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Turkey.turkey visit


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Turkey.turkey visit

  1. 1. Turkey<br />(may 2- may 7)<br />
  2. 2. On Tuesday, the distirct governer, distirict director of national education and department managers and county mayor were visited in the morning. The guests gave information about their countries, towns and schools. Presents were given to one another. <br />
  3. 3. First day: Our guests within the framework of Comenius Project arrived Turkey on May, 2, 2011. The students went to the homes of the families and the teachers went to their hotel after the arrival. <br />
  4. 4. Meanwhile, a group of teachers went to bazaar and did some shopping. <br />
  5. 5. In the afternoon, We went to İznik. İznik(Nicea) was an important Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman town. <br />
  6. 6. The city is surrounded by walls about 5 km long. İznik today is still mostly surrounded by ancient walls with four major Gates Istanbul Gate (İstanbul Kapı), Lefke Gate (Lefke Kapı), Yenişehir Gate (Yenişehir Kapı), and Lake Gate (Göl Kapı), <br />
  7. 7. İznik is also famous for its lake.<br />It is the fifth biggest lake in Turkey. <br />
  8. 8. İznik municipality was visited. <br />
  9. 9. The 1st and 7th Ecumenical Councils (is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church to discuss about the matters of Church) were held in Iznik in 325 and 787 A.D. And the 7th council was held in this place. <br />
  10. 10. İznik has been well known for its local faience/tile (çini) tradition since 15th century. <br />
  11. 11. Iznik became a major center for pottery-making industry in the 17th century (İznik Çinisi). <br />
  12. 12. Some of our guests were able to watch how İznik tile is made. Also some students tried it. <br />
  13. 13. Our guests visited some touristic shops and did shopping. <br />
  14. 14. When we arrived İznik museum, it was closed because we were late to visit it. Bu we were able to discover its garden with many ancient ruins. <br />
  15. 15. In the evening, we arrived our school and we presented Sıra Gecesi for our guests.<br />
  16. 16. Sıra Gecesi is a traditional night which originates from the city of Urfa in the north-east Anatolian region of Turkey. According to the tradition in Urfa, a group of friends come together at night in the house of someone who belongs to the group. Every night the group picks a person and the meeting of friends takes place in the house of that person. Thus, friends meet in each other’s house in turns during the week. That’s why this night is called “sıra gecesi”. This night is a casual social activity but it has great importance because it strengthens the bonds of brotherhood and friendship in society. Friends come together during the week to share their happiness or sorrow. They eat and drink during the night. Çiğköfte, a traditional spicy Turkish snack is prepared and served to the guests.<br />Çiğköfte is made from<br />wheat, raw meat and spices.It is usually served with lettuce leaves. It is not cooked but kneaded like dough in a large tray.<br />
  17. 17. They play the saz, the traditional musical instrument which is unique to Turkey and sing folk songs of different moods. Sometimes they mourn and sing laments for the people who died or who are abondened by their lovers. Sometimes they sing the songs of joy and happiness and have fun. This is an occasion to share moments of both sadness and joy.<br />On the stage, there are local people who came to our school to perform sıra gecesi for our guests<br />Our staff preparing the çiğköfte serving for our guests.<br />
  18. 18. We danced together with our partners on the stage while the musicians played Turkish folk songs<br />We also had a break and served our guests traditional Turkish pastry gözleme.<br />and our famous Turkish desserts: aşureand tulumba<br />
