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Cim 20080201 feb_2008

  1. 1. Contents Zoom In Zoom Out For navigation instructions please click here Search Issue Next Page _____________________ Contents Zoom In Zoom Out For navigation instructions please click here Search Issue Next Page
  2. 2. C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue B Next Page EMaGS F INNOVATIONby the numbers. Plug & Play™ AnyLAN™ System 1 st preterminated for Indoor and Outdoor optical cabling system for indoor Local Area Networks and outdoor local area networks Because innovation shouldn’t be limited to the data center. 50 % faster project installation than traditional cabling systems 3 times faster to connect locations 15 minutes to connect a typical building, compared with three hours of splicing 100 % factory tested 0 – the amount of for the ultimate special equipment reliability required to install Plug & Play™ AnyLAN™ System Corning Cable Systems is changing the way the industry views local area network technology. Our preterminated Plug & Play™ AnyLAN™ System builds network access points directly on the cable at customer-specified locations, with connection as simple as a preterminated drop cable at each access point. Custom-engineered solutions that offer rapid, easy deployment and factory-level quality aren’t just a data center innovation anymore. Improve YOUR numbers at www.corning.com/anylan/cim © 2008 Corning Cable Systems LLC. C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue B Next Page EMaGS F
  3. 3. C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue Next Page EMaGS B F Turn your cable tester into an OTDR and watch the transformation begin. See how the DTX Compact OTDR Module can turn your cable tester into an OTDR and your staff into fiber experts – to completely transform your fiber business. Imagine. A cable tester that becomes a compact, easy-to-use, full-featured OTDR. Better yet, imagine what that means for your business. A single tool to test copper and fiber. An OTDR your current technicians can easily use. Fiber jobs you couldn’t do before. Just snap the DTX Compact OTDR module onto a DTX mainframe – the industry’s benchmark for cable certification. Now you’re ready to test like a fiber expert. Perform Basic (Tier 1) and Extended (Tier 2) fiber certifica- tion. Perform powerful single-ended trouble- shooting. Deliver professional documentation. Win jobs that require OTDR testing and watch your revenue and profits increase. Look to the new DTX Compact OTDR and watch the transformation begin. Go to www.flukenetworks.com/seehow to enter to win a DTX Compact OTDR and see a live demo. N E T W O R K S U P E R V I S I O N ©2007 Fluke Corporation. All rights reserved. 02152 C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue Next Page EMaGS B F
  4. 4. C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue Next Page EMaGS B F Our U.S. area of expertise. No matter where you’re located, our fiber optic cable products are there. Optical Cable Corporation has built a network of reliable stocking distributors and a dedicated sales team committed to getting you the best fiber optic cables for your requirements when you need them...where you need them. For over 20 years, we have been manufacturing the broadest range of top-performing tight-buffered fiber optic cables for most applications in the government, military, and commercial markets. Your order is our top priority. Contact Optical Cable Corporation for a stocking distributor nearest you. We are where you are. 1-800-622-7711 5290 Concourse Drive • Roanoke, Virginia 24019 • Phone 540-265-0690 • www.occfiber.com C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue Next Page EMaGS B F
  5. 5. C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue Next Page EMaGS B F COVER CONCEPT BY KELLI MYLCHREEST / ____ BIGSTOCK.COM FEBRUARY 2008 VOL. 16, NO. 2 ABOUT THE COVER More than a 130-page federal document, the EPA’s recent report to Congress features details recommendations, incentives, and barriers to implementing data center 9 Improving security through a smarter infrastructure ‘green’ initiatives. Intelligent physical layer management provides a host of benefits, TO LEARN MORE, SEE PAGE 27. including more secure networks. CARRIE HIGBIE 13 Turning up, troubleshooting Voice over Internet Protocol Ensuring performance requires test and measurement of all traffic, and listening to calls. ASSAJI ALUWIHARE, GARY MEYER & THAD WARD 21 Index matching gel stands the test of time Though misconceptions persist, no-epoxy/no-polish fiber-optic connectors perform well, thanks to improved