PrivateSecurityServices in EuropeCoESS Facts & Figures                        2011
CoESSConfederation of European Security ServicesJan Bogemansstraat | Rue Jan Bogemans 249B-1780 Wemmel, BelgiumT +32 2 462...
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Private                          Security                          Services in Europe                          CoESS Facts...
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Private                                                          Security                                                 ...
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Private                                                            Security                                               ...
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Private                                                                                                       Security    ...
–– Policies and/or legislations determining the EO Policy:                               Collective labour agreements     ...
Private                                                                                             Security              ...
–– Mobile alarm response and call-out services – duration:      7.5 hours   –– In-house manned security – duration: 7.5 ho...
Private                                                                                                        Security   ...
–– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): 15,411                                 vate security industry: 35   ...
Private                                                                                                Security           ...
–– To obtain an ID card (proof of the granted individual           •	 A special licence is required for private security c...
Private                                                                                               Security            ...
–– These specialised trainings are provided by certified train-      ing institutes, which are licensed by the Ministry of...
Private                                                                                                         Security  ...
–– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an individ-                       •	 Annual staff turnover rate5 in the...
Private                                                                                                Security           ...
•	 A special licence is required for private security companies        Horses   owning weapons   –– Competent national aut...
Private                                                                                                         Security  ...
–– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an indi-                                  –– Law regulating the private...
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
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Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
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Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
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Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
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Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
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Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
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Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
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Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
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Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
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Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
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Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
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Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
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Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011

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Informe de la Confederation of European Security Services sobre servicios de seguridad privada en Europa en 2011.

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Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011

  1. 1. PrivateSecurityServices in EuropeCoESS Facts & Figures 2011
  2. 2. CoESSConfederation of European Security ServicesJan Bogemansstraat | Rue Jan Bogemans 249B-1780 Wemmel, BelgiumT +32 2 462 07 73 | F +32 2 460 14 31E-mail: apeg-bvbo@i-b-s.be | Web: www.coess.euResponsible publisherCoESS General Secretariat:Hilde De Clerck (Secretary-General of CoESS)Jan Bogemansstraat | Rue Jan Bogemans 249B-1780 Wemmel, BelgiumT +32 2 462 07 73 | F +32 2 460 14 31E-mail: apeg-bvbo@i-b-s.be | Web: www.coess.euCopyright disclaimerUnless stated to the contrary, all materials and information (studies, position papers, white papers, surveys and theirfuture results) are copyrighted materials owned by CoESS (Confederation of European Security Services). All rights are re-served. Duplication or sale of all or any part of it is not permitted. Electronic or print copies may not be offered, whetherfor sale or otherwise, to any third party. Permission for any other use must be obtained from CoESS. Any unauthoriseduse of any materials may violate copyright laws, trademark laws, the laws of privacy and publicity, and communicationsregulations and statutes.Concept & Lay-out: www.excellent-vormgeving.bePrivateSecurityServices in EuropeCoESS Facts & Figures 2011 3
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  4. 4. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011TABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTION 7FACTS & FIGURES 2011 11AUSTRIA 11BELGIUM 15BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA 21BULGARIA 25CROATIA 29CYPRUS 32CZECH REPUBLIC 35DENMARK 37ESTONIA 40FINLAND 44FRANCE 48GERMANY 52GREECE 56HUNGARY 60IRELAND 63ITALY 66LATVIA 70LITHUANIA 74LUXEMBOURG 77MACEDONIA 81MALTA 84NORWAY 86POLAND 90PORTUGAL 95ROMANIA 99SERBIA 103SLOVAKIA 107SLOVENIA 110SPAIN 113SWEDEN 118SWITZERLAND 122THE NETHERLANDS 126TURKEY 129UNITED KINGDOM 134STATISTICS 139CONCLUSIONS 143EU LEGISLATIVE MAPPING 149 5
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  6. 6. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011INTRODUCTIONThe present report of the Confederation of European Security Services (CoESS) entitled ‘PrivateSecurity Services in Europe – CoESS Facts & Figures 2011’ is an update of its 2008 analysis. Itprovides a comprehensive overview of the European private security services landscape andtargets a wide geographical area of 34 countries, i.e. the 27 EU Member States and sevenadditional European countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Norway, Serbia,Switzerland and Turkey.The report allows for an updated and accurate outline of the private security services industryin each country focusing on the following aspects:• Economic aspects: Private security market, private security contracts, private security com- panies, private security guards• Legal aspects: Private security legislation, controls and sanctions, collective labour agree- ments, entrance requirements and restrictions, specific requirements, powers and compe- tences, weapons, K9 (dogs), horses, training and related provisionsThe 2011 report is the result of an intensive consultation process predominantly amongCoESS’ member federations at national level and other national private security organisationsand European countries.Collected information was incorporated into individual country fiches consisting of taggedinformation, which facilitates the consultation of facts and figures for each country and theidentification of similarities and differences between the 34 targeted countries.MethodologyThe information reflected in the individual country fiches was mainly supplied by CoESS’member federations at national level and other national private security organisations andEuropean countries. CoESS hereby warmly thanks all organisations involved for their contri-butions and the time and effort invested in order to achieve this successful outcome. Theircontinued support helps create a comprehensive and realistic representation of the Europeanprivate security services industry today.Additional pertinent information was gathered through desk research and the assistance of(local) authorities, international organisations, diplomatic and academic bodies and otherrelevant organisations. CoESS hereby expresses its sincere gratitude for their invaluable input.Prior to their participation in the report, CoESS’ member federations at national level andother national private security organisations and European countries received a detailed out-line detailing the expected data. This outline is mirrored in the individual country fiches.The country fiches follow a uniform structure, however, as it was decided to include all avail-able data and given the wide variety of detailed information provided, some fiches compriseadditional or more elaborate information. Where no information was received or could becollected, tags were omitted from the individual country fiches. 7
