Rizal's early informal formal education (Binan, Ateneo and UST)
B. RIZAL’S EARLY INFORMAL EDUCATION (BINAN, ATENEO, AND UST)<br />The HERO’s FIRST TEACHER (Zaide and Zaide)<br />- Teodora Alonzo y Realonda – good character and refined was Rizal’s first teacher<br />- At the age of three she taught Rizal arithmetic, alphabet and prayers in Latin, Spanish and Tagalog<br />- Story of the Moth<br />- By age six Rizal become adept at drawing, clay modeling and carving<br />- Maestro Celestino and Lucas Padua – 1st private tutors<br />- Don Leon Monroy – taught Rizal Latin and Spanish but died five moths later.<br />
EARLY FORMAL EDUCATION (BINAN) June 1869- Dec. 17, 1871<br />Rizal accompanied by Paciano left Calamba for Binan in June 1869 – With his poker face Paciano gave Rizal a cue on how a man should behave during partings and sentimental occasions. Stayed in his Aunt Tomasa Mercado.<br />Tomasa had an unmarried daughter Margarita and a widower son Gabriel. Rizal’s young kinsfolk were Leandro (mischievous), Florentina (vulgar type) and Arcadia (hot headed, simple and honest) who became his friend.<br />
Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz – tall, thin and stooped with a large neck and sharp nose, he believed in “not sparing the rod”. Rizal complained that rare was the day when he did not suffer five or six “palmetazos” on his hands or his behind even though he surpassed all of his classmates in Spanish, Latin and other subjects.<br />Pedro teased Rizal uttering “un poco Senor” 2x who became so vexed, he challenged Pedro to a fight whom he defeated, Rizal having been taught the art of wrestling by his Tio Manuel.<br />Old Juancho – gave and taught Rizal lessons in painting and drawing.<br />
His bitterness against these barbarous methods of instruction never left him. In the Noli, the first thing Ibarra proposes when he came home was to build a house in San Diego where “the primer would not be a black book bathed in children’s tears but a friendly guide to marvelous secrets”. “Not a torture-chamber but a playground of the mind”.<br />Other Binan memories:<br /><ul><li>Playing in the streets in the evening under the moolight, remembered his beloved father, idolized mother and loving sisters.
Rizal was shoved by his naughty nephew Leandro into the river where he nearly drowned if not caught by someone on his feet.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Tasked to deliver viand to her Tia Tomasa’s children, only to be suspecteded of consuming part of it.
Supper – one or two helpings of rice and single piece of fish</li></ul> Lunch – sent first on errand before allowed to sat.<br />For all of these he told his sisters Narcisa and Maria he wanted to go home but was told he can’t go home. Rizal must have felt he was in prison.<br />Rizal in Binan was a struggle, an initiation, cruelty for one so young, felt displaced and as outsider.<br /> - He left the country at aged 21, how can Rizal create so detailed a portrait of San Diego – Noli Me Tangere and El Fili?<br />
Martyrdom of GOMBURZA<br /><ul><li>Jan. 20, 1872 – 200 Filipino soldiers and workmen of the Cavite arsenal and La Madrid a Fil. Sergeant staged mutiny for abolition of their exemption from tribute and polo y servicio.</li></ul>Gomburza were implicated and by order of Gov. Gen. Rafael Izquierdo, they were executed by garrote on Feb. 17, 1872.<br />INJUSTICE TO HERO’s MOTHER (Zaide)<br /><ul><li>In 1872 – Jose Alberto, Dona Teodora’s brother found his children abandoned and his wife living with another man.
Dona Teodora prevailed over J. Alberto not to divorce his wife as he announced.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The wife was in no way repentant and resented the reconciliation.
J. Alberto frequented Dona Teodora in Calamba to which the wife interpreted as they were plotting something criminal against her.
The wife filed a case against Dona Teodora and her brother Don Jose Alberto and with the connivance of Spanish Lieutenant of guardia civil and assistance of Antonio Vivencio del Rosario, Gobernadorcilio of Calamba, succeeded in arresting Dona Teodora. Forced to walk from Calamba to Sta. Cruz.
Dona Teodora was defended by Messrs. Francisco de Marcaida and Manuel Marzan, most famous lawyers of Manila. She was acquitted by Manila Royal Audiencia and was released after two- and- half years.</li></li></ul><li>3. STUDIES IN ATENEO<br /><ul><li>On June 10, 1872 Jose accompanied by Paciano went to Manila and took the entrance examination at the College of San Juan de Letran managed by the Dominicans.
Returned to Calamba on June 24 for the town fiesta in honor of St. John the Baptist.
