involved.Key Publics
5The core services they offer at Paddle Canada is recreational canoeing, river kayaking, sea kayaking, andstand up paddle boarding. They offer their services to individuals who are new to the sport as well asthose who are advanced. In addition, they offer the training in order to become an instructor.At Paddle Canada they have short-term as well as long-term goals. Paddle Canada has a mission tobecome the most recognized training program nationally, especially in Ontario, Quebec, and BritishColumbia. They also have a goal to offer their services in French, being a bilingual country this isnecessary in order to gain market share in Quebec. The main short-term goal at Paddle Canada is tocreate awareness about their training programs by attending as many paddling and outdoor tradeshows as possible. Paddle Canada also needs to develop a communication plan to get Paddle Canadarecognized. Their goal is to review their website, increase the use of social media, and continue puttingadvertisements in Rapid Media and Current Strokes Enewsletter. In regards to long-term goals, theywant to engage more youth into their paddling programs. In order to attract more general members,they need to offer more benefits that will encourage people to join. Finally, they would like to createmore partnerships with federal organizations such as Parks Canada.The vision of Paddle Canada is to educate and inspire recreational paddles of all disciplines, abilities,and ages. In addition to offering services to paddlers, they also promote public paddling safety andawareness and provide paddle skill development through internationally recognized programs andrespected partnerships with complementary organizations. Paddle Canada constantly strives to meetthe changing needs of the paddling community by improving existing safety and skill programs,resources, and growing our national instructor base, to encompass all regions and paddling disciplines.Paddle Canada has many objectives as a not-for-profit organization. Their number one objective is toincrease the number of youth participating in Paddle Canada programs which is also a long-term goalof the organization. The way to go about meeting this long-term goal is to increase the number ofexisting organized youth paddling programs at Paddle Canada. In the standard value chain, setting outthe vision, goals, strategies, and systems will lead to quality products and services which leads tosatisfied customers and in the end it will impact the bottom line.Value ChainAnalysis
7Geographic segmentationOnce a member adds to be a participant to a course, he/she has to provide his/her postal code oremail in order to make sure it is a required field. Participants without valid emails will not receivean automated course completion email. The data was selected by postal code can help PaddleCanada organizing their members by regionally and tracking on their target markets. For example,activities in Northern provinces may be different from southern area.Demographic segmentationThe majority ages of members were teenagers and adults who are around 40-60 year old. Male andfemale were even in the younger group and more males were in the older group. They divided thecourses/programs into different levels (introduction, intermediate, and advance) to satisfymembers’ needs. For example, the canoeing courses have six different disciplines include lake canoe,moving water canoe, canoe tripping, canoe poling, big canoe, and coastal canoeing. There are noage restrictions for any Skill Courses. For all instructor courses there is a minimum age of 16 years ofage (Paddle Canada). The information that Paddle Canada collected by demographic will help theyeasily arrange program by different groups. Teenagers likely involve the energetic and adventurouscourses. Elder groups may interest in fishing or kayaking which is more mildly and lower riskycourses.Psychographic segmentationSocial class: People who are around middle class or above more likely enjoy outdoor activities. Mostof them are older than 40 and have enough time to travelling. Also people who are workingprofessional may be big fan on paddling because of the high stressful of work etc.Lifestyle: Graham mentioned that a lot of stand-up paddlers are social media buffs. Because thepaddling activities usually will be announced by Twitter or someone set up an activity on Facebookpage. In addition, most of aquatics fans are looking forward a healthier lifestyle. They care aboutwhat they eat like granolas and how they do the outdoor exercises.Personality: Many explorerswho are energetic and autonomy are more likely attracted by adventureprograms, such as younger students.Segmentation
8Industrial segmentationAs a leader of the industry, Paddle Canada’s business is covering to most of Canadian provinces.However, they are looking for corporation programs as a target market with many otherorganizations such as Scouts Canada, Kayak / SUP & Canoe Manufacturers, Kayak / SUP / CanoeRetailers, Boys and Girls Club Canada, Kids Summer Camps, and School Boards etc. Also there arecouple of similar organizations in Canada which is Paddle Canada’s big competitors in this industry.Graham had many ideas about attracting sponsorship like top notch gears, boat manufacturersponsors, bank or insurance group etc. According to Naics (North America Industry ClassificationSystem) Codes – 112510 Aquaculture Canadian, fish breeding and propagating services could be thecooperative partner with Paddle Canada to run the fishing programs.