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  8. 8. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011Structure of the reportThe present report contains 34 country fiches in alphabetical order, each one representing asingle country. All country fiches consist of three main sections:• General information: Population, Gross National Income (GNI), ratio security force versus population, ratio police force versus population• Economic aspects: Private security market, private security contracts, private security com- panies, private security guards• Legal aspects: Private security legislation, controls and sanctions, collective labour agree- ments, entrance requirements and restrictions, specific requirements, powers and compe- tences, weapons, K9 (dogs), horses, training and related provisionsThe country fiches are followed by a statistical overview reflecting which questions within theFacts & Figures 2011 questionnaire were not or less frequently answered and which were morefrequently answered. The statistical overview provides information as to why this is the case.The conclusions section provides a consolidated overview of the facts and figures available forthe 34 targeted countries.The last part of the report, the EU legislative mapping, reflects the level of strictness of nation-al-level private security legislations across Europe and provides an analysis of the responsesto the questions within the legal aspects section of the Facts & Figures 2011 questionnaire.For further information regarding the present report, please do not hesitate to contact theCoESS General Secretariat:Confederation of European Security Services (CoESS)Jan Bogemansstraat 249 Rue Jan BogemansB-1780 WemmelBelgiumT +32 2 462 07 73F +32 2 460 14 31E-mail: apeg-bvbo@i-b-s.beWeb: www.coess.eu 9
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  10. 10. Private Security Services in EuropeFACTS & FIGURES 2011 CoESS Facts & Figures 2011AUSTRIA • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies1 is not provided for in the legislation governing the private secu- rity industryGeneral information –– Other activities performed by private security companies: Cash-In-Transit (CIT), private investigation services, air-Population: 8,374,872 port security, private fire brigadeGross National Income (GNI): € 274.3 billion –– Percentage of single-service private security companiesRatio security force/population: 1/523 (only carrying out private security activities): 95%Ratio police force/population: 1/380 –– Percentage of multi-service private security companies (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to private security activities): 5%Economic aspects Private security guardsPrivate security market • Licensing for private security guards is not required by law• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: • Total number of private security guards (2010): 9,000- € 350 million 10,000• Market growth of the private security industry (based on –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- yearly turnover) ons (2010): 600 –– Percentage of growth in 2004 compared to 2003: 22.46% • Maximum number of working hours in the private security –– Percentage of growth in 2005 compared to 2004: 11% industry –– Percentage of growth in 2006 compared to 2005: 7% –– According to the collective labour agreement –– Percentage of growth in 2007 compared to 2006: 4% -- A maximum of 13 hours per day –– Percentage of growth in 2008 compared to 2007: 12% -- A maximum of 60 hours per week –– Percentage of growth in 2009 compared to 2008: 3% -- Overtime: 40 hours depending on the task, region and –– Percentage of growth in 2010 compared to 2009: 3% field of activity• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- -- Weekend and nights: No difference between this and curity companies (market concentration): 45% regular salary• Repartition of yearly turnover (2010) by private security -- Stand-by: This type of flexibility does not exist industry segment • Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereaf- private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking ter): € 281 million into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or –– Airport security: € 35 million other allowances) –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT): € 30 million –– Gross: € 1,600 per month –– Monitoring and remote surveillance: € 4 million –– Net2: € 1,540 per month• Number of armoured cars currently (2010) in use in the • Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- private security industry for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) opera- vate security industry: 35-40 tions: 270-300 • Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- rity industryPrivate security companies –– Men: 80% –– Women: 20%• Licensing for private security companies is required by law • An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private• Total number of private security companies (2010): ± 200 security industry –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car- rying out private security services: ± 100 1 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services. 2 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after taxes and other (legal) deductions. 11
  11. 11. –– Policies and/or legislations determining the EO Policy: Collective labour agreements Regulated by paragraph 1 of the Federal Administrative Law, Article 7 (Abs 1 B-VG Art 7) • There are sector-specific binding collective labour agree-• Annual staff turnover rate3 in the private security industry: 80% ments in place for the private security industry Entrance requirements and restrictionsLegal aspects • Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the privatePrivate security legislation security industry –– Entrance requirements only exist at the level of the indi-• The private security industry is not regulated by sector- vidual guard. There is a special approval procedure for specific legislation, but by general commercial law staff without tertiary education. Criminal records check –– General commercial law regulating the private security and reliability/conduct check are required for all staff. industry: ‘Trade, Commerce and Industry Regulation Act’ Proficiency in the national language and minimum train- (Gewerbeordnung § 129), enacted in 1994 ing are also needed. –– Online information can be found here: http://www.ris. • Entrance restrictions for the private security industry bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung.wxe?Abfrage=Bundesnormen –– On the background of owners of private security compa- &Gesetzesnummer=10007517 nies: No specific restrictions –– The law regulating the private security industry does not –– On the background of private security personnel: Criminal allow armed private security services unless a special li- records check, reliability/conduct check, proficiency in na- cence has been granted tional language and minimum training• Competent national authority in charge of drafting and -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to amending legislation regulating the private security enter the private security profession industry: Trade and commerce authority (Gewerbebe- • Managers: 18 hörde) • Operational staff: 18• Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically covered by the legislation regulating the private security Specific requirements industry –– Airport security • There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of private security personnel: Permission of the Ministry ofControls and sanctions Economics is needed. Uniforms must not bear any resem- blance with the uniforms worn by the police, military or• Competent national authority in charge of controls and in- fire brigade. spections for the private security industry: Trade and com- • There are no specific requirements related to the identifi- merce authority (Gewerbebehörde) cation card (ID card) of private security personnel• Competent national authority in charge of imposing the below sanctions for the private security industry Powers and competences –– Administrative sanctions: Trade and commerce authority (Gewerbebehörde) • Private security guards have the following powers and –– Penal sanctions: Trade and commerce authority (Gewer- competences: ‘Jedermannsrecht’ or the right to stop a bebehörde) person, the right to self-defense, the right to provide assis-• One of the possible sanctions can result in the with- tance and help in need; all these rights apply to any citizen drawal of a company licence and/or an individual guard in such circumstances licence • Guards are allowed to perform a search and seizure –– Search and seizure is allowed in the following circum- stances: Rights connected with the so-called ‘Hausrecht’,3 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a which means that during the course of an event a search set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 12
  12. 12. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 and seizure can be carried out, but only if the response • Dogs are used in the following areas/segments of the pri- (search and seizure) is proportionate to the action/danger vate security industry being faced –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services –– This constitutes a limited right to search and seizure (lim- –– In-house manned security ited to a ‘proportional’ response) –– Critical infrastructure protection • Private security guards are not required to follow special-Weapons ised and obligatory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for the provision of private security servicesCompany level Horses• A special licence is required for private security companies providing armed private security services • Horses can be used for the provision of private security –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police services authority –– A special licence is not required for private security com- –– The licence is renewable panies using horses for the provision of private security• A special licence is required for private security companies services owning weapons • Private security guards are not required to follow special- –– The licence is renewable ised and obligatory training (by law) in order to be able• There are no legal requirements for storing weapons after to use horses for the provision of private security services hours• There is a legal obligation for a private security company Training and related provisions providing armed private security services to keep a de- tailed weapons register • There is an obligation for private security guards to follow• There are limitations as to the type and/or number of basic guard training weapons used and/or to the ammunition used: Maximum –– This training programme is mandatory by law of two handguns per person –– Number of training hours: 7.5 –– The training is provided by the Security Academy of thePersonal level Ministry of the Interior and the industry/employers asso- ciation, VSÖ• A special licence is required for private security guards pro- –– The training is financed by the company viding armed private security services –– There are no compensation schemes in place for compa- –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police nies whose employees are following basic training authority –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private –– The licence is renewable security guards are not issued with a certificate of com-Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- petencetory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use • Mandatory specialised training does not exist (by law) forweapons private security managers, i.e. operational managerial –– This training comprises: Theory, target practice and a psy- staff influencing operations (from site supervisor to CEO) chological test • Follow-up or refresher training exists –– This follow-up or refresher training is organised in lineK9 (dogs) with procedures pertaining to individual companies –– This follow-up or refresher training is not mandatory by• Dogs can be used for the provision of private security law services • Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of –– A special licence is not required for private security com- private security activities panies using dogs for the provision of private security –– Commercial manned guarding – duration: 7.5 hours services –– Beat patrol – duration: 7.5 hours 13
  13. 13. –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services – duration: 7.5 hours –– In-house manned security – duration: 7.5 hours –– Event security (crowd control) – duration: 2 hours –– Door supervision (bouncing) – duration: 7.5 hours –– Bodyguarding (close protection) – duration: 7.5 hours –– Cash-In-Transit services (including cash handling/process- ing) – duration: 7.5 hours –– Alarm and CCTV monitoring – duration: 7.5 hours –– Aviation security – duration: 100 hours –– Urban security (train/metro stations, city patrols comple- menting the police etc.) – duration: 7.5 hours –– Critical infrastructure protection – duration: 7.5 hours –– Fire prevention and protection services – duration: 7.5 hours –– Receptionist/concierge services – duration: 7.5 hours –– These specialised trainings are provided by the Security Training Institute• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tion to undergo –– A psychotechnical /psychological examination -- This is required for guards carrying weapons –– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out by the police -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass this check are: No criminal offence, no conviction, good conduct 14
  14. 14. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011BELGIUMGeneral information the private market: 10 months –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the pri-Population: 10,839,905 vate market: 89%Gross National Income (GNI): € 373.29 billion –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts forRatio security force/population: 1/703 the private market: 3 yearsRatio police force/population: 1/266 • Number of commercial contracts for the public market (public customers): 23% • Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for theEconomic aspects public market: 8% • Average duration of short-term commercial contracts forPrivate security market the public market: 10 months • Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the pub-• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: lic market: 92% € 640 million • Average duration of long-term commercial contracts for• Market growth of the private security industry (based on the public market: 3 years yearly turnover) –– Number of operational guarding hours (commercial hours –– Percentage of growth in 2004 compared to 2003: 1.66% sold and thus paid for by the customer) performed each –– Percentage of growth in 2005 compared to 2004: 3.12% year in the private security industry: 19,900,000 hours, –– Percentage of growth in 2006 compared to 2005: 4.75% which represent 11,200 man years1 –– Percentage of growth in 2007 compared to 2006: 6.51% –– Percentage of growth in 2008 compared to 2007: 6.29% Private security companies –– Percentage of growth in 2009 compared to 2008: 1.18% –– Percentage of growth in 2010 compared to 2009: -3.10% • Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- • Total number of private security companies (2010): 220 curity companies (market concentration): 89.71% –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car-• Repartition of yearly turnover (2010) by private security rying out private security services: 187 industry segment • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies2 is –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereaf- embodied in the legislation governing the private security ter): € 420 million industry –– Airport security: € 62 million –– Percentage of single-service private security companies –– Maritime security: € 11.8 million (only carrying out private security activities): 100% –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT): € 110 million –– Percentage of multi-service private security companies –– Monitoring and remote surveillance: € 22 million (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to private –– Other segments: € 11.2 million security activities): 0%• Number of armoured cars (2010) in use in the private secu- rity industry for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) operations: 412 Private security guardsPrivate security contracts • Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law • Total number of private security guards (2010): 15,411• Number of commercial contracts for the private market (private customers): 77% 1 Calculating man years is a method of describing the amount of work performed by a private security guard throughout the entire year. A man year takes the amount of –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for the pri- hours worked by a private security guard during the week and multiplies it by 52 (or the vate market: 11% number of weeks worked in a year). 2 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts for recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services. 15
  15. 15. –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): 15,411 vate security industry: 35 –– Number of individual licence holders actively carrying out • Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- private security activities (2010): 15,261 rity industry –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- –– Men: 85.2% ons (2010): 150 –– Women: 14.8% –– The licence fee is financed by the company in nearly all • An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private cases security industry –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an individ- –– Policies and/or legislations determining the EO Policy: EU ual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: 86% and national legislation• Maximum number of working hours in the private security • Annual staff turnover rate5 in the private security industry: 21.3% industry –– This percentage includes transfers of contracts and/or –– According to the collective labour agreement other considerations -- A maximum of 12 hours per day -- A maximum of 48 hours per week -- Overtime: 65 hours per quarter Legal aspects -- Weekend and nights: As on regular days -- Stand-by: Not regulated at sectoral level at present; Private security legislation specific systems in place at company level in certain companies • The private security industry is regulated by law –– According to national legislation –– Law regulating the private security industry: ‘Wet op de -- A maximum of 9 hours per day (exceptions up to 12 Private en Bijzondere Veiligheid’ (Law on Private and Spe- hours are allowed) cial Security), enacted in 1990 -- A maximum of 56 hours per week –– Updates and/or amendments introduced since can be -- Overtime: 65 hours per quarter found on the Vigilis website (www.vigilis.be) -- Weekend and nights: In principle, this is not allowed –– Online information can be found here: www.vigilis.be unless otherwise regulated in sector legislation or collec- (available in French and Dutch) tive agreement. The maximum uninterrupted work pe- –– The law regulating the private security industry allows riod must not exceed 6 consecutive days. The minimum armed private security services, namely for Cash-In- rest period after a period of 6 working days or after 60 Transit (CIT) operations and if requested by the client due hours is 48 hours. to the specific nature of the assignment (NATO, military -- Stand-by: Not regulated bases, embassies etc.). In these cases, a special licence is• Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed needed, issued by the Ministry of the Interior (both for the private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking company and for the guard). In addition, specific training into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or and legislation – general national legislation – apply. other allowances) • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and –– Gross: € 2,064 amending legislation regulating the private security indus- –– Net3: € 1,541 try: The Ministry of the Interior proposes legislation. The• Average monthly salary (not covering social security charg- Parliament formally introduces and votes legislation. Legis- es paid by the employer) of all private security guards (in- lation is executed (executive acts and regulations) by Royal cluding overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other Decree (the King, de facto the Ministry of the Interior), by allowances) special Royal Decree (the King, de facto the Council of Minis- –– Gross: € 2,207 ters) or by Ministerial Decree (Minister of the Interior). –– Net4: € 1,632 • Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically• Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- covered by the legislation regulating the private security industry3 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after taxes and other (legal) deductions.4 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after 5 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a taxes and other (legal) deductions. set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 16
  16. 16. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) –– At company level –– Airport security -- Licence to be obtained from the Ministry of the Interior –– Maritime security -- Positive advice from the Minister of Justice (information –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) collected by State Security and judicial authorities) –– Monitoring and remote surveillance -- Insurance requirements –– Other segments -- At least one manager must have followed compulsory -- Bodyguarding training for managers and at least one person must -- Mobile guarding have followed compulsory training for the activity for -- Control of persons which the licence is requested -- Accompanying of secured special transports -- Necessary infrastructure and material required for the activity for which the licence is requestedControls and sanctions –– At personal level -- Licence to be obtained from the Ministry of the Interior• Competent national authority in charge of controls and in- -- No criminal background spections for the private security industry: Ministry of the -- Positive medical examination Interior in cooperation with the police -- Positive psychotechnical examination• Competent national authority in charge of imposing the -- Successfully completed compulsory training below sanctions for the private security industry -- Agreement with the conduction of a security check –– Administrative sanctions: Ministry of the Interior (background screening) –– Penal sanctions: Penal tribunals • Entrance restrictions for the private security industry• Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum –– On the background of owners of private security compa- sentence that can be imposed: € 25,000 nies: Please refer to the section ‘Entrance requirements’.• One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal Additional information can be found on the Vigilis web- of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence site (www.vigilis.be). –– On the background of private security personnel: PleaseCollective labour agreements refer to the section ‘Entrance requirements’. Additional information can be found on the Vigilis website (www.