IMG performance. RAY BARNES 27 Inside the EPA’s energy efficiency report Report to Congress details technologies and their impact and implementation in the data center. BETSY ZIOBRON 35 Fiber-optic technology updates old-fashioned security Systems that employ optical circuits to detect intrusion are finding deployment in highly sensitive applications. PATRICK MCLAUGHLIN departments 4 Editorial 39 INDUSTRY SPOTLIGHT ■ Ortronics, CommScope boost customer service GREEN ON GREEN ■ Liberty senior VP to lead InfoComm 43 New Products Manufacturers Council ■ Textron/Greenlee acquires Paladin Tools 45 Product Focus: ■ NASA probes faulty shuttle connector FUSION, MECHANICAL SPLICERS ■ Forthcoming report to assess 100-Gbit/sec opportunities ■ Sumitomo unveils pre-terminated splice-on connector CABLING INSTALLATION & MAINTENANCE © 2008 (ISSN 1073-3108), is published 12 times a year, Februaryly, by PennWell Corporation, 1421 South Sheridan Road, Tulsa, OK 74112; telephone (918) 835-3161; fax (918) 831-9497; Web address www.pennwell.com. Periodicals postage paid at Tulsa, OK 74101 and other additional offices. Subscriptions rate in the USA: 1 yr. $78, 2 yr. $100, BG $132; Canada/Mexico: 1 yr. $88, 2 yr. $132, BG $138; International via air: 1 yr. $105, 2 yr. $160, BG $144; Digital: 1 yr. $39. If available, back issues can be purchased for $17 in the U.S. and $22 elsewhere. Editorial offices: 98 Spit Brook Road, Nashua, NH 03062-5737; telephone (603) 891-0123. All rights reserved. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by CABLING INSTALLATION & MAINTENANCE (ISSN 1073-3108), provided that the appropriate fee is paid directly to Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 USA; (978) 750-8400. Prior to photocopying items for educational classroom use, please contact Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 USA; (978) 750-8400. For further information, check CCC Online at the following address: http://www.copyright.com/. All rights reserved. No material may be reprinted. Bulk reprints can be ordered from Diane Troyer, telephone (603) 891-9135. Corporate officers: Frank T. Lauinger, Chairman; Robert F. Biolchini, President and CEO; Mark Wilmoth, Chief Financial Officer. We make portions of our subscriber list available to carefully screened companies that offer products and services that may be important for your work. If you do not want to receive those offers and/or information, please let us know by contacting us at List Services, CABLING INSTALLATION & MAINTENANCE, 98 Spit Brook Road, Nashua, NH 03062-5737. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: Cabling Installation & Maintenance, P.O. Box 3280, Northbrook, IL 60065-3280. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: P.O. Box 122, Niagara Falls, ON, Canda L2E 6S4. PRINTED IN THE USA. GST No. 126813153 Publications Mail Agreement no. 1421727 www.cable-instll.com Cabling Installation & Maintenance ■ February 2008 ■ 3 C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue Next Page EMaGS B F
  6. 6. C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue Next Page EMaGS B F Chief Editor / Patrick McLaughlin (603) 891-9222 • patrick@pennwell.com Executive Editor / Steve Smith Green on green (603) 891-9139 • stevesm@pennwell.com Senior Editor / Matt Vincent (603) 891-9262 • mattv@pennwell.com A Circulation Manager / Michelle Blake few months ago, I brought BICSI’s most recent conference, held (603) 891-9360 • michellb@pennwell.com up the topic of green build- last month. What follows is a true Art Director / Kelli Mylchreest ings and the Leadership in story: While on the exhibition floor Lead Illustrator / Dan Rodd Energy and Environmental Design with a fellow staff member of this (LEED) program by recalling a pre- magazine, he was listening to one Senior Vice President/Group Publishing Director Christine Shaw sentation that was delivered at the gentleman talk about the important (603) 891-9178 • cshaw@pennwell.com BICSI Conference last September role cabling-related systems play in Associate Publisher/National Sales Manager (see “LEED by ex- LEED at the exact same time that, not Ed Murphy (603) 891-9260 • edm@pennwell.com ample,” October more than three feet away, I was lis- 2007, page 6). Not tening to another gentleman say that, CABLING INSTALLATION & MAINTENANCE long after that in fact, most of what our industry EXECUTIVE AND EDITORIAL OFFICES article was pub- concerns itself with is exempt from PennWell Technology Group 98 Spit Brook Road lished, I received the LEED program. Nashua, NH 03062-5737 Tel: (603) 891-0123, fax: (603) 891-9245 a call from a