9ProductIn 1971, Paddle Canada (formerly the Canadian Recreational Canoeing Association) was formed to helpco-ordinate the efforts of non-competitive canoeing and kayaking across Canada (Paddle Canada).As aleader in the industry, Paddle Canada provides high quality of instructors, curriculum and relatedknowledge to achieve their professionalism. Their national paddling programs have been proven to bethe ideal mechanism with environmental awareness. According to the canoe’s and kayak’s extendedhistory in conjunction with its stable popularity, they are at the point of decline; fishing and rafting &dragon boating are new attractively and their popularity is getting higher. However, the increase intraining and safety programs has the potential to slow the rate of decline although it is not strongenough to push canoeing and kayaking into another growth phase. In addition, Paddle Canada hadsome logo products, which are another than training and courses such as T-shirt, hats, flags, andstickers.PricePaddle Canada ensures sustainable growth of its membership by providing value-added services thatwill benefit both consumers and firms that service the paddling industry. Paddle Canada is using thepenetration strategy to charge lowerprice of its products to the members. Every individual member willpay $45 annual membership fee with optionally products such as $10 for magazine, $3 for sticker anddelivery, and $9 for insurance. Only the instructors value the Paddle Canada’s membership. Themembership is a hard sell for the general paddlers since there are not many benefits for joining otherthan the magazine and sticker. However, the income of current members will not covering their overalloperating budget. For example, the annually operating budget is around $300,000, so that themembership fee has to be at least $167 annually to operate 1800 members. Paddle Canada invested indeveloping and delivering a marketing campaign to target businesses and organizations since 2011. Upto now, they have invested about $44,000 and willing to continually invest in 2014 based on grants.PromotionSelling: Paddle Canada has had many kinds of promotional tools. They used to promote the poly bagwith Paddle Canada stickers to 8,000 Canadian Subscribers. They tried to sell more training / programswhere members could end up on one of instructors’ doors. But they do not immediately expect thereturn on investment do not necessarily get people as a paid up member. They are looking forward along term relationship.Advertising: There were many trade show booth to advertise the Training and Programs and events tomany across Country at Toronto, Ottawa, Calgary and Vancouver. For example, they had a booth at theOttawa Outdoor and Adventure Travel Show. Also they attended in Cottage Life Show and would liketo do Sportsman Show as the hook and bullet crowd would be a good target for preaching safety, PFDsFive P’s ofMarketing
10training and kayak fishing is taking off. Graham had exposure to 28,000 at the Toronto OutdoorAdventure Show.Dialogue Communication: They ran 1-2 Regional Paddling Symposiums each year bringing in top notchspeakers and coaches and then sponsoring most of the event. Those are attended by 50 – 150 paddlersregionally and Paddle Canada get to market directly to them. The Communications (Marketing &Promotion) Committee provides regular input and feedback regarding the quality of primary PaddleCanada products.Monologue Communication: A prominent paddling Canadian icon that supports and markets PaddleCanada’s vision and mandate when making public appearances. Committee has done development ofgraphics for trade show, Kanawa section in Rapid Media, Banner Ads on some reciprocal sites, also theyare working on a Communication Plan as part of new Strategic Plan.PlaceThe Environment committee identifies issues related to our waterways that are a concern for paddlers.They are the voice of recreational paddlers at the provincial and federal levels of government onenvironmental issues. Fishing programs have to operate in authorized water area, such as areas provedby fish breeding and propagating services. Graham said that the paddling place has to be somewherethat is specific for paddling. However, the committee in general is not given enough budgets,importance, or time at board level. Furthermore, due to the environmental issues, Paddle Canada hadhard time to operate activities in the Canadian winters; they will create more projects of outsideCanada like tropical areas.PeoplePaddlers are taught the Leave No Trace principles for active environmental awareness and protection inorder to help ensure that they can all continue to enjoy Canadas many waterways and wilderness foryears to come. The individually members will participate in any courses based on their skill levels only.There is no level difference of memberships. People who are 20-30 year old merely attend to PaddleCanada. The reason of they are not attending includes budget problem, time management like careerbuilding, or family issues like raising kids etc. There were increasingly numbers of new membersattending to Paddle Canada since 2010. The average of new members in the past three years was about1500 what represents 8 Regional Member Associations and Affiliate Member Associations.They aresuccessfully and consistently deliver the message of safe and enjoyable paddling to more than 50,000paddlers annually.
11PESTLE Analysis -PoliticalAt first glance, the political environment for Paddle Canada is not positive since the Harpergovernment’s primary efforts focused towards economic stimulation and tax and deficit reductions. Aswill be proven below, there is little political effort being put towards preserving natural landscapes andproperly regulating industries to protect the quality of the land, water, and air. With Paddle Canada’svalue proposition heavily reliant on Canada’s landscape the political environment endangers theirability to promote the enjoyment of the paddling activities.The Harper government has been in power since 2006 and obtained a majority government in the 2011election, which has resulted in many changes. Although the Conservatives had increased protectedlands by 48% in their first four years in office, at the end of 2012 the passing of the omnibus bill C-45amended the Navigable Waters Protection Act and reduced Canada’s protected waters from 2.5 millionlakes and rivers to 82. This legislative change has broken down the barriers that once hindered variouscorporations and industries from extracting natural resources and constructing roads anddams(Ecojustice, 2012). This is not the only instance where the current federal government has chosenthe economy over Canada’s environment.The current platform the Conservative party states on their website shows that $3.2 billion will supportvarious industries in reducing their carbon footprint, $1.2 billion will be devoted to research anddevelopment of the technology to enable that endeavour, and only $593.5 million will be devoted toregulating businesses to ensure they achieve those environmental goals in addition to developing newconservation areas and protecting endangered species (Figure 1)(Conservative Party of Canada). Theinvestment in industries to allow them to reduce their carbon consumption requires a valiant effort andyet without the research, development, and regulation of those endeavours their success is less thanFigure 1: Government Funding Towards Environmental Endeavours