• There are sector-specific binding collective labour agreements vigilis.be). in place for the private security industry. Sectoral collective -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to agreements are concluded and applied at company level. The enter the private security profession agreements are very wide-ranging covering job classification, • Managers: 21 minimum wages, premiums, working hours (weekly, over- • Operational staff: 18 time and holidays), flexitime, special schedules (nights, teams, weekends), workload restrictions, job security, contracts, period Specific requirements of notice in case of dismissal, staff takeover scheme when a contractor changes at a site, end-of-career management, vo- • There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of cational training, health and safety at work, social fund, trade private security personnel union rights and worker representation. Upon signature by the –– Over 90% of private security activities are carried out by recognised representative social partners, the sectoral collec- uniformed private security guards tive agreement binds the signatory parties. Nearly all sectoral –– Uniforms are not compulsory, but if they are being collective agreements become generally binding afterwards – used, they must be clearly distinguishable from those by Royal Decree – and are thus applicable to the whole sector. worn by the police, military and other public security officersEntrance requirements and restrictions –– Moreover, every visible piece of the upper-body part of the uniform must have the emblem ‘Vigilis’ stitched onto it• Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private • There are specific requirements related to the identifica- security industry tion card (ID card) of private security personnel 17
  17. 17. –– To obtain an ID card (proof of the granted individual • A special licence is required for private security companies licence), the private security guard must owning weapons -- Pass the medical examinations and the psychotechni- –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry cal tests of the Interior -- Pass the training and related examinations –– Duration of the licence: 5 years -- Meet the security requirements (security investigation by –– The licence is renewable the Ministry of the Interior) • There are legal requirements for storing weapons after -- Have the nationality of one of the EU Member States hours: Weapons are to be stored in a safe room in the pri- -- Have attained the age of 21 vate security company or the in-house guarding department –– To obtain an ID card (proof of the granted individual li- • There is a legal obligation for a private security company cence), the private security manager must providing armed private security services to keep a de- -- Have not been sentenced for any crime or misdemeanour tailed weapons register involving a fine, community service or imprisonment • There are limitations as to the type and/or number of weap- -- Meet the training requirements ons used and/or to the ammunition used: Only a revolver or -- Have the nationality of one of the EU Member States pistol are allowed with a calibre lower than 10 mm. Weap- -- Refrain from certain incompatible activities ons used are never the personal property of the private se- -- Satisfy the condition regarding prohibition of passage curity guard, but remain the property of the private security -- Comply with security conditions and have committed company or the in-house guarding department. no act that was contrary to professional ethics -- Have attained the age of 21 Personal levelPowers and competences • A special licence is required for private security guards pro- viding armed private security services• Private security guards have the following powers and –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: The Pro- competences: In general, private security guards have no vincial Governor or the Minister of Justice if the private police powers. They have the same rights as any other citi- security guard does not reside in Belgium. It concerns a zen. Exceptions relate to stopping an individual who is car- personal licence to carry a weapon. rying out a crime and controlling transport tickets. The use –– Duration of the licence: 5 years of force, however, is not allowed. In some cases, weapons –– The licence is renewable can be used, but only for self-defense purposes. • Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga-• They are allowed to perform a search and seizure tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use –– A search and seizure is allowed in the following cases: Pri- weapons vate security guards are only allowed to carry out a very –– This training comprises superficial body search. A full body search can only be car- -- 12 hours of theory (concerning legislation about the use ried out by the police. of weapons, legal self-defense, private security legisla- –– This constitutes a limited search and seizure tion regarding armed activities) -- 6 hours of specific knowledge about weaponsWeapons -- 12 hours of practical exercises (loading, unloading, simple dismantling of a weapon, carrying and use of aCompany level weapon on a shooting range, commanding the pin and target direction)• A special licence is required for private security companies -- 12 hours of actual shooting exercises plus shooting ex- providing armed private security services ercises every 6 months (50 bullets to be shot, 80% of –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry target accuracy to be obtained) of the Interior –– Number of training hours: 42 –– Duration of the licence: 5 years –– The training is provided by certified training institutes, –– The licence is renewable which are licensed by the Ministry of the Interior 18
  18. 18. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011K9 (dogs) –– There are compensation schemes in place for companies whose employees are following basic training: In the major-• Dogs can be used for the provision of private security services ity of cases, the private security guard in question is already –– A special licence is required for private security companies employed by the company and thus receives a salary using dogs for the provision of private security services –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private -- Competent national authority issuing the licence: Min- security guards are issued with a certificate of basic com- istry of the Interior petence -- Duration of the licence: 5 years • Mandatory specialised training exists (by law) for private -- The licence is renewable security managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influ-• The use of dogs is strictly regulated by law (only certain dog encing operations (from site supervisor to CEO) races can be used, only in certain places etc.) –– Number of training hours: For lower level management,• Dogs are used in the following areas/segments of the pri- the same training applies as for guard supervisors. For vate security industry middle management, the training comprises 52 hours. For –– Beat patrol higher supervisors, the training comprises 100 hours. –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services • Follow-up or refresher training exists –– In-house manned security –– This follow-up or refresher training is mandatory by –– Aviation security law and organised every 5 years; however, the train- –– Maritime security ing only covers legal matters. This training comprises –– Critical infrastructure protection 8 hours. A refresher training composed of non-legal• Private security guards must not follow specialised and ob- modules is mandatory by sectoral collective agreement ligatory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for and organised every 5 years. First aid training and a the provision of private security services refresher course are mandatory by labour law and or- ganised each year.Horses • Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of private security activities• Horses can be