•A gene is a molecular unit of heredity of a living organism.• It is a name given to some stretches of DNA and RNA that code for a polypeptide or for an RNA chain that has a function in the organism. Living beings depend on genes, as they specify all proteins and functional RNA chains.
Structure of Gene• All genes have regulatory regions along with coding regions for RNA product. It is shared by all genes. The promoter region provides a position recognized by the transcription machinery, where the gene undergoes transcription and expresses.
Chromosomes•In their body cells, humans have 46 chromosomes, made up of 23 pairs. There are 44 chromosomes numbered 1-22 (called autosomes) according to size from the smallest to the largest and two sex chromosomes: X and Y• Women’s chromosomes are described as 46,XX; men’s as 46,XY• A mother passes 23 chromosomes to her child through her egg and a father passes 23 chromosomes through his sperm• The chromosomes consist of two very long thin strands of DNA chains twisted into the shape of a double helix and are located in the nucleus (the ‘control centre’) of our body cells• The chromosomes are long strands of genes• Since the chromosomes come in pairs, the genes also come in pairs• Genes are also located in very small compartments called mitochondria that are randomly scattered in the cytoplasm of the cell outside the nucleus• In each of the approximate 20,000 genes there is a piece of
Sources• Wikipedia• My notebook @iCharlieBronson Follow me on Twitter