  19. 19. In the morning we visited the Karagöz museum where the oldest handmade puppets and some musical instruments are displayed.<br />The Karagöz Museum<br />Karagöz and Hacivat are the two famous puppets of traditional Turkish shadow play. Shadow puppets are flat figures cut from camel or donkey leather, oiled to make them translucent, then perforated and painted, and mounted perpendicularly at the end of sticks. A white sheet is hung as a screen, a strong light put behind it, and the puppets, pressed gently to the light-source side of the sheet, are animated by means of the sticks in the hands of a puppeteer. A talented puppeteer can make the figures walk and dance, jump and fight, nod and laugh. Over the centuries the two original characters have been joined by a host of others, animals as well as humans. The puppets play between two traditional Turkish houses with second-story windows from which the irate wives of the comedians can berate them for their mischief. <br />
  20. 20. It is said that Karagöz and Hacivat lived in Bursa in 1396. They were builders who were working in the construction of the Great Mosque. They had different personalities, therefore they spent most of their time teasing each other in a humorous way. The humorous talk of these two men attracted the other builders and they stopped working to listen to them. Thus, the construction of the mosque slowed down. The Sultan of the period got very angry about this problem and condemned the two men to death. However, the Sultan regretted his decision and became very sad. It is said that, in order to make the Sultan happy again, a man called Sheikh Küşteri made the cardboard figures of Karagöz and Hacivat and performed a shadow play of their talk. <br />
  21. 21. So the legend goes. Whatever may have happened to the comedians, the shadow play based on their jokes, pranks, fights, intrigues, stupidities and friendship survives and prospers to this day in Bursa and across Turkey.<br />Since then, Karagöz and Hacivat has an important place in Turkish theater. Theatrical performances of Karagöz shadow play are given on different occasions. Such performances take place especially in Ramadan, as an evening entertainment for children.<br />Our guests observing the puppets,<br />posters and some of the musical instruments used during the shadow play performances.<br />
  22. 22. Then, we visited the provincial directorate of National Education . The director Mr. Atilla Gülsar welcomed our guests and appreciated our common activities. He emphasized the importance of protecting cultural values and learning about different cultures. Our guests expressed their delight to have the chance to visit our country and join in this cultural share.<br />
  23. 23. After our official visit, we went to observe the classes of Kültür College, one of the biggest private schools in Bursa. The director of the school invited us to lunch. After lunch the director gave us information about their education system and answered the questions of our guests.<br />
  24. 24. In the afternoon, we went to the Great Mosque (Ulu Cami). The Great Mosque is at the western end of Atatürk Caddesi (the main city-center boulevard) in Bursa's city center, a great big stone box topped by 20 domes.<br />This style of mosque architecture—a big stone square or rectangle topped by small domes—is characteristic of the early Seljuk Turkish empire. Bursa's was built from 1396 to 1399 with money provided by Sultan Yildirim Beyazit (1360-1403).<br />Though plain on the exterior, the Ulu Cami (OO-loo jah-mee) has the impressive portals typical of Seljuk architecture, and is quite grand on the inside: a forest of mighty square columns supporting a cloud of arches and domes. At the center, a glass-covered opening lets in ample light, providing a central visual focus within the large space.<br />Though simple, the design is well suited to Muslim worship, providing a vast covered space that can hold thousands of worshippers in a lofty atmosphere.<br />People are always wandering in and out of the Ulu Cami, most for prayers but some just to enjoy its grand ambience. <br />