used for the provision of private security –– Beat patrol – duration: 40 hours services –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services – duration: –– A special licence is required for private security companies 40 hours using horses for the provision of private security services –– In-house manned security – duration: 132 hours -- Competent national authority issuing the licence: Min- –– Door supervision (bouncing) – duration: 32 hours istry of the Interior –– Bodyguarding (close protection) – duration: 51 hours -- Duration of the licence: 5 years –– Cash-In-Transit services (including cash handling/process- -- The licence is renewable ing) – duration: 68 hours• Private security guards must not follow specialised and ob- –– Alarm and CCTV monitoring – duration: 70 hours ligatory training (by law) in order to be able to use horses –– Aviation security – duration: 80 hours for the provision of private security services –– Maritime security – duration: 16 hours –– Private investigation – duration: 250 hoursTraining and related provisions –– Private security training – duration: Depends on the pri- vate security guard’s existing qualifications, seniority and• There is an obligation for private security guards to follow experience and the post he/she is recruited for basic guard training –– Other area/segment, namely: –– This training programme is mandatory by law -- Store detective (retail) – duration: 20 hours –– Number of training hours: 127 -- Ascertain material facts – duration: 24 hours –– The training is provided by certified training institutes, -- Traffic guard with security objective – duration: 20 hours which are licensed by the Ministry of the Interior -- Accompanying of secured special transports – duration: –– In 99% of cases, the training is financed by the private 72 hours security company -- Museum guard – duration: 72 hours 19
  19. 19. –– These specialised trainings are provided by certified train- ing institutes, which are licensed by the Ministry of the Interior• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tion to undergo –– A medical examination –– A psychotechnical /psychological examination –– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out by the Ministry of Justice, the judicial authorities and the Ministry of the Interior -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass this check are: Background and criminal records check 20
  20. 20. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the pri- vate market: 57% –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts forGeneral information the private market: 3 years • Number of commercial contracts for the public marketPopulation: 3,844,046 (public customers): 10%Gross National Income (GNI): € 13.53 billion –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for theRatio security force/population: 1/2,295 public market: 20%Ratio police force/population: 1/217 –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts for the public market: 3 days –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for theEconomic aspects public market: 80% –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts forPrivate security market the public market: 1 year • Number of in-house contracts: 15%• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: –– Percentage of short-term in-house contracts: 20% € 28.8 million –– Average duration of short-term in-house contracts: 1 month• Market growth of the private security industry (based on –– Percentage of long-term in-house contracts: 80% yearly turnover) –– Average duration of in-house contracts: 1 year –– Percentage of growth in 2004 compared to 2003: 170% • Number of operational guarding hours (commercial hours –– Percentage of growth in 2005 compared to 2004: 176% sold and thus paid for by the customer) performed each –– Percentage of growth in 2006 compared to 2005: 186% year in the private security industry: 600,000 hours, which –– Percentage of growth in 2007 compared to 2006: 135% represent 3,300 man years1 –– Percentage of growth in 2008 compared to 2007: 118% –– Percentage of growth in 2009 compared to 2008: 109% Private security companies –– Percentage of growth in 2010 compared to 2009: 98%• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- • Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law curity companies (market concentration): 67% • Total number of private security companies (2010): 94• Repartition of yearly turnover (2010) by private security • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies2 is not industry segment embodied in the legislation governing the private security –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereaf- industry ter): € 14.3 million –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT): € 4 million Private security guards –– Monitoring and remote surveillance: € 3.5 million –– Other segments: € 7 million • Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law• Number of armoured cars currently (2010) in use in the • Total number of private security guards (2010): 4,207 private security industry for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) opera- –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): 4,207 tions: ± 120 –– Number of individual licence holders actively carrying out private security activities (2010): 3,576Private security contracts –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- ons (2010): 1,075• Number of commercial contracts for the private market –– The licence fee is financed by the company (private customers): 75% –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for the pri- 1 Calculating man years is a method of describing the amount of work performed by a private security guard throughout the entire year. A man year takes the amount of vate market: 18% hours worked by a private security guard during the week and multiplies it by 52 (or the –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts for number of weeks worked in a year). 2 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially the private market: 6 months recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services. 21
  21. 21. –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an individ- • Annual staff turnover rate5 in the private security industry: 5% ual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: 95% –– This percentage includes transfers of contracts and/or• Maximum number of working hours in the private security other considerations industry –– According to the collective labour agreement -- A maximum of 12 hours per day Legal aspects -- A maximum of 40 hours per week -- Overtime: 40 hours per month Private security legislation -- Weekend and nights: Only as defined by law -- Stand-by: This form of work does not exist • The private security industry is regulated by law –– According to national legislation –– Law regulating the private security industry: Law on Agen- -- A maximum of 12 hours per day cies of Protection of People and Property, Article 4, Official -- A maximum of 40 hours per week Gazette, Year IX, No. 50, October 14, 2002, enacted in 2002 -- Overtime: In case of unforeseeable circumstances (fire, –– Updates and/or amendments introduced since: Law on earthquake, flood) or sudden increase in the volume of Agencies and Interior Services for Security of People and work, as well as in other similar cases, an employee, at Property, Official Gazette, No. 78/08, December 10, 2008, the request of the employer, is obliged to work longer enacted in 2008 hours than his/her contracted hours (overtime work), up –– Online information can be found here: to a maximum of 10 hours weekly. In case there is a -- http://www.privatesecurityregulation.net/files/Federa- need for longer overtime working hours, the employee tionPrivateSecurityCompaniesLaw.pdf may give his/her consent for another 10 hours per week. -- http://www.fmup.gov.ba/bs/text.php?id=80• Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed -- http://www.mup.vladars.net/zakoni/rs_lat/ZAKON%20 private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking O%20AGENCIJAMA%20ZA%20OBEZBJEDjENJE%20 into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or