12uncertain. Funding to the Research Tri-Council of Canada had been reduced by $37 million in 2011,which put them $137 million below the funding they had received prior to 2009(Matilloux, 2011). Notonly has funding become limited but researchers are not permitted to share their findings with themedia without explicit permission from the Privy Council’s office (Omara, 2013) and the NationalResearch Council has also stated that all future research will focus on areas that lead to economic orsocial gain because “scientific discovery is not valuable unless it has commercial value” (Semeniuk,2013).The current political agenda drastically affects Paddle Canada’s ability to compete because the root oftheir product is Canada’s wilderness and waterways, which are in danger from climate change andeconomic development. Without proper legislation, research, regulation, and activism by the federalgovernment, Paddle Canada loses part of its image and ability to offer members the opportunity toconnect with nature. The endangerment of Canada’s landscape may overwhelm Paddle Canada’senvironmental advocate committee which could be detrimental to their ability to offer other aspects oftheir total offering or provide an opportunity to refocus the organization into a stronger advocacygroup.Despite the current ominous future, there is cause for some hope. The next federal election is set totake place on October 19, 2015. The Conservatives have a 58.89% majority and at the time of the 2011election they had 39.62% of the popular vote. The most recent national polls show that theConservatives popularity has dropped to 29% with the Liberals jumping from 18.91% in 2011 to 36%following the appointment of Justin Trudeau as Liberal party leader (Figure 2). Although a Liberalgovernment does not necessarily mean all the stated issues will be reversed or resolved, the LiberalParty, New Democrats, and Green Party have all spoken out against the Conservatives on all of thestated issues, which gives cause for hope that a majority or minority government, which does notfavour the Conservative Party, will restore Canada’s wilderness and waterways.Figure 2: Federal Polling Averages (as of May 2, 2013) (Grenier, 2013)
13PESTLE Analysis -EconomicalPoliticians, economists, and Canadians alike are still feeling the impact of the 2008 economic recession.Although there are indications that Canada’s economy is on the road to recovery, there are many thatfeel the economy is fragile and can relapse if pushed too hard.Currently, the average Canadian household owes $1.65 for every dollar earned(Thomson Reuters, 2013)and mortgage debt has hit $1.1 trillion and consumer debt reached $477 billion both in 2012 (CBC, 2013).In comparison to previous decades, Canadians have experienced debt, which is substantially higherthan that of their parents and grandparents. The Bank of Canada has found that 31 to 35 year olds in1999 had a total real debt of approximately $75,000 while their 2010 counterparts have a total real debtof almost $120,000 (Figure 3). Equifax Canada recently reported that debt growth has begun to taper offto moderate levels and short-term debt delinquencies have dropped. This however is accompanied bywarnings that high household debt and a cooling housing market will hold back the Canadianeconomy(The Canadian Press, 2013). On the positive side, Canada’s net worth did rise to $6.9 trillion inthe fourth quarter of 2012, which equates to $195,900 per Canadian(CBC, 2013). As determined by theBank of Canada, total household credit has been steadily rising since 1984 but in proportion toconsumer and mortgage credit (Figure 4). In spite of this increase, one third of Canadians will use their2012 tax refund to pay off some of their debt rather than splurge on recreational activities (Favelle, 2013)and this is not uncommon since the 2008 economic recession. In 2011 the average household had$73,457 in expenditures with only 5%, or $3,711, was devoted to recreational activities, which is a 3.7%increase from 2010(Statistics Canada, 2013). Although, it is positive growth that could benefit PaddleCanada, debt aversion is becoming deep seeded in many Canadians, especially its students.Figure 3: Mean Household Debt, by Age(Faruqui, 2011-2012)
14According to the Canadian Federation of Students, the average student loan is $27,000 with a total of$15 billion outstanding at the federal level, which excludes provincial loans and regular bank and creditcard debt. Repayment of this debt begins almost immediately after graduation, which pushes graduatesto seek employment of any sort, even if it is not in their field of study, that can reduce their ability tostart a family; work in public service careers; invest in assets and recreational activities; build career-related volunteer experience; or take lower paying work in their field in the hopes of futureadvancement(Canadian Federation of Students). Debt aversion even deters parents from encouragingtheir children to attend post-secondary and without formal education many will only make an annualincome of $16,500 to $38,700 versus $20,100 to $50,300 that is made by those with a diploma, degree ortrade(Statistics Canada, 2009). Those with a lack of education will have less disposable income as wellas those with excessive amounts of debt will have less money that can be potentially spent on a PaddleCanada membership or related recreational activities.A strong component to Paddle Canada’s success and ability to attract members is the public’s ability topurchase an annual membership, invest in training, and to become involved in volunteer activities andenvironmental actions. In the current economic recovery, Canadians are hesitant to spend on non-necessity products and services and will use extra income to pay off debt or save. This debt aversion isalso deterring a small proportion from attending post-secondary, which would have lead to more highpaying jobs and more expendable income that could be put towards recreational activities. For thosethat do obtain a post-secondary credential, the economic environment does not guarantee employmentin their field of study and it is well after graduation, when student loans are paid off, that graduatesbegin to devote part of their budget to recreation.The current economic conditions also impact the non-profit sector in obtaining paid and volunteerpersonnel due to increased demand and proactive responses to curtailing expenditures. ImagineCanada has been surveying non-profits and charities since 2009, and according to their 2012 reportfound that leaders such as, the Boys and Girls Club, have expressed the following:1. Lower confidence in ability to meet organizational missions2. Record low revenue forecasts since the 2008 recessionFigure 4: Ratio of Debt to Personal Disposable Income (2010)(Faruqui, 2011-2012)
153. Government funding is expected to drop within the next 2 years4. Dramatic expense reductions in response to low revenue despite increase in demand5. No significant fluctuations in paid and volunteer staff6. Concern revolving around ability to cover expenses in 2013(Imagine Canada, 2012)Paddle Canada has experienced some of the issues above. Being a virtual organization, paid staffing isnot a prevalent concern, however the lack of increase in volunteer staffing can become strenuous onexisting staff as they attempt to meet the increased demand. The increase in expenditures inconjunction with less government funding will further exacerbate staffing stressors and couldpotentially decrease Paddle Canada’s ability to meet its organizational missions as other non-profits areexperiencing.