  25. 25. Later, our guests explored the city center and did some shopping in the Covered Bazaar(Kapalı Çarşı) and The Zafer Plaza. <br />Kozahan, the most famous silk bazaar of Bursa<br />Zafer Plaza, the shopping center<br />Famous silk scarf shops in Kozahan<br />The Covered Bazaar<br />
  26. 26. He welcomed everybody without judging their nationality or religion. In his famous poem, he invited people:<br />Come, come whoever you are,<br />An unbeliever, a fire worshipper, come<br />Our convent is not of desperation.<br />Even if you have broken your vows a hundred times, <br />Come, come again <br />A sema ritual in the garden of the Mevlana Museum in Konya<br />Mevlana who is the founder of the Mevlevi sect, introduced the whirling dance which is called the sema. The sema is an experience of love and ecstacy. It is an attempt to leave worldly existence and to explore mysteries of God. The sema is an expression of human beings’ desire to reach a state of purification, enlightenment and union with God. <br />In the evening, we set off to the Dervish Lodge of Karabash-i Veli to watch the sema(the whirling dance of the Sufis). The Sufi dervishes belong to an islamic sect called Mevlevis. Mevlevis are the followers of Mevlana, the great mystic and philosopher who came from Arab lands and settled down in Anatolia. Mevlana did not focus on the strict rules and conventions of religion and based his philosophy on love. Because of the universality of his teaching,his written works are widely read and appreciated all over the world. <br />
  27. 27. The Dervish Lodge of Karabash-i Veli<br />The lodge mostly serves to host performances of the Mevlevi whirling rite put on by the Association to Introduce and Perpetuate Mevlana Culture in association with the Osmangazi Municipality. The nightly “sema” performances attract visitors from all age groups and walks of life. The Osmangazi district’s local administration recently restored many historical structures and sites, transforming them into cultural centers and art galleries to save them from dilapidation resulting from lack of use and maintenance. The Karabash-i Veli Dergah -- “Karabash-i Veli” being the nickname of Sufi saint Ali Atvel, the founder of the Karabashiyya branch of the Khalwati-Shabani Sufi Order -- is one of these recently restored places.<br />
  28. 28. We gathered in the sema hall of the lodge<br />The musicians and the <br />singers of the sacred songs take their places on one side of the hall.<br />The sheikh (spiritual leader) enters the hall and <br />stands on his sheepskin post while the semazens (the whirlers) and the musicians stand before him . <br />The sheikh kisses the sikke (the tall hat)<br />Of the whirlers and the music begins. The semazens start to whirl and they transcend from their earthly existance to the spiritual world. <br />
  29. 29. Sheb-i Arus Performance in Konya<br />Every year on 17th of December (the date of Mevlana’s passing), a magnificent sema ceremony is performed in Konya where Mevlana used to live. Hundreds of people go to this city to watch the ceremony live.This ceremony is called Sheb-i Arus which means “wedding day” or “nuptial night”. According to Mevlana, death is not an end but a beginning, It is the true rebirth of man, his union with God. Therefore he wanted his followers to cherish this day by playing the music and performing the sema, the whirling dance which is an ecstatic expression of the Sufis’ love of God.<br />
  30. 30. On may 5, 2011, wewere in Gemlik allday. <br />Beforethemeeting, Wethoughtthat it would be bettertohave a cup of Turkishcoffee.<br />WedrankourTurkishcoffee. Thenwemadesomepredictionsaboutfuturebylookingintocups of coffee.<br />Nowlet’shave a shortlookhowtomakeTurkishcoffee<br />