Paciano following the instruction of Don Francisco enrolled Jose in Ateneo using Rizal as Jose’s surname to avoid suspicion by the Dominican’s, Mercado being used by Paciano and marked by the friars as liberal having been a desciple of Padre Burgos.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Fr. MaginFerrando refused to admit Jose for being late, sickly and undersized but with the help of Manuel Xerez Burgos nephew of Padre Burgos Rizal was finally admitted in Ateneo.
Boarded in Dona Titay’s a spinster who owed the Mercado’s 300 pesos/dollars?
Rizal and bosom friend Pastor Millena daily hopped across the Pasig river on the Puente de Barcas.
SUBJECTS: Christian Doctrine, Spanish, Latin, Greek and French; World Geography and History, History of Spain and the Phil. Arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, mineralogy, chemistry, physics and botany and zoology, Poetry rhetoric and philo.
First day of class in Ateneo in June 1872, first he heard mass. First Teacher – Father Jose Bech</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Some classmates: Florencio G. Oliva, a Lagunense, great talent but mediocre industry; Joaquin Garrido, mestizo of poor memory but much talent; Moises Santiago, mathematician and penman Gonzalo Marzan – interno and Roman Emperor of their class.
Rizal an externo Carthaginian was at the bottom but within 3 months became the Emperor and awarded a holy picture for prize and crowned with a grade of SOBRESALIENTE/excellent but got in prolonged sulk for resenting some of Fr. Bech’s remarks – awarded only ACCESSIT – meaning, Rizal was among the leaders but not top of his class.
Visited his mother, he said “How I enjoyed surprising her!. Afterward we embraced each other and both of us wept. We had not seen each other for more than a year.”</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Won medal the next year, visited his mother again and predicted her release after 3 months which came true.
Took private Spanish lesson in Sta. Isabel College SECOND YEAR IN ATENEO – 1873-74
Rizal moved inside Intramuros and boarded at Dona Pepay de Ampuero’s boarding house at No. 6 Magallanes St.
“I was able to win prizes in all the semesters and I would have won a medal if some mistakes in Spanish, which unfortunately I spoke badly, had not enabled a young European to have advantage of me.” </li></li></ul><li>The landlord was “very strict with me, which was all to the good because I had to keep regular hours.” But Rizal was distracted by four grandsons, Jose, Rafael, Ignacio and Ramon which caused him to receive only one first prizeand a medal in Latin.<br /><ul><li>Carved an image of the Virgin; His Jesuit professor asked him to carve a Sacred Heart which he did using batikuling wood and penknife. Statuette enshrined at the dorm, later in his execution would ask from the Jesuit Chaplain if the Sacred Heart carving is still there.
Don Agustin Saez a peninsular – Rizal’s professor in drawing/painting.
Romualdo de Jesus, Filipino – Rizal’s instructor in sculpture</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>To remedy his defect in Spanish, he read DUMAS’ “Conde de Monte Cristo” – Edmond Dantes amazingly escaped from dungeon of Chateau d’lf, found a buried treasure on the rocky island of Monte Cristo, returned in disguise to wreak vengeance on his enemies.
Persuaded his father to buy costly set of Cesar Cantu’s historical work “Universal History”
Read “Travel’s in the Philippines” by Dr. Feodor Jagor, a German scientist who visit the Philippines in1859-1860- contains observations of defects of Spanish colonization and prophecy that Spain would lose the Philippines to the USA.</li></li></ul><li>THIRD YEAR IN ATENEO – 1874-1875 <br /><ul><li>Dona Teodora was released from prison
Excellent in all subjects, won only one medal</li></ul>FOURTH YEAR IN ATENEO<br /><ul><li>His professor Francisco de Paula Sanchez, great educator and scholar inspired Rizal to study harder and to write poetry. Became admirer of Rizal and Rizal considered him his best professor. – model of uprightness, earnestness and love for the advancement of his pupils.