16PESTLE Analysis -SocialCanada is an ever-growing country. Although the projected population growth rate is 0.90 (Figure 5)and the average size of a family has dropped to 1.7 children (Figure 6), there is a steady flow of landedimmigrants joining the Canadian population. In 2012 approximately 257,515 immigrants gained landedstatus in Canada (Citizenship and Immigration Canada, 2013)bringing the net population growth from129,356 (Statistics Canada, 2012)(Statistics Canada, 2012) to 386,871.Figure 5: Average Annual Population Growth Rate(Human Resources and Skills Development Canada)Figure 6: Annual Number of Immigrants(Human Resources and Skills Development Canada)
17From one perspective, the natural rate of population growth in conjunction with the landed immigrantrate makes the Paddle Canada’s marketable population larger, however, there should be keyconsiderations towards where Canadians are located. Due to the success of the Tar Sands,interprovincial migration to Alberta is the highest in the country and due to the competitive nature ofthe job market, Ontario has the highest level of migration out of the province (Figure 7). This is notnecessarily negative for Paddle Canada as Alberta has more than 500 provincial parks(Alberta Parks),while Ontario only has 330 (Ontario Parks, 2008) and there are therefore more avenues for PaddleCanada members to participate in paddling activities. It can be expected that Alberta will maintain itsnet growth for a number of years.The most important aspect of Canada’s population is the positive social environment that has begun toevolve. Canadians are becoming more health conscious, understanding that regular physical activitycan help them prevent or stave off various forms of illnesses. The increase in outdoor-based activities incombination with the increase in environmental activism creates a larger populace for Paddle Canadato market to and attract. Cancer, heart disease, stroke, respiratory disease, and diabetes hold the topfive causes of death in Canada, claiming 152,283 in 2009 alone(Statistics Canada, 2012). The NationalInstitutes of Health in the United States, along with other research institutions around the world, haveconducted numerous studies and clinical trials that indicated the varying degrees to which physicalactivity can elongate an individual’s life by improving heart and lung function, controlling weight,reducing blood pressure, and even reducing the risk of certain kinds of cancer(National Heart, Lung,and Blodd Institute, 2011).Figure 7: Interprovincial Migration (2011/2012)(Statistics Canada, 2012)
18Since these findings, Statistics Canada has measured a steady incline physical activity amongCanadians, and some age groups have experienced a greater increase than others (Figure 8). Manyorganizations are promoting physical activity and Paddle Canada will benefit from this genericadvertising because of the population’s inclination towards healthy living and longevityFigure 2: Physical Activity, by Age(Statistics Canada, 2013)
19PESTLE Analysis -TechnologicalTechnological advancement has been increasing at exponential rates and is projected to increase ourabilities for decades to come. TEF, a research firm in Miami, Florida, has conducted research and hasprojected how more technologically advanced our society will become over the next 11 years. From 2012to 2023, the world can except to become a thousand times more advanced (Figure 9) which could leadto any variety of benefits for Paddle Canada from developing new methods of paddling, improving themanufacture and transport of paddling products, decreasing environmental impact caused bybusinesses and individuals, and improving communications between businesses and consumers.As mentioned by Graham Ketcheson, Executive Director of Paddle Canada, advancements incommunications and social media has benefited Paddle Canada, its instructors, and the remainder ofthe membership by breaking down geographic barriers that once separated them(Ketcheson, ExecutiveDirector, Paddle Canada, 2013); and other research solidifies this claim. Surveys conducted by StatisticsBrain, found that 56% of survey participants held accounts on some form of social media. Facebookusers spend an average of 15.5 hours per month Facebook, there are 190 million tweets per day, 92billion video views per month on YouTube, and 3,000 pictures uploaded to Flickr every minute. Thepopularity of Facebook, and its 1.2 billion users, has led to 2.5 million websites integrating Facebookinto their sites(Statistics Brain, 2012). Jim Keenan, social sales specialist has found that 72.6% of salespeople using social media out sell those that do not use social media(Fidelman, 2013). Social media notonly appeals to the younger demographic but it can also target those above 65. In a 2010 a surveyconducted by Statistics Canada found that 60% of seniors aged 65 to 74 had used the internet in the lastmonth for a variety of reason. This is a drastic increase from the survey that was conducted in 2000 thatonly documented 10% of seniors actively utilizing the internet(Statistics Canada, 2013). There are manytactics Paddle Canada can use in the upcoming future to help take full advantage of the internet.Figure 9: Increase in Technological Ability(TEF, 2012)
20PESTLE Analysis -EnvironmentalIt has been scientifically proven by ice core samples that the fluctuation in the earth’s climate is theproduct of a regular cycle the earth experiences due to increased levels of greenhouse gases in theatmosphere. What is significant about the current cycle is that it is most likely human-induced,according to NASA, since carbon dioxide levels are over 380 parts per million and the highest level priorto human civilization was under 300 parts per million. In the last century, sea levels have risen 17cm,the global temperatures has increased by 0.74°C, the oceans have warmed 0.302°C, and the ice sheetshave shrunk more than 1,208 cubic kilometres(NASA).Global changes are beginning to affect Canadians. Parts of the Great Lakes have experienced drops inwater levels up to 50 to 60 cm, which is the lowest it has been in decades. In Georgian Bay and LakeHuron fish spawning areas have dried up leading to serious social and environmental implications (CBCNews, 2013). There are 29 million Canadians and Americans who rely on the Great Lakes for drinkingwater and with less ice developing during the winter, evaporation will continue to lower the lakes waterlevels; and the impact extends beyond the St. Lawrence Basin. On the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, risesin the sea level have flooded low-lying coastal lands, displacing residential, transportation, andindustrial facilities and warmer rivers have increased pre-spawning mortality and displaced other fishspecies. The Prairies, have been experiencing more frequent droughts due to an unreliable cold winterwhich decreases precipitation later in the year. In the North, coastal areas have become flooded andinland, milder winters have shorten the period to which ice roads can be utilized. Ice roads are vital tosurvival and prosperity of the Northern communities because winter provides the opportunity fortransports to deliver necessary supplies; in comparison to aircraft, ice truckers are the most cost-effective(Environment Canada, 2010). This will impact Paddle Canada when popular waterways losemore and more water, making them less appealing and endangering the communities which service thepaddle industry and other complimentary industries that support the area. Flooding will have the sameimpact and will also damage roadways and points of access furthering the areas rate of decline.
21PESTLE Analysis -LegalTransport Canada has outlined the mandatory items necessary to ensure an individual’s safety whenpiloting a self-propelled water vehicle, which include a personal floatation device, a whistle, bail bucket,and a buoyant with a 15m rope. On occasion, flares, reflectors, and lights are required to keep the vesselvisible in the dim and dark. Non-compliance will often lead to a fine of $200 or more(Transport Canada,2013). To solidify these safety standards, the Government has given $322,000 in funding to six boatingsafety awareness projects including $50,000 to Paddle Canada to organize National Paddling Week inJune 2013(Graham Ketcheson, 2012). Safety regulations around the newly introduced sport, stand-uppaddling, is also beginning to be established due to the most recent popularity in British Columbia andthe increase in water traffic. Other boaters are concerned with hitting them as they paddle in themiddle of channels and feel they do not understand the rules of the waterways(CBC News, 2012). Safetystandards Transport Canada also requires non-pleasure crafts to be register, which does not affectPaddle Canada’s main membership but businesses that supply them such as boat rentalsuppliers(Transport Canada, 2013).Insurance, as indicated by Graham Ketcheson, is not difficult to administer but more time consumingthan a business can hope. Often, various training programs that take place on water belonging to parksand municipalities require coverage under Paddle Canada’s $5 million insurance plan that protectsinstructors from liabilities while training. While there has never been an incident, it is important forany business offering a service to carry protection against even the most miniscule of liabilities(GrahamKetcheson, 2012).