  31. 31. HOW TO MAKE TURKISH COFFEE<br />Youwillneedtohave a Turkishcoffee pot, a spoon, sugarand coffee that has beengroundto a finepowder.  AlthoughmostpeopleusetheArabicabeans, it reallydoesn'tmatterwhatkind of coffeeyouuse.  However, it should be a mediumroast, becauseyouwillactuallyroast it againwhilemaking it. <br />
  32. 32. You can gettheTurkishcoffee in severaldifferentways:  <br />A. Purchase a special TurkishGrinder (regularelectricgrinderswithbladesspinning at a highspeedwill NOT do thejob) andgrindthecoffeeyourself.  We do havetheseavailable at ourstoreifyouareinterested.<br />B. Grind it at yourlocalgrocerystore!  Yes, that'sright.  Youmay not havenoticed, but mostgrinders (99.9%)at yourlocalgrocerystore in the U.S. have a Turkishcoffeesetting!  Justselectthe "TurkishCoffee" settingandgrindyourbeans.<br />C. Buy it readymadefromTurkishCoffeeWorld.  Wesell it in ourstore but you can alsofind it at mostMediterraneanstoresifyoulive in a bigcity.<br />
  33. 33. Preparation<br />Measuretheamount of coldwateryouwillneed.<br />Placeyour pot of water on thestoveandturntheheattomedium-high (justuntilthewaterheatsup).<br />Addabout 1-2 heapingteaspoons (or 1 tablespoon) of coffeeperdemitasse cup (3 oz).  Do not stir it yet. Justletthecoffee "float" on thesurfacebecauseifyoustir it nowyoumightcause it toclumpup.<br />Addsugartotaste. Do not stir it yet, Letthewaterwarmuplittle bit as above.<br />
  34. 34. 5.Whenthecoffeestartstosinkintothewaterandthewater is warmenoughtodissolveyoursugar,  stir it severaltimesandthenturndowntheheattolow.  Youshouldstir it severaltimes, upuntil it yourbrewstartstofoam (you can alsovigorouslymoveyourspoonsidetosidetoencourageto start thefoaming).  <br />6.Whenyouseethebubble "ring" forming on thesurface, turndown theheat a little bit moreormoveyour pot awayfromtheheatsource. Pay attentiontothebubblesthatareforming at thisstage. Bubblesshould be verysmall in size.<br />
  35. 35. Fromthispoint on watchyourcoffeecarefully.  Do not letthetemperatureget hot enoughto start boiling. (NEVER LET IT BOIL - manyinstructions on howtomakeTurkishcoffeeusetheterm "boiling" but this is totallyinaccurate) Thekey idea here is toletthecoffeebuild a thick froth andthatoccursapproximatelyaround 158 F or 70 C (i.e., muchcoolerthantheboilingpoint of waterwhich is 212 F or 100 C at standardpressure.  Ifyourbrewcomesto a boil, youwill not haveanyfoambecause it willsimplyevaporate!). <br />
  36. 36. 8.Keep it at the "foaming" stage as long as you can withoutletting it cometo a boil.  Youmightevengentlystiryourbrew a little bit at thisstage.  Themorefroth, thebetter it willtaste. Also yourcoffeemust be fresh or it will not foam as well. Ifyourbrewgetstoo hot andbeginsto "rise", thenmove it awayfromtheheatorjustturn it down.  Youarealmost done.  Repeatthisprocessuntilyourfoam has "raised" and "cooled" at themost couple of times (NOTE 3-4 timeslikesomeinstructions. Evenonce is enough).  Thenpour in toyourcups (quickly at firsttogetoutthefoam, thenslowly) whilemaking sure thateach cup has equalamount of foam!  Ifyouareservingseveralcupsthenyoumight be betteroffspooningthefoamintoeach cup.<br />
  37. 37.
  38. 38. Drinking<br />1.Turkishcoffee is alwaysservedwith a glass of water. Youneedtodrinkthewaterfirsttocleanyourpallet!  <br />2.Waitabouthalf a minuteorsotoletthegrindssettletothebottom of your cup.<br />3.Find a comfortable spot in whichtosavoryourdeliciouscoffeeandremember, drinkthisTurkishtreat..sipbysip.<br />You can learnsomeinformationaboutyourfuture….<br />.. a kind of fortunetelling…<br />Therearesomedifferentshapes in thecups.<br />
  39. 39. Traditionalclothesandfurniture<br />Wevisitedourtraditionalroom.<br />
  40. 40. Wesawthetaditionalclothesandfurniture of Turkey. Wetoldthattheseare not usedsomuch. Manypeoplepreferusingthem as a decorativepurpose.<br />
  41. 41. Wepresented EBRU-TURKISH MARBLING in theschoolhall. <br />
  42. 42.