LICA%20I%20IMOVINE%20I%20PRIVATNOJ%20DETEK- other allowances) TIVSKOJ%20DJELATNOSTI%20(Sluzbeni%20glasnik%20 –– Gross: € 480 RS,%20broj:%2050.02).pdf –– Net3: € 280 –– The law regulating the private security industry allows• Average monthly salary (not covering social security charg- armed private security services es paid by the employer) of all private security guards (in- • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and cluding overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other amending legislation regulating the private security indus- allowances) try: Ministry of the Interior –– Gross: € 500 • Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically –– Net4: € 350 covered by the legislation regulating the private security• Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- industry vate security industry: 25 –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter)• Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) rity industry –– Monitoring and remote surveillance –– Men: 98% –– Other segments, i.e. sport events –– Women: 2%• An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private Controls and sanctions security industry in line with general equality legislation –– Policies and/or legislations determining the EO Policy: • Competent national authority in charge of controls and in- Law on Gender Equality in Bosnia and Herzegovina spections for the private security industry: Regional police authorities • Competent national authority in charge of imposing the3 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after taxes and other (legal) deductions.4 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives 5 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a after taxes and other (legal) deductions. set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 22
  22. 22. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 below sanctions for the private security industry • Are under criminal investigation –– Administrative sanctions: Regional police authorities • Are convicted criminals –– Penal sanctions: Regional police authorities • Are medically unfit• Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum • Have been prevented from joining the police force sentence that can be imposed: € 2,556-25,500 by the IPTF Commissioner• One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal • Have been discharged from military service of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to enter the private security professionCollective labour agreements • Managers: 22 • Operational staff: 18• There are no sector-specific binding collective labour agreements in place for the private security industry Specific requirementsEntrance requirements and restrictions • There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of private security personnel• Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private • There are specific requirements related to the identifica- security industry tion card (ID card) of private security personnel –– At company level -- Be a legal domestic company or a Bosnian national Powers and competences -- Those applying to establish a private security company must meet several requirements, such as • Private security guards have the following powers and • Employment of a minimum of five guards possess- competences ing valid licences to perform security services –– The use of lethal force or firearms is permitted only under • Possess suitable technical knowledge and equipment the following circumstances • Possess a business premises suitable for security work -- To protect life –– At personal level -- For reasons of self-defense -- Be a citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina -- To protect the person or property, which the guard is -- Have a licence to perform security services protecting from attack -- Be physically and mentally fit to carry out security duties -- To prevent the escape of a person performing a criminal -- Have attained at least secondary education (persons act against a property, which the guard is protecting working on technical protection must have an appro- -- In case the guard is put in a critical life-threatening priate technical education) situation -- Have no criminal record or proceedings in progress -- The guard must warn before using (deadly) force -- Have never been disqualified by the International Po- • They are not allowed to perform a search and seizure lice Task Force (IPTF) Commissioner -- Have been discharged from military service Weapons• Entrance restrictions for the private security industry –– On the background of owners of private security companies Company level -- Owners and managers are barred from the sector if they • Are under criminal investigation • A special licence is required for private security companies • Are convicted criminals providing armed private security services: A private securi- • Are medically unfit ty company that provides physical protection may possess • Have been prevented from joining the police force for this purpose short-barrel firearms for not more than by the IPTF Commissioner one fifth of its employees • Have been discharged from military service –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry –– On the background of private security personnel of the Interior -- Employees are barred from the sector if they –– Duration of the licence: Open-ended 23
  23. 23. • A special licence is required for private security companies Horses owning weapons –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry • Horses cannot be used for the provision of private security of the Interior services –– Duration of the licence: Open-ended• There are legal requirements for storing weapons af- Training and related provisions ter hours: When not in use, firearms should be stored securely in fireproof safes on the company’s premises. • There is an obligation for private security guards to fol- Prior to each withdrawal or return of a weapon, the low basic guard training. Mandatory training for person- employee is required to sign it in or out of a company nel includes: Training in the application of ‘minimal use register. of force’ as regulated by the Training Programme for Ac-• There is a legal obligation for a private security company quiring a Certificate for Physical or Technical Protection of providing armed private security services to keep a de- People or Property tailed weapons register –– This training programme is mandatory by law• There are limitations as to the type and/or number of –– Number of training hours: 50 (40 hours of theory and 10 weapons used and/or to the ammunition used hours of practice) –– Shotgun (one per Cash-In-Transit vehicle) –– The training is provided by the Federal and Regional Min- –– The number of weapons used must be half of the number istries of the Interior of guards deployed (e.g. two guards deployed means one –– There are no compensation schemes in place for compa- weapon in use) nies whose employees are following basic training – – 9 mm weapons (use of an automatic weapon is pro- –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private hibited) security guards are issued with a certificate of competence –– Firearms must have a barrel no longer than 20 cm • Mandatory specialised training exists for private security –– Non-lethal weapons such as batons, shock guns and gas managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influencing sprays are not permitted operations (from site supervisor to CEO) –– To carry a concealed firearm is prohibited –– Number of training hours: 50 • Follow-up or refresher training existsPersonal level –– This follow-up or refresher training is organised every year –– This follow-up or refresher training is mandatory by law• A special licence is required for private security guards pro- • Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of viding armed private security services, i.e. a certificate for private security activities performing security (protection) operations –– Beat patrol – duration: 10 hours –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry –– Bodyguarding (close protection) – duration: 10 hours of the Interior –– Cash-In-Transit services (including cash handling/process- –– Duration of the licence: Same duration as the guarding licence ing) – duration: 10 hours –– The licence is renewable –– Alarm and CCTV monitoring – duration: 10 hours• Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- –– Private security training – duration: 10 hours tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use –– These specialised trainings are provided by the company weapons • When applying for an individual private security guard li- –– This training comprehends: Theory and target practice cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- –– Number of training hours: 50 tion to undergo –– The training is provided by the police academy –– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out byK9 (dogs) the Ministry of the Interior -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass• Dogs cannot be used for the provision of private security this check are: No past criminal offence, no ongoing services criminal investigation 24