22CompetitiveAnalysisPorters five forces is a tool to help analyze the strength of your business current competitive position.There are five important forces that according to Porter determine a business competitive position.The five forces being: existing rivalry among competitors, threat of new entry, threat of substitutes,buying power, and supplier power.Rivalry among existing competitorsThe competitive rivalry is determined based on the number of competitors and how different theirproducts/services are to your own. If there are many competitors in the industry with virtually the sameproduct/service you are offering, the rivalry would be high. In regards to Paddle Canada we would haveto say there is low risk on the national level but on the provincial and regional level there is high risk.Paddle Canada is the only national recreational paddling organization in Canada. There two maincompetitors are Ontario Recreational Canoeing Association, Federation Quebec and Canoe Kayak, andRecreational Canoeing Association of BC, Paddle Alberta.Threat of new entrantsCompetitive position is also determined based on how easy it is to enter the industry. If there is littlestart up cost and few barriers to entry, the threat of new entrants is high. Becoming a nationalorganization is not an easy thing to do. Paddle Canada, being a national organization, has manyregulations that they have to abide by and its takes mass amounts of time and money to enter thealready defined industry. Therefore the threat of new entrants is low risk.Threat of substitutesIf the product/service you offer can be easily replaced then your threat of substitutes is at high risk.Paddle Canada has no substitutes for recreational paddling on the national level. In regards to otherpaddling organizations on the provincial or regional level, there are other paddling organizations thatare comparable to Paddle Canada.
23Bargaining power of suppliersSupplier power is determined by how easy it is for suppliers to drive up prices. If there are few suppliersin the industry and your business heavily relies on these suppliers, the suppliers have a lot of power.They essentially have control over you. Paddle Canada is a virtual organization. They dont offer actualproducts to customers. In regards to the suppliers of funds which is the granting bodies, they have a lotof power. Therefore we will conclude and say the bargaining power of suppliers is moderate risk.Bargaining power of buyersBuyer power is the ability of the buyers to drive the price of the product/service down. The bargainingpower of buyers is determined by the number of buyers and the importance of each buyer to theorganization. Paddling is a recreational sport, not a commodity. This being said, paddling is somethingthat many consumers can go without. At Paddle Canada the buyers are the members in which theyhave a huge impact on everyday operations. If prices drive up, members will no longer want to buy amembership. This being said, the bargaining power of buyers is high risk.
26The Very BeginningThe history of the canoe and kayak and its prevalence in Canada’s heritage begins with Canada’sAboriginal cultures. Originally made of birch bark in southern Canada and seal skin in the north,canoes and kayaks provided the Natives with methods of transportation which allowed them to hunton the water and to migrate larger distances to areas with more habitable conditions (Native Exhibit).Paddle transportation made its next mark in Canada’s history with the European colonization of NorthAmerica and the emergence of Voyageurs. Today, among Canadian societies, the term “Voyageur” ispaired with the image of burly men traversing the unexplored, wild interior, trading furs with theNatives, and “living full lives of perilous adventure, grueling labour and boisterous camaraderie”(Foster, 2012). This sense of adventure and exploration has continued to live on in outdoorsmen andgroups such as Scouts Canada and in recent years paddle transportation has begun to evolvedramatically inviting a whole new plethora of demographics to enjoy the water and nature.EvolutionCanoeing and KayakingCanoeing and kayaking has become quite popular to the point where they necessitate various trainingprogram segments to appeal to different skill sets seeking different adventures and experiences.According to the Paddle Canada, canoe-training programs are divided into seven segments: StyleCanoeing, Lake Canoeing, Moving Water Canoeing, Canoe Tripping, Canoe Poling, Big Canoe, andCoastal Canoeing, while kayaking is simply segmented into Sea and River Kayaking. All canoe andkayaking programs provide Beginner, Intermediate, and Advanced levels, which encompass varioustechniques, suited for the skill level of its registrants (Paddle Canada, 2012). The most popular programsare: Lake Canoeing, because it teaches the basic skills; Moving Water Canoeing and River Kayaking,because of the thrill and danger associated with navigating whitewater rapids; and Coastal Canoeingand Sea Kayaking, because of their necessary skill as well as the ability to get closer to elusive creatureswhich are scared away by loud motors (Ketcheson, Executive Director, 2013). The point of safety hasalso become a driving force behind the increase in participation in training programs. From 1991 to2008 there were 2,572 deaths due to drowning, hypothermia, and vessel collisions (Transport Canada,2011). Not all deaths were preventable but groups such as Paddle Canada and Transport Canadaemphasize training and safety in the hopes of drastically reducing the risk of accidental death while onthe water.Stand-Up PaddlingStand-up paddling (SUP) is actually a variant of surfing and originated in the 1960s when surfinginstructors began using paddles to help their trainees as well as to position photographers for on-the-water photo-shoots. Later in the early 2000s, surfers began “SUPing” to train when the surf was low andLife CycleAnalysis
27eventually it evolved into its own individual sport (SUP Global, 2008). SUP popularity is on the risealthough it is still quite new that there are very few statistics indicating just how quickly.FishingAlthough recreational fishing is not part of paddling training programs it has indirectly contributed tothe increased popularity of canoes, and more notably for kayaks in recent history (Ketcheson, ExecutiveDirector, 2013). Self propelled vessels, which are much lighter and more transportable, are allowinganglers to access backwaters which have been unaffected by pollution and development giving themthe ability to catch larger fish and different species. Recreational fishing (using self-propelled andmotorized vessels) among Canadians and tourists has been on the incline since 2005. As of 2010, therewere 3,287,603 active anglers fishing in Canadian waters as surveyed by the Ministry of Fisheries andOceans Canada, a 8.41% decline from 2000 but a 1.6% increase from 2005 (Ministry of Fisheries andOceans Canada, 2012).Rafting and Dragon BoatingAlthough not part of Paddle Canada’s service offering, the increasing popularity of both white waterrafting and dragon boating is another form of paddling activity. Their popularity can be partiallyattributed to the corporate world due to the camaraderie, synchronization, and teamwork they require.Both of these markets are likely not covered by Paddle Canada due to the extensive competition thatalready exists within both niches with over 24,925 businesses servicing the amusement and recreationsector in Canada (NAICS Association, 2008). This popularity displays yet another way the ‘paddle’ isbeing adapted to service demographics it was once unable to attract.Stage in the Life CycleGiven the canoe’s and kayak’s extended history in conjunction with its stable popularity, it would seemapparent that they are at the point of decline in the product life cycle. It should be noted however thatthe increase in training and safety programs has the potential to slow the rate of decline although it isnot strong enough to push canoeing and kayaking into another growth phase. Paddling activities willinstead grow “sideways” with stand-up paddling, rafting, and dragon boating. These activities arecurrently in the growth phase of their product life cycle and can be expected to continue to grow.Residents seeking to utilize their local waterways with a comparatively less expensive vessel will drivestand-up paddling popularity. Dragon boating will also serve locals but for those seeking a social settingor corporate team-building. Rafting will also service the corporate world in the same way, however itwill be primarily fed by adventure seeking tourists from foreign lands. Paddle Canada will need to adaptto take advantage of evolving trends. Canoe and kayak markets are stable target market who’s declinewill be very shallow. However, with the paddle industry and target demographics becoming highlydiversified Paddle Canada needs to focus on developing its total offering to make it appealing to a largeraudience.