  43. 43. EBRU<br />TURKISH MARBLING<br />
  44. 44. Through Silk Road this art came first to Iran where it was called EBRU (cloud,cloudy) or ABRU(Waterface).Subsequently this art moved towards Anatolia and named after EBRU in Turkish language. About the end of XVI. century tradesmen, diplomats and travellers coming to Turkey brought this art to Europe and called it "TURKISH PAPER". It was broadly used in Italy, Germany, France and England.<br />
  45. 45. Since the art of mabling had a significant importance in Islamic art, I belive that it is essential to recall the basic principles of Islamic art in order to have a better and closer look at marbling and thereby reach a deeper understanding.<br />
  46. 46. Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to marble or other stone. The patterns are the result of color floated on either plain water or a viscous solution known as size, and then carefully transferred to a sheet of paper (or other surfaces such as fabric).<br />
  47. 47. The floating paints can be swirled and mixed into patterns. When you lay a treated shirt, piece of fabric or paper down on top of the paint, the paint adheres to the fabric exactly where it touches. The swirly patterns of colored paint are transfered to the shirt or fabric. Each design is unique and can never be repeated. As a technique, it's both easy and hard. It's easy to do, great fun for kids and safe. It's hard in that the more you do, the better results you will get and the difference between your early designs and your later designs will be very noticeable. <br />
  48. 48. MATERIALS USED IN CLASSICAL TURKISH MARBLINGGum tragacathDyePaintbrushBasinWatenrPaperGall<br />
  49. 49. Gum Tragacant is obtained from trunk of a t**** plant growing naturally in Anatolian, Persian and Turkestan mountains and called "gaven". The sap coming out of scratches made on the branches dries up later and solidifies in bone white colored pieces. It is dropped in water with very low hardness at the rate of 20-40 grams/3 litres and kept for two days.The gum having dissolved completely is filtered through a cloth bag and poured into the basin. It should have a dentisty of buttermilk.Gumtragacanth is widely used as herbal medicene(in throat and stomach diseases) in cosmetic and textile industry.<br />
  50. 50. Dye are "mineral dyes" as it is called in classical method obtained from natural metal oxides. Turkish is a very rich country in respect of such natural dyes. Any kind of earth may be first translated into mud then filtered and crushed to from a dye.Paintbrushes; are made of horsehair bound around a rose tree stick, in a manner to from a circumference with hollow centre.Rosetree is preferred because it prevents mould. Brushes of different thickness and length enable dye application and dye control.<br />
  51. 51. Basin is made of wood or metal of 4-6 cm. depth an about some milimeter larger than the paper size (to offset the dilatation of paper when wet). Usual paper zizes are 35X50 cm. or 25X35 cm.Water; preferably withouthhardness.The ideal is distilled water. In older times rainwater was favorite but because of acide rain in our times it is no longer advisable.<br />
  52. 52. Paper: The ideal paper is the one handmade and having a high absorbtion capacity and acid-free. On account of its rarity and high cost we don't advise it to begginers. Instead, any kind of non glossy paper may be used. In order to increasethe absorbtioncapaticy and to fix the dye on it(more durable) and alumina solution may be applied on the paper surface. Thus dyes are made more easy to fix.Gall: The most importentmetarial to make marbling. A marbler must well understand what gall is and its functions. To my openion the secret of the marbling lies in the gall<br />
  53. 53. Its main functions are :1. to ensure surface tension, dye spreading over the water surface otherwise dyes sink.2. to prevent mixture of dyes. For instance when blue yellow are simultaneously applied and mixed up as much as possible never green comes out.3. to assist dye fixation on the paper.4. to give different shades of the same color and different size of patterns.<br />
  54. 54. Dyes are spotted on the surface of the water by means of paintbrushes and according to quantities and colors desired. Dyes should not be too concentrated. Concentric, superposed drops thus applied form a pattern called "Battal". This pattern is the origin of almost all others. Now if this basic pattern is handled by parellel lines made by a thin pencil or chip moved back and forth you obtain "the back-and-forth". If this design is crossed out by means of a comb a "combed-pattern" is obtained.<br />