Topped all his classmates in all subjects and won five medals.</li></ul>LAST YEAR IN ATENEO<br /><ul><li>Most brilliant Atenean, “The Pride of the Jesuits”
Obtained highest grades in all subjects – philo., physics, biology, chemistry, languages, mineralogy, etc.</li></li></ul><li>EXTRA CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES (Zaide)<br />Marian Congregation – religious society – as member & later on as secretary/because of his devotion to Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception.<br />Academy of Spanish Literature – member being gifted <br />Academy of Natural Sciences literature and sciences<br />Rizal cultivated his literary talent under Fr. F. Sanchez<br />Fr. Jose Villaclara advised Rizal to stop communing with the Muses and pays more attention to Philosopy and Natural Sciences.<br />He studied painting under AugustinSaez, a Spanish and sculpture under Romualdo de Jesus<br />Jesuits father were amazed and impressed by Rizal’s scultural talent, Father Lleonart requested him to carve Sacred Heard, now placed on the door of their dormitory.<br />
SOME POEMS WRITTEN IN ATENEO (Zaide)<br />Mi PrimeraInspiracion (My First Inspiration – written by Rizal before turning 14yrs. Old (1874) dedicated to his mother in her birthday<br />POEMS WRITTEN IN 1875<br />Felicitacion (Felicitation); El Embarque: el Primero en dar la Juelta al Mundo (And He is Spanish: Elcanon, the First to Circumnavigate the Globe; el Combate: Urbistondo, Terror de Jolo (The Battle: Urbistondo, Terror of Jolo); POEM WRITTEN IN 1876: AlianzaIntima Entre la Religion y la Buena Education (Intimate Alliance Between Religion and Good Education); Por la EducacionRecibeLustre la Patria (Through Education the Country Receives Light); El Cautiverio y el Triunfo: Batalla de Lucena y Prision de Bodbil (The Captivity and the Triump: Battle of Lucena and the Imprisonment of Boadbil); La EntradaTriunfal de los Reyes Catolices en Granada (The Triumphal Entry of the Catholic Monares Into Granada)<br />
1877 POEMS<br />El Heroismo de Colon (The Heroism of Columbus); Colon y Juan II; Gran Consuelo en la Mayor Desdicha (Great Solace in Great Misfortune); Un DialogoAlusivo a la Despedida de los Colegiales ( A farewell Dialogue of the Students)<br />OTHER POEMS<br />Al Nino Jesus (To the Child Jesus); Ala Virgen Maria (To the Virgin Mary)<br />DRAMA – San Eustacio, Martir (St. Eustace the Martyr) finished by Rizal in June 2,1876 upon the request of Fr. Sanchez<br />
JESUITS INFLUENCE (Leon MA. Guerrero)<br />Jesuit RATIO STUDIORUM – under tight and constant discipline, with every incentive of competition and reward<br />Control of the minds of men from infancy<br />*RATIO STUDIORUM –”compilation of general principles and detailed instructions for teachers, rather a spirit and a method than a mechanical formula or a blind pedagogical technique”<br />SPIRIT which is infused was the spirit of classical humanities, the arts of human culture;<br />METHOD – combined memory and understanding, t he daily lesson being explained in a “prefection” and recited the next day.<br />
*AD MAJOREM DEI GLORIAM - For the greater glory of God; to make steadfast lifelong Catholics, The philosophy of man as creature of a personal God – was the climax of the collegiate course; classes began and ended with prayers and the whole school life was centered on the Chapel; Highest level of extra-curricular activities was found on Congregacion Mariana or Sodality of Our Lady and the Apostatolado de la Oracion, the Apostleship of Prayer – members were students with highest qualities of scholarship and leadership.<br />
*Rizal was a pious child – Mother “taught me how to read and say haltingly the humble prayers that I raised pervently to God”; Pilgrimage in Antipolo, Our Lady of Good Voyage; Family praying the rosary every night; “Went often to the Chapel of Our Lady of Peace” (Binan)<br />First day in Ateneo – “How fervently I went to the Chapel of the Jesuit to hear mass, what fervent prayers I raised to God.”<br />Year of Graduation “prayed fervently in the chapel and commended my life to the Virgin”.<br />
*RIZAL’s SENSITIVENESS and SELF ASSERTIVENESS Blumentritt’s short biography of Rizal <br />Rizal felt deeply the little regard with which he was treated by the Spanish. He strove to find out what moral right the Spanish xxx has to despise a man who thought like them, learned the same things and had the same capabilities, simply because he had a brown skin and wiry hair…<br />In school there was no difference in the standard of intellect between whites and the Indios.<br />
“ A KIND OF RACE JEALOUSY HAD TAKEN HOLD ON RIZAL” He rejoiced whenever he solved difficult problems which his white classmates had been unable to tackle. Had CONVICTION that other things being equal, whites and Indios had the same capacity for mental work and made the same progress. White and Indios had the same mental ability.<br />This explain his sudden improvement in his scholastic record. It was a RACIAL PRIDE as much as the MONASTIC discipline and SECLUSION of boarding school life which had driven him to win five medals a year.<br />