29Brand definePaddle Canada is a member-based, not-for-profit organization. They currently have 1800 members whoinclude instructors and individual memberships. Paddle Canada is one of the main bodies providingcertification-based training for paddles in Canada.Brand promiseThe mission of Paddle Canada is "to promote all forms of recreational paddling emphasizing safety andinstruction, to Canadians of diverse abilities, cultures, and ages and to thus deepen our collectiveappreciation of our land and paddling heritage.” Paddle Canada promises “Safety and Professional” tothe members. They promise that get optimum deployment of natural resources to meet safetycriteriaand they will be responsible for new capability development of the natural resources.Brand personalityThe goal of Paddle Canada is to get people onto the water and paddling in a fun, safe and skilledmanner. Paddle Canada is using reliable sources to provide the trustworthy courses to its members.They are a unique outdoorsy and national organization which delivers enjoyable, protective,adventurous, and playful to their members.Brand positioningPaddle Canada targets people who are interesting in paddling or other aquatics. Members can attenddifferent levels of courses and programs. As a non-profit organization, Paddle Canada charges a fewermembership fee and other optional products to its members and paddlers. Therefore, the brandpositioning of Paddle Canada is at the high quality services level with a low selling price.Brand Analysis
30Visual identity & collateralThe logo of Paddle Canada is simple, colourful, visualized, and consistently. It is red maple leaf andblue paddles with English and French writing of Paddle Canada on the side. Red maple leaf representsCanada and blue paddles represent a pure and peaceful natural resource. A river between maple leafand paddles delivers the image of aquatics such as canoeing and kayaking. From this logo, people candefine that Paddle Canada’s activities are adventurous and playful. A red maple leaf on the top of logo istelling people that Paddle Canada is the best national paddling organization with professional skills. AllPaddle Canada’s correspondence enforces the brand identity using logo, from business cards,brochures, website, free stickers and T-Shirts, and magazines, in terms of extend the overall marketingmessage and company image.Brand impressionPeople are thinking Paddle Canada focus on results; they are reliable contributor to its members.Members are loyalty and low retention because of the best services that Paddle Canada provides. All ofinstructors are certified to coaching, in order to be responsible to members and spread the water safetyawareness whereby costless Paddling Tip Booklists.
31Sales PromotionsThe only clearly indicated sale promotion for Paddle Canada is a discounted subscriber fees ($12.95from $17.95) for Rapid Media magazines, in addition to the four issues members receive with themembership submission or renewal (Paddle Canada, 2013). It is part of their value proposition but itonly indirectly supports Paddle Canada. In directing customers to Rapid Media it keeps them updatedon Paddle Canada news and complimentary products and services, but also exposes them to PaddleCanada’s competitors.Public RelationsPaddle Canada relies heavily on member volunteers to participate on the Board of Directors; ProgramCommittees for canoeing, river and sea kayaking, and stand up paddling; and Task Force Committeesfor marketing, environmental initiatives, and member services. This has provided members with anavenue to have a large impact on the organization. Unfortunately, as mentioned by Graham Ketcheson,outside of volunteer for events and trade shows, members are not as ready to devote extended periodsof their life to these various committees (Ketcheson, Executive Director, 2013).Another method of public relations Paddle Canada has employed is the recognition of “Patrons ofPaddle Canada” who are a predominant Canadian figures that support paddling activities. Currentlythey have: David Suzuki, award-winning scientist, environmentalist, and broadcaster; Kevin Callan,author of twelve outdoor related books and guides; Paul Mason, Whitewater Freestyle champion,instructor, and guide; and Becky Mason, author and film-maker of the Path of the Paddle series (PaddleCanada, 2013)Paddle Canada’s most recent public success was being selected to help organize the 2014 NationalPaddling Week with Rapid Media (current partner) and the Canadian Canoe Museum. The event is setto take place June 15thto the 23rdand can expected to receive national and regional media coverage asvarious communities and organizations host different events promoting paddle training and safety.Participation in such activities is not uncommon for Paddle Canada. They have also participated in theNorth American Safe Boating Awareness Week as well as the Rideau Canal Brigade and paddled theDiamond Jubilee Flotilla. Other mentions in the media have come from instructors and members whohave spearheaded community initiatives and achieved paddle career milestonesPersonal SellingPaddle Canada is highly participatory in promoting themselves at trade shows, purchasing space atvarious shows, such as:Marketing ChannelAnalysis
32the Cottage Life Show in Toronto (Fall and Spring): annually receives 17,000 to 30,000 attendees andover 500 exhibitors (Cottage Life Show, 2013).the Ottawa Outdoor and Adventure Show : provides extensive added-value marketing opportunitieswith the advertisement of the event itself. Additional exposure outside the event is valued at $100,000+.Exhibitor space is valued based on its location within the venue and rates range from $9.15 to $15.20 persquare foot (The Outdoor and Adventure Travel Show, 2013).the Toronto Outdoor Adventure Show: is considered the largest consumer show in Canada, with atleast 28,000 attendees and more than 300 exhibitors. Purchasing a booth costs $1,395 for a 10 ft. by 10 ftand $2,750 for a 10 ft. x 20 ft. (The Ontario Adventure Show, 2013).Despite the significant amount of exposure and interest, Graham Ketcheson, executive director hasnoticed that it is easier to sell the programs offered by their regional associations (Exhibit 1) at tradeshows rather than Paddle Canada memberships. Therefore, this effort is perceived as a long-terminvestment in attaining general members making return on investment difficult to ascertain(Ketcheson, Executive Director, 2013).AdvertisingPaddle Canada primarily relies on their presence at trade shows and the interest of non-membertraining participants from programs offered by their regional affiliates. However, they do make valiantefforts to advertise their brand amongst the general public. Within every Rapid Media magazines,Paddle Canada has a three-page page advertisement where messages from the President and ExecutiveDirector providing updates as well as notifications regarding seminars, conferences, and other eventsPaddle Canada members may be interested in (Various, 2013). Paddle Canada also providesmerchandise in the form of t-shirts, hats, and whistles through their website (Paddle Canada, 2013). Thelast avenue by which Paddle Canada advertises is through social media:Facebook: 1,028 likesTwitter: 1,210 followersLinkedIn: 32 membersFlickr: 14 membersThrough these platforms Paddle Canada is able to advertise various different organization andvolunteer opportunities. However, more popular posts are notifications regarding training programs.
