RIZAL AND HIS TIMES<br /><ul><li>February 19, 1861 – Czar Alexander II (1855-1881) issued proclamation emancipating 22,500 serfs to appease Russian masses. April 12, 1861 American Civil War erupted because of negro slavery this compelled United States Pres. Abraham Lincoln to issue EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION on September 22, 1863 freeing negro slaves.
April 1862 – EMPEROR NAPOLEON III of 2nd French Empire invaded Mexico and installed ARCHDUKE MAXIMILIAN as puppet emperor of Mexico City on June12, 1864. With President Lincoln support Suarez defeated French forces in the BATTLE OF QUERETARO (May 15, 1867).</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Later part of the 19th century Italians under COUNT CAVOUR OF GARIBALDI and his ARMY OF RED SHIRTS drove out Austrians and French Armies and proclaimed KINGDOM OF ITALY under KING VICTOR EMMANUEL with ROME as the Capital City.
The PRUSSIANS under OTTO VON BISMARK, the IRON CHANCELLOR defeated France and established the GERMAN EMPIRE in January 18, 1875 with KING WILHELM OF PRUSSIA as FIRST KAISER.
The glorious reign of QUEEN VICTORIA (1837-1901) proudly asserted. BRITANIA RULES THE WAVES. Acquired the island of HONGKONG when she defeated the Chinese MANCHU DYNASTY in OPIUM WAR (1840-1842).</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>SHE (England) won again the OPIUM WAR (1856 – 1860) that force the MANCHU DYNASTY to cede KOWLOON PENINSULA opposite HONGKONG.
ENGLAND conquer India, Pakistan and Bangladesh in 1859. She also conquered Burma, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Aden, Malaya, Singapore, Egypt, Australia, New Zealand.
In 1858-1863 France conquered Vietnam and annexed Cambodia in 1863 and Laos in 1893- FRENCH INDOCHINA
The DUTCH – drove Portuguese and Spain from Indonesia occupied and named it Netherlands East Indies.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>CZARIST RUSSIA conquered Siberia, Kamchatka, Kuriles, and Alaska. From 1865-1884 she conquered the Muslim KHANATES, KHLUA and KOKAND in Central Asia SHE acquired MANCHURIA and build the longest railroad linking Moscow and Vladivostok.
1639-1853 Meiji (Matsuhito) grabbed Formosa and Pescadores in SINO-JAPANESE WAR (1894-1895). In 1950 annexed Korea.
August 25, 1885 - GERMANY seized CAROLINES and PALAUS archipelago from the SPAIN. Spain and Germany submitted the Carolina question to POPE LEO XIII for arbitration who ruled in favor of the Spain but granted Germany:</li></ul> 1. right to trade in disputed island<br /> 2. right to establish a coaling station to Germany<br />Rizal was in BARCELONA visiting MAXIMO VIOLA<br />
SPAIN Lost – Paraguay – (1811) Argentina (1816) Chile (1851) Colombia and Equador (1819) Costa Riza, Honduras, Guatamela, El Salvador and Nicaragua in (1821), Venezuela (1822), Peru (1824) and Bolivia and Uruguay (1825)<br />
EVILS OF SPANISH RULES IN THE PHILIPPINES<br />1. Instability of Colonial Administration – King Ferdinand VIII (1808 – 1833) Frequent shift of policies owing to struggle between Liberalism and Despotism; From 1835-1897 there were 50 Governors General.<br />2. Corrupt Colonial Officials<br /> a. Gen. Rafael de Isquerdo (1875-1883) incompetent and cruel, boastful, ruthless, executed GOMBURZA in 1872.<br /> b. Gen. Primo de Rivera – accepted bribes from gambling casino which he permitted to operate.<br />
c. Gen. ValerianoWeyler (1888-1891) – cruel and corrupt received huge bribes, gifts and diamonds from wealthy Chinese who evaded anti-Chinese law; persecuted Calamba tenants particularly the family of Dr. Jose Rizal.<br />3. Philippine Representation in Spanish Cortes<br /> 1st Philippine Delegates Ventura de los Reyes<br /> - Constitution 1812<br /> - Abused Galleon trade<br /> - Propaganda Movement was not heard<br /> - Representation of Spanish colonies (including the Philippines) was abolished in 1837<br />
4. HUMAN RIGHTS denied the Filipinos <br /> - No freedom of expression<br />5. NO EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW<br /> Filipinos were abused, brutalized, persecuted and slandered<br />Spanish missionaries thought that ALL MEN irrespective of color and race are children of God and as such they are brothers, equal before God and not before the law… not in practice.<br />Leyes de Indias (Laws of the Indies) rarely enforced <br />- Spanish Civil Code imposed light penalties on Spaniards but heavier penalties to Indios.<br />
6. MAL ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE<br />Courts were notoriously corrupt, Judges, fiscals and court officials – inept, venal and oftentimes ignorant at the law.<br />Justice – costly, partial and slow. Poor Filipinos has no access to the courts.<br />Dona Teodora Rizal was jailed on flimsy ground in 1871; Dr. J. Rizal was deported in July 1892 without trial; Paciano and several brothers-in-law were exiled without due process<br />GOMBURZA and RIZAL were executed<br />
7. RACIAL DESCRIMINATION <br /> Spain introduced Christianity’s egalitarian concept of the BROTHERHOOD OF ALL MEN under GOD THE FATHER, but Filipinos were regarded as inferior beings undeserving of rights enjoyed by the Spaniards.<br />Filipinos were called brown-skinned and flat nosed Indios<br />Lack opportunities for educated young Filipinos to rise in the service of God and Country<br />
8. FRAILOCRACY - a government by Friars<br />Union of Church and state<br />Friars (Augustinians, Dominicans and Franciscans) – controlled the religious and educational life of the Philippines and later in the 19th century they came to acquire tremendous political power, influence and riches.<br />Friars controlled government from governor general down to alcaldesmayores;<br />Friars exercise priestly duties, supervise elections, inspector of books and taxes, arbiter of morals, censor of books and comedias, superintendent of public works and guardian of peace and order.<br />Rizal, del Pilar, Jaena and other Filipino reformists blamed frailocracy/friars for obscurantism, fanaticism, and oppression in the country.<br />Rizal’s Padre Damaso and Jaena’s fray Botod<br />
9. FORCE LABOR (Polo y servicio) compulsory labor imposed by the Spanish colonial authorities on adult Filipino males in the construction of churches, schools, hospitals, buildings, roads and bridges, ships etc.<br />Wealthy ones were able to evade forced labor by paying falla, a sum of money.<br />Spaniards were not drafted to forced labor, contrary to law, while the Filipino polistas received only a part of two pesetas (50 centavos) or worse nothing at all.<br />Disturbed the Indios’ work in the farm and shops and separate them from their families.<br />
10. HACIENDA OWNED BY FRIARS<br />Friars owned the best haciendas and the folks filling these land even before the coming of the Spaniards became tenants – resulted in bloody agrarian upheaval in 1745-1746.<br />Rizal tried to initiate agrarian reform in 1887 but in vain, ignited the wrath of the Dominican Friars who retaliated by raising land rentals.<br />Rizal in his “Indolence of the Filipinos” in substance opined that Friars ownership of best agricultural tract of land contribute to the stagnation of economy.<br />
11. GUARDIA CIVIL – created by Royal Decree of February 12, 1852; Maltreatment, abuse, robbers, rapists.<br />Ill trained and undisciplined.<br />Rizal’s Noli exposed the guardia civil through Elias as bunch of ruthless ruffians, good only for disturbing the peace and persecuting honest men.<br />