  55. 55. In case the "back-and-forth" is diagonally crossed again, it becomes "shawl" sample. Combed marbling may be made into back-and-forth or shawl design. When a convolute line is applied from the outer circumference towards the centre you obtain a "nightingale nest". In the event small colorfull dots are spotted on the back-and-forth or shawl design you get the "sprinkled marbling". If, instead, you apply larger dots (which means with higher rate of gall contents) you obtain the "prophyry marble" which resemble most to marble.<br />In case the "back-and-forth" is diagonally crossed again, it becomes "shawl" sample. Combed marbling may be made into back-and-forth or shawl design. When a convolute line is applied from the outer circumference towards the centre you obtain a "nightingale nest". In the event small colorfull dots are spotted on the back-and-forth or shawl design you get the "sprinkled marbling". If, instead, you apply larger dots (which means with higher rate of gall contents) you obtain the "prophyry marble" which resemble most to marble.<br />The sheet of paper is lard from one side onto any of above designs prepared on the gummed water in the basin. Now this processing makes the dye fixed on the paper. The paper is then carefully lifted off the basin without stripping too much the gum off the surface. In classic Turkish marbling the paper taken out of the basin is not washed off. The thin layer of gum remaining on the surface forms a protective (fixing) coat. The paper is laid on a flat surface and let to dry up.<br />The sheet of paper is lard from one side onto any of above designs prepared on the gummed water in the basin. Now this processing makes the dye fixed on the paper. The paper is then carefully lifted off the basin without stripping too much the gum off the surface. In classic Turkish marbling the paper taken out of the basin is not washed off. The thin layer of gum remaining on the surface forms a protective (fixing) coat. The paper is laid on a flat surface and let to dry up.<br />
  56. 56. Presuming every material is made ready, the translation of the patterns made on the surface water is accomplished within 3-5 minutes or at most, 15 minutes. This infinity of colors and shapes quickly formed makes the marbling amazing at and fascinates the spectator<br />
  58. 58. Intheeveningwewere at social life centre. Thepartnersgavesomeinformationabouttheircountries, townsandschools. Also, theyshowedtheirperformances. Romanianteam had a surpriseforall of thecountries. Thenightwasgreatbecausetheperformanceswerewonderful.<br />
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  63. 63.
  64. 64. Whenwereturnedourschool. Turkishmealswerereadyfortheguests. <br />
  65. 65. At night, wepresentedone of ourtraditionalceremoniesforourguests.<br />Its name is Hennanight.<br />
  66. 66. Henna:Henna is a kind of plantwhich is usedformanypurposesespeciallytodyepalmsandhair. It is groundedintopowderandusedaftermixingwithwater. <br />
  67. 67. Hennanight: The ceremonyheldonedaybefore the weddingis called the hennanight. Usuallydryhennabroughtby the bridegroom’sfamily is brokentopieces in a silverorcoppervesselby a woman whosefatherandmotheralive, not experiencedanyseparation.<br />
  68. 68. Afterpreparing the bride, veilornamentedwithredflake is placedover her head, andshe is broughtinto the middlewithhymnand folk songsabouthenna. Hennathat has earlierkneadedwithwater is brought in on a traysurroundedbycandlesandplaced in the middle of the room. Insomeplaces, the henna is first put on the hands of the brideand then distributedto the guests; in otherareas the henna is firstdistributedto the guests, andonlyaftereverybody has left is it placed on the bride’shands. If the woman so wishes, henna can also be placed on her feetandhair.<br />
  69. 69. Considerableattention is paidtocharging a woman witha happymarriage, called the “basi bütün” (meaning “whosehead is complete”, in a sense, thisdescribes her as someonewho has a completefamilywithhusbandandchildrenandwhosemarriage is whole, not separatedbydivorce) tokneadanddistribute the hennaandapply it to the girl’shand. The woman places the henna on one of the bride’shands, and a younggirlplaces it on the other. Before the henna is applied, coinsorgoldarealsoplaced in her handsby her mother-in-low. Untilthis, the bridedoesn’taccepthenna. <br />