33Sales pipelineFirst big stage of target market is all of North American paddlers or aquatics fans, especially Canadianpaddlers. Second stage is paddlers who have attended in public paddling activities in North America,such as school board activities. Third stage is public non-membership paddlers who are attendingPaddle Canada’s training programs. There are about 50,000 non-membership paddlers annually joinedin Paddle Canada’s courses and only paid for the admin fee. The base stage is the full members whohave annually members or instructors.Seller rolesPaddle Canada is looking for long-term relationships with its members. Member’s retention and loyaltydrive the long-term success of Paddle Canada. Due to the issue of budget, Graham, who is executivedirector of Paddle Canada, is taking upon himself many tasks such as mainly delivery who’s a socialmedia writer whose responsible to post latest news of campaign such as post the announcement ofNational Paddling week to attract paddlers join in the activities; order taker whose arrange theactivities and make register for new members; missionary seller whose attend the tradeshows to buildthe Paddle Canada’s goodwill and spread the Paddle Canada’s potential customers.General populationTarget populationThose thatparticipatePaddleenthusiastsMembersCustomer Relationship ManagementAnalysis
34After extensive analysis of Paddle Canada’s external and internal environment and a discussion withExecutive Director, Graham Ketcheson, there are four goals and objectivesPaddle Canada should worktowards over the next 3 to 5 years to secure sustainable growth. In order of priority these are:1. Service the paddle industry from every direction by utilizing a value network of instructors,retailers, manufacturers, and paddle organizations2. Improve online platform communication with Paddle Canada’s target markets and segments andbecome an intermediary between consumers and paddle industry products and serviceproviders.3. Seek grant funding to attain more employees to drive initiatives within all Paddle Canadacommittees4. Take greater advantage of national initiatives that are in relation to the environment, watersafety, and physical activity by encouraging members of Paddle Canada’s value network toparticipate in these initiativesBy continuing to strengthen Paddle Canada existing value network of instructors and regional paddleassociations, Paddle Canada can ensure sustainable growth of its membership by providing value-addedservices that will benefit both consumers and firms that service the paddling industry. In properlyincentivizing their value network, Paddle Canada can also increase volunteer participation as well astheir brand image and awareness. These will be further improved by hiring employees to maintain themomentum within each committee by conducting necessary research and clerical duties that will allowtasks to be completed in a shorter period of time. The combination of these goals and objectives willservice Paddle Canada over the next 3 to 5 years by re-positioning Paddle Canada to an area where itmay continue to operate as a non-profit advocating for environmental preservation, water safety, andphysical activity.Goals &Objectives
35The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) Growth Share Matrix is a tool to analyze an organizationsproduct/service growth rate and market share. The matrix has four categories: stars, dogs, cash cows,and question marks. Stars are the products/services with high growth potential and high market share.Cash cows represent the money you invest for high growth; high growth is expensive. Dogs are whatyou dont want to have sitting there, you either want cows or stars. Dogs are the products/services thatgenerate barely enough cash to maintain market share. Finally, question marks are theproducts/services with high potential for growth but not much market share and dont generate largeamounts of cash.At Paddle Canada individual memberships are "question marks". The annual membership fee is $45with additional costs for the magazine subscription and sticker. These benefits arent that appealing toindividual members. Paddle Canada continues to invest in developing a marketing campaign to targetthese individuals. Campaigning to attract new individual members is a large cash consumption and hasto be analyzed whether it is worth the investment. Attracting more individual members has highpotential for Paddle Canada but there are actions that need to be done in order to turn individualmemberships into "stars".Instructor memberships are the "stars" of Paddle Canada. Instructor memberships account for themajority of market share at Paddle Canada.Paddle Canada spends a great deal of money trying to promote their organization. They attend manytrade shows which is not only costly but time consuming as well. They also sponsor Regional PaddlingSymposiums which is also expensive. Promoting Paddle Canada is a "cash cow" for the organization.The amount of money and time put into advertising is necessary for Paddle Canada to maintain theirorganization.Strategies – Growth ShareMatrix
37FinancialReliance on grants and government fundingRevenue generated through annual membership salesVolunteer members keep staffing costs downFinal Grade: BInternal Business ProcessHeavily volunteer based leads to the longer turnover oftasks and initiativesMany volunteers participate in tradeshows, committees,and task forcesSome volunteers are adverse to changeFinal Grade: BCustomerStrong positive perspective and brand loyaltyPsychographics of target markets are in line with mission,vision, and valuesMember volunteers participate in tradeshows, committees,and task forcesFinal Grade: A+Learning and GrowthNeeds driven; reactive not proactiveNeeds often brought to light by committee or task forceCan result in a steep learning curveFinal Grade: B-Strategies –Scorecard