In school, the whites were taught in their mother tongue while the Indios have to struggle to learn; hence the Indios were mentally superior to the Spaniards if they succeeded not only in keeping pace with the whites but even in managing occassionally to surpass them.<br />Evaluating “the two years (his last in Ateneo collegiate course) which I considered the happiest in my life, if happiness can be said to consist in the absence of disagreeable cares”.<br />
Jose found that the study of poetry and rhetoric” had elevated my feelings”; also that “patriotic sentiments as well as exquisite sensibility had developed greatly in me.”<br />We are bound to interpret those “patriotic sentiments” in the light of his successful experiments in racial capacities.<br />
UNIVERSITY LIFE AT UST<br /><ul><li>Jose Rizal to Blumentritt, 8th November 1888 – “xxx I was sixteen when my mother told my father: Don’t send him to Manila any longer; he knows enough; if he gets to know any more, they will cut off his head!” “Did my mother perhaps have a foreboding of what was to happen to me” Does a mother’s heart really have a second sight?” (Guerrero)</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Rizal uncertain as to what profession to follow :</li></ul>Priesthood – natural propensity in young boys/girls in religious school – Rizal – a Jesuit.<br />Farming – seem to have been suggested by the Jesuit<br /><ul><li>Paciano to Jose 1883 “ I do not think that the study of law will suit you but rather the arts; in this I am of the same view as our parish priest.” “Those who do practice law collect their fees for defending one side or the other, whether it is right or wrong, something</li></li></ul><li>which would run against the grain of your conscience. While there are few who practice medicine and the arts, they make progress here and they live peacefully, the one thing we should look for in this world.” (Guerrero) What if Rizal became a lawyer???<br /><ul><li>Enrolled Surveying in Ateneogot excellent grades and won 2 medals in Topography and Agriculture during his first day in UST (1877-1878). At age 17 passed examination in surveying but was issued only the title on November 25, 1881.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>In April 1877, nearly 16 years old enrolled in UST and took Philosophy and Letters for 2 reasons:</li></ul> a) Rizal still uncertain what course to take;<br /> b) his father liked it. TOOK MEDICINE – upon the advice of Ateneo Rector and to cure his mother’s growing blindness (Zaide)<br /> “But so little taste did I have for if that I did not even buy the textbook.” (Rizal reaction to his course in Philo and Letters) – Got EXCELLENT grades in cosmology, theodicy and the history of philosophy. (Guerrero)<br />
<ul><li>1881 – 1882 4th year</li></ul> Med. Pathology, Surgical Pathology and Obstetrics - Very Good<br /><ul><li>Reasons for unimpressive grades – perhaps medicine was not his real vocation; Unhappy with the Dominicans; His “race jealousy appears to have been outraged by professors who played favorites and treated their Filipino students with contempt; Exciting destructions for youth – boarding away from school; His first infatuation – SegundaKatigbak; Leonor Rivera and Leonor “Orang” </li></li></ul><li>Valenzuela; Saturnina asking him to buy her a drum at Escolta; Paciano asking him to check a forecast of floods and to deliver to the Jesuits for their museum a white iguana; Soledad who wanted taken out of convent school because the nun beat her and said all she did was eat, eat and eat; Parties, and gang fights and flirtations. (Guerrero)<br />- VICTIM OF SPANISH BRUTALITY<br /> Summer vacation in Calamba in 1878 – he dimly perceived a figure of a man which turned out to be Lieutenant of the Guardia Civil who whipped and brutally shashed the latter (Rizal’s) back for not<br />
saluting or greeting the former (lieutenant). “ I went to the Captain General (Primo de Rivera) but I could not obtain justice; my wound lasted two (2) weeks.<br />SOME IMPORTANT LITERARY WORKS<br /><ul><li>A La Juventud Filipina an inspiring poem of flawless form wherein Rizal beseeched the Filipino youth to rise from lethargy, to let their genius fly swifter than the wind and descent with art and science to break the chain that have long bound the spirit of the people. Won first prize and Rizal was awarded silver pen-feather-shaped and decorated with a gold ribbon (Zaide).</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>El Consejo de Los Dioses (Council of the Gods) – Rizal won first prize and was awarded a gold ring on which was engraved the bust of Cervantes despite objections by the Spaniards. This is the winning allegory of literary master piece based on the Greek classics. (Zaide)
Junto al Pasig – a zarzuela staged by the Atenean on December 8, 1880, on the occasion of the annual celebration of the feast day of the Immaculate Conception containing subtle attire of Rizal’s nationalist ideas. (Zaide)</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>A Filipinas – A sonnet written by Rizal urging Filipino artists to glorify the Philippines. (Zaide)
Al M.R.P. Pablo Ramon – Expression of Rizal’s affection to Fr. Pablo Ramon the Ateneo Rector who had been so kind and helpful to him. (Zaide)
Abd-el-Azis y Maleoma – composed by Rizal in 1879 which was declaim by an Atenean, Manuel Fernandez, on the night of December 8, 1879 in honor of the Ateneo’s patroness. (Zaide)</li>