  70. 70. After the henna, theykeepsinginganddancing. <br />
  71. 71. The mostcommon folk song at hennanight is as follows:<br />Yüksek yüksek tepelere ev kurmasinlarAsrı asrı memlekete kiz vermesinlerAnnesinin bir tanesini hor görmesinlerUcanda kuslara malum olsunBen annemi özledimHem annemi hem babamiBen koyumu özledimBabamin bir ati olsa binse de gelseAnnemin yelkeni olsa acsa da gelseKardeslerimyollarimi bilse de gelseUcanda kuslara malum olsunBen annemi özledimHem annemi hem babamiBen koyumu özledimUcanda kuslara malum olsunBen annemi özledimHem annemi hem babamiBen koyumu özledim<br />
  73. 73. On Thursdaymorning, wewentto İstanbul altogether. First of all, We had breakfastamongthecolourfultulips at Çamlıca hill.<br />
  74. 74. Breakfast !!! <br />Breakfast !!! <br />Breakfast !!!<br />Breakfast !!!<br />
  75. 75. ThenLithuanianGroup had toleaveearly ,sotheydidn’tvisitHagiaSophiaantd Topkapı Palace. We sent offthemtotheircountry. TheothersfirstlyvisitedHagiaSophia .<br />
  76. 76. Hagia Sophia is a great architectural beauty and an important monument both for Byzantine and for Ottoman Empires. Once a church, later a mosque, and now a museum at the Turkish Republic, Hagia Sophia has always been the precious of its time.<br />The mystical city Istanbul hosted many civilizations since centuries, of which Byzantium and Ottoman Empires were both the most famous ones. The city today carries the characteristics of these two different cultures and surely Hagia Sophia is a perfect synthesis where one can observe both Ottoman and Byzantium effects under one great dome.<br />
  77. 77. After 160 years of darkness, Seraphim's face is in daylight.<br />There are 4 seraphim mosaics ( God's protector angels with 6 wings) on the 4 pendentives that carry the dome. The 4 seraphims' faces were covered with 6-7 layers of plaster for almost 160 years during the sovereignty of Ottomans. The last person who saw the faces of the Seraphims was the Swiss architect GaspareFossati while he was holding the restoration at Hagia Sophia in 1840s. With a 10 day hard work, experts managed to take off the 7 layers of plasters and reveal the face of one of the seraphims.<br />The 16 years old scaffold that was standing on the southeast quarter of the dome for reconstruction purposes has been unstitched to be set up to northeast quarter.<br />The certain age of the mosaics is unclear however they are known to be older than 700 years.<br />
  78. 78. Here is Topkapı Palace. Wewanderedamongthetulips<br />in thegardenandvisitedparts of the Topkapı Palace.<br />
  79. 79. With its "irregular, asymmetric, non-axial, and un-monumental proportions" as some European travelers described it, Topkapi Palace was certainly quite different from the European palaces with which they were familiar whether in terms of appearance or of layout. But it was also fundamentally different from oriental or Islamic palaces even though they might have had similar patterns of spatial organization. In fact, Topkapi was a sui generis microcosm, a paradise on earth or "to borrow a term from Ottoman palace terminology" The Palace of Felicity.<br />Topkapi may be considered a trans-cultural focal point in which a holistic civilization was created from the nomadic culture of Turkish tribesmen whose forefathers had set out from Central Asia and reached Asia Minor with stopovers in Persia and Mesopotamia. Within the historically short period of two centuries, the Ottomans rose from a small, feudal principality to become a major -the major- world power, yet at the same time they possessed a court tradition and culture of their own that was over a thousand years old. Undoubtedly Topkapi involved a synthesis of Byzantine elements but what grew up on the peninsula by the Golden Horn cannot possibly be divorced from its predecessors in Ottoman history.<br />
  80. 80. Home of the Ottoman sultans for nearly 400 years,TopkapıSarayı ("Palace of the Cannon Gate"—) was the seraglio, the heart of the vast Ottoman Empire, ruled by the monarch who lived in Topkapı's hundreds of rooms with hundreds of concubines, children, and white and black servants.<br />The main attractions in the palace are the harems quarters and the treasury<br />
  81. 81. Aftervisiting Topkapı Palace, westoppedtoeatfishandbread in Eminonu.<br />Andthenwesawspectacularview of theBosphorus.<br />
  82. 82. Andthedaywasendwithpleasure.<br />
  83. 83. On Fridaywe sent offItalianandSpanishGroups in İstanbul and<br />on Saturdaywe sent offRomanianGroup .<br />Goodbye<br />