38The following campaign is a large investment in Paddle Canada’s future. It will require heavyinvestment of time and resources however the outcome will be the solidification of Paddle Canada inthe eyes of the public and paddling industry giving it the foundation to exist and grow for decades tocome. Given the extensive research and personal effort required, we would recommend implementingthis campaign for the year leading upto the 45thanniversary of Paddle CanadaMarket ResearchBefore beginning any campaign data is needed. A component of our objective is to improve PaddleCanada’s total offering and that requires understand what members of paddling community want andneed. A survey of the current membership will be conducted using Google Forms. A third partyprovider would provide stronger expertise and analytics although in the interest of cost conservationGoogle Forms is more than capable of collecting and delivering data from the masses. The survey willbe designed to draw out information regarding members purchasing habits within the paddlingindustry: the barriers that deter them from enjoying paddle activities; what products or services theypurchase most; which items or services they wish cost less; what brands they trust most or seek out;where the purchase goods (retailers, wholesalers, online, tradeshows, etc.); and what organizations theyuse to participate in paddle activities and the costs associated with participating. Analysis of this datawill deliver the 10 most popular in retailers, manufacturers, and organization giving a total of 30 leadsthat Paddle Canada can focus on for our suggested campaign. Further research of the leads’ mission,vision, and values will narrow this search to 6-8 leads from each category where by cold or warm callscan be made to determine if a win-win relationship is plausible.Building the RelationshipDeveloping these partnership will not be as difficult as may be originally anticipated. Paddle Canada’sgreatest asset is its network of loyal instructors and members. This is the clientele that product andservice providers of the paddling industry, our 30 leads, are consistently trying to reach. Theproposition our campaign would pose is “partner with Paddle Canada and you will have direct access toyour customer base; they are interested in your business and it is up to use to make participation inpaddling activities as accessible as possible.”The first step is to contact and secure one interested lead from each of the following regions: BritishColumbia/Alberta, Saskatchewan/Manitoba, Ontario/Quebec, Maritime Provinces, and Territories.Within each region one lead, the regional associations, and Paddle Canada will partner on organizingand funding an event that will celebrate National Paddling Week 2016. The regional events will bestaggered and all leads will be invited to the event that is in closest proximity to their head office. Thiswill allow Graham Ketcheson, Executive Director, to have the ability to travel to each event andrelationship build with all of the leads in an informal setting. All leads are invited to these events toprovide several alternate leads that are ready to invest when other leads back out. The events will alsoserve as the stage for Paddle Canada to announce its partnership with a regional lead and theTactics &Analytics
39development of a new website that will help Paddle Canada members and other paddling enthusiastsaccess their activities more easily. Because Ontario and Quebec do not have their own paddlingassociations, their regions event will have to be completely funded by Paddle Canada and the leadsecured within the region. This can be an advantage because placing this event at the end of NationalPaddling Week will allow Paddle Canada to do a final press conference that will express the magnitudeof this venture to all national media outlets to help drive the media that has already occurredregionally.The WebsiteImproving the website will give Paddle Canada the ability to service the paddling industry from bothdirections by connecting consumers to the products and services that enable paddling activities. Thisstrategy will utilize and diversify Paddle Canada’s existing value network and will better its totaloffering making general memberships easier to sell. The overall concept of the website is to provide acatalogue of regionally specific vendors who provide products and services related to the paddlingactivities. Text within Paddle Canada’s pages will consistently direct viewers to the participatingvendor’s website. As an example, “Don’t have a canoe? Enjoy the wilderness of Algonquin Park and rentyour equipment at Algonquin Outfitters”. The first link would direct the viewer to Algonquin Park’sonline booking page and the second link would link them to the online rental page for AlgonquinOutfitters. In total, every participating business and organization would get three different forms ofadvertising: (1) the online catalogue, (2) the regionally specific ad banners and embedded content, and(3) a specialize Google search engine which only searches within the Paddle Canada website.Driving More ViewsWith the announcement of the new partnerships and websites taking place at the beginning of thesummer and website development expected to take six to eight months it is an ideal time to launch avideo contest. The challenge would be to nominate Paddle Superstars; individuals, instructors,organizations, retailers, or brands that have made Canada’s paddling culture possible.This could be aretailer that goes above and beyond when matching an individual to their ideal paddle or the instructorwho gives the best advice to overcome challenging rapids or the organization that helped a timid childmake friends while adventuring through the wilderness. The top 45 videos would be chosen at the endof 2016 and then released towards the end of Spring 2017 in celebration of Paddle Canada’s 45anniversaryin 45 days of Paddle Superstars for each year Paddle Canada has operated with each winnerwinning a one year membership to Paddle Canada. On the first day the new website will be launchedand the first of the 45 winning videos will be announced and each day the next winner will be madeavailable on the website. The video page will have vendor-specific text embedded in their descriptionswith links to vendor on Paddle Canada’s website.After one full year of operation, each participating firm will receive a report, which outlines how manytimes their section on Paddle Canada’s website was viewed, clicked, received inquires, and generatedsales. Reports will also include video links to individuals who mentioned their brand in the PaddleSuperstar nomination. The hope of these reports is to display to each investor the benefit theirpartnership has brought to their business, Paddle Canada, and the Canadian population and to renewtheir partnership with Paddle Canada on an annual basis. It is more cost effective than other forms ofadvertising for these firms because it is a direct link to paddling enthusiasts thus decreasing customeracquisition time and its associated cost. To help strengthen Paddle Canada’s total offering, PaddleCanada can offer a reduced advertising contract to firms that are willing to provide a discount to Paddle
40Canada members. Paddle Canada could even offer a degree of discounts for every membership sold inconjunction with a partner’s product or service.
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