  24. 24. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011BULGARIA public market: ± 90% –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts for the public market: 12 monthsGeneral information –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the public market: ± 10%Population: 7,563,710 –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts forGross National Income (GNI): € 35.12 billion the public market: 2 yearsRatio security force/population: 1/132 • Number of operational guarding hours (commercialRatio police force/population: 1/155 hours sold and thus paid for by the customer) per- formed each year in the private security industry: A maximum of 2,230 hours (per guard). Given the totalEconomic aspects number of 57,146 guards, the total maximum number of operational guarding hours amounts to 127,435,580Private security market hours.• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: € Private security companies 311.22 million• Market growth of the private security industry (based on • Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by yearly turnover) law –– Percentage of growth in 2004 compared to 2003: 16.2% –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police –– Percentage of growth in 2005 compared to 2004: 29.9% and the Ministry of the Interior –– Percentage of growth in 2006 compared to 2005: 11.9% • Total number of private security companies (2010): 1,200 –– Percentage of growth in 2007 compared to 2006: 42.2% –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car- –– Percentage of growth in 2008 compared to 2007: 19.1% rying out private security services: ± 800 –– Percentage of growth in 2009 compared to 2008: - 13.8% • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies1 is not –– Percentage of growth in 2010 compared to 2009: 15.6% embodied in the legislation governing the private security• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- industry curity companies (market concentration): ± 11% –– Other activities performed by private security companies• Number of armoured cars currently (2010) in use in the next to private security activities: All activities are allowed private security industry for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) opera- by law, with the exception of financial and insurance ser- tions: ± 700 vices –– Percentage of single-service private security companiesPrivate security contracts (only carrying out private security activities): ± 90% –– Percentage of multi-service private security companies• Number of commercial contracts for the private market (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to private (private customers) security activities): ± 10% –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for the pri- vate market: ± 40% Private security guards –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts for the private market: 12 months • Licensing for private security guards is not mandatory by –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the pri- law vate market: ± 60% • Total number of private security guards (2010): 57,146 –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts for –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- the private market: 3 years ons (2010): 37%• Number of commercial contracts for the public market (public customers) 1 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for the recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services. 25
  25. 25. –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an indi- –– Law regulating the private security industry: Law on pri- vidual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: vate guarding activities, enacted in 2004 ± 80% –– Online information can be found here: http://naftso.org/• Maximum number of working hours in the private security language/en/uploads/files/documents__0/document__73 industry 92fcf695b3f65ed88b258ea6a92f12.pdf –– According to national legislation –– The law regulating the private security industry allows -- A maximum of 12 hours per day armed private security services -- A maximum of 40 hours per week • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and -- Overtime: A maximum of 150 hours per year amending legislation regulating the private security indus-• Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed try: Ministry of the Interior private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking • Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or covered by the legislation regulating the private security other allowances) industry –– Gross: € 178.95 –– General guarding (excluding the segment listed hereafter) –– Net2: € 140.10 –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT)• Average monthly salary (not covering social security charg- –– Legislation allows armed private security services without es paid by the employer) of all private security guards (in- any restrictions cluding overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other allowances) Controls and sanctions –– Gross: € 255.63 –– Net3: € 200.92 • Competent national authority in charge of controls and in-• Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- spections for the private security industry: Ministry of the vate security industry: 45 Interior• Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- • Competent national authority in charge of imposing the rity industry below sanctions for the private security industry –– Men: 87.7% –– Administrative sanctions: Ministry of the Interior, Nation- –– Women: 12.3% al Revenue Agency and Labour Inspections• An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private –– Penal sanctions: Competent courts security industry • Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum –– Policies and/or legislations determining the EO Policy: sentence that can be imposed: € 51,152 Constitution, Labour Code, Law on the Prevention of Dis- • One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal crimination of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence• Annual staff turnover rate4 in the private security industry: ± 75% Collective labour agreements –– This percentage includes transfers of contracts and/or other considerations • There are no sector-specific binding collective labour agreements in place for the private security industryLegal aspects Entrance requirements and restrictionsPrivate security legislation • Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private security industry• The private security industry is regulated by law –– At company level: Registration in the commercial register, absence of liabilities to the state, absence of liabilities to2 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after taxes and other (legal) deductions. social and health insurance funds3 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives –– At personal level: No criminal record or penal and pre- after taxes and other (legal) deductions.4 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a trial proceedings, mental fitness set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 26

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