long- As much as that scene might have Internet: www.cablinginstall.com time contact of resembled something from a slapstick mine, who is em- comedy, the last thing we want to SUBSCRIPTION INQUIRIES: For subscriptions or to change your format to print ployed by one of the manufacturers resemble is an assembly of keystone or digital, please go to: www.cim-subscribe.com. in our industry. He had a response cops trying unsuccessfully to relay Subscriptions outside the USA are available in digital format only. to the final line in my October col- intelligent information about umn: “I’ll be interested to hear more cabling’s role in LEED. So, my pledge about our industry’s take on LEED.” is this: We at Cabling Installation & His take is that our industry will Maintenance will work to cut through CORPORATE OFFICERS have a very minimal role in the pro- the clutter and bring you relevant, Chairman / Frank T. Lauinger gram. Many of the products you work meaningful information about with on a daily basis—those that get LEED and, more importantly to us in President and Chief Executive Officer Robert F. Biolchini written about and advertised in this this industry, information about the Chief Financial Officer / Mark C. Wilmoth magazine, and displayed at exhibitions, extent to which it and other environ- such as those that accompany BICSI mental initiatives will affect us. TECHNOLOGY GROUP conferences—fall outside the realm of It appears that many in our Senior Executive Assistant Carol Woodward what LEED considers, he said. industry have much to learn about Tel: (603) 891-9112, fax: (603) 891-9287 After taking that call, I said out loud the subject, and I’ll rank myself as carolw@pennwell.com the figurative, “I don’t believe it.” It’s the neediest for such information. VP Audience Development / Gloria S. Adams not that I literally did not believe the But hopefully, not for long. Please stay information; it came from a trustwor- with us as we peel back the layers of TECHNOLOGY GROUP PUBLISHING SERVICES DEPARTMENTS thy source who more than deserved what is sure to be a challenging topic Art Director / Meg Fuschetti the benefit of the doubt. It was just for many. Production Director / Mari Rodriguez one of those (many) occasions on (603) 891-9193 • marir@pennwell.com which I said one thing and meant Marketing Communication Manager another. What I really meant was, Kristen Jones (603) 891-9425 • kristenj@pennwell.com “I’m surprised to hear that.” Surprised because I have heard all kinds of chat- Ad Traffic Manager / Jackie Linker (918) 832-9314 • jackiel@pennwell.com ter about cabling systems’ potential PATRICK McLAUGHLIN Mc impact on LEED certification. Chief Editor Fast forward just a little, and I’m at patrick@pennwell.com PRINTED IN THE USA GST NO. 126813153 Publications Mail Agreement Number 40052420 4 ■ February 2008 ■ Cabling Installation & Maintenance ww.cable-install.com C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue Next Page EMaGS B F
  7. 7. C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue Next Page EMaGS B F THE CUT-OVER. THE MOMENT OF TRUTH. OCCASIONALLY FOLLOWED BY THE MOMENTS OF DREAD, BLAME AND CONFUSION. There comes a moment in every project when each decision you’ve made is put to the test. Success and failure hang in the balance, as the switch is made from the old system to the new. At moments like these, your most crucial decision was actually one of your first: your distributor. If it’s Graybar, you’re not on your own. Our nationwide supply chain, local support network and trusted suppliers like Berk-Tek can stand up to any ‘moment of truth’ you may encounter. So take a deep breath; we’ll be right there. FOR MORE INFORMATION, VISIT GRAYBAR.COM/BERKTEK OR CALL 1-800-GRAYBAR(472-9227). _____________ C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue Next Page EMaGS B F
  8. 8. C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue B Next Page EMaGS F ____________ C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue B Next Page EMaGS F
  9. 9. C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue B Next Page EMaGS F ADVERTISEMENT Independent Study Shows the Importance of Using Blanking Panels A complete seal is necessary to achieve full benefits You’ve probably thought about your data center airflow • Increased availability, performance, and reliability of IT problems in terms of below-, through-, and above-the-floor equipment within the cabinets issues. But you may not have considered the problem of • Elimination of exhaust air recirculation within the cabi- cabinet air recirculation, which occurs when the hot exhaust net, allowing for the optimization of cooling and the air from the rear of the server migrates towards the front reduction of energy consumption and operating expenses of the cabinet and mixes with the cold, conditioned air sup- • The possibility of deferring capital expenses used to add plied to the equipment air intakes. This condition increases cooling capacity equipment intake air temperatures, potentially reducing the reliability of IT equipment and wasting energy, which can • The potential for greening the data center by reducing its lead to increased operating expenses. carbon footprint Upon measuring the temperature and volume of air being HotLok Blanking Panel Differentiators: drawn into equipment air intakes in cabinets not furnished • Engineered to provide one of the most effective seals with blanking panels, Robert “Dr. Bob” Sullivan, Senior Con- available on the market sultant at the Uptime Institute, Inc., found that as much as 20 percent of the total volume of air was hot exhaust air re- • Designed for quick, safe, tool-free installation circulated within the server cabinet. Mixing hot equipment • Ergonomically and aesthetically pleasing exhaust air and conditioned air from the underfloor plenum • Easy to use, compact to store and keep in stock for recon- creates air temperatures that exceed the recommended figuring 77°F maximum*. This is especially true with cabinets that are more than 50 percent populated. The best way to cope • RoHS- and UL-certified with this problem is to use blanking plates or filler panels. • Competitively priced HotLok™ Blanking Panels are the most effective and easiest to install. For the best results, use HotLok Blanking Panels in conjunc- tion with Upsite Technologies’ KoldLok® raised-floor seal- Upsite Technologies, Inc., the designer and manufacturer of ing solution. Both product lines provide a significant step HotLok Blanking Panels, recently commissioned third-party toward optimizing cooling capacity, lowering your energy Innovative Research, Inc. to compare the airflow in and bills, increasing IT equipment availability and reliability, and around IT equipment cabinets in three scenarios: (1) in the greening your data center. absence of blanking panels; (2) using blanking panels with horizontal air gaps between adjacent panels, measuring 1/16 inch and 1/8 inch between the panels and servers; (3) and using Upsite Technologies’ HotLok Blanking Panels (no air gaps between blanking panels or between the blanking panels and servers). The findings are published in Upsite’s white paper Two Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis of Blanking Panel Solutions. Scenario 2 showed server air intake temperatures were re- duced by 11 to 22 percent compared Scenario 1. Better yet, Scenario 3 (involving HotLok Blanking Panels) proved to be Infrared (IR) thermal photography highlights the 91.5°F tempera- 15 to 32 percent more effective in reducing server air intake ture of the gaps between non-HotLok blanking panels in a 72°F data temperatures compared to Scenario 1. Finally, using HotLok center. Blanking Panels resulted in an improvement of up to 14 percent compared to Scenario 2. Overall, the study showed that using HotLok Blanking Panels virtually eliminates in- ternal recirculation between the equipment mounting rails, resulting in uniform inlet air temperatures from the bottom to the top of the cabinet. HotLok Blanking Panel Benefits: • Reduction and stabilization of equipment air intake tem- peratures IR thermal photography highlights the consistent temperatures of • Elimination or reduction of the number and severity of the heat in the gaps between Upsite Technologies’ HotLok Blanking hotspots within equipment cabinets Panels in a 72°F data center. *An American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)-recommended temperature. C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue B Next Page EMaGS F
  10. 10. C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue B Next Page EMaGS F ____________________________ C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue B Next Page EMaGS F
  11. 11. C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue Next Page EMaGS B F www.cablinginstall.com design Improving security through a smarter infrastructure A ny network manager will tell you the importance of a fully docu- mented network. Documentation should Intelligent physical layer management can provide a host of benefits, including more secure networks. include all workstations, Internet Protocol (IP) bleshooting” his own problems. IT was having diffi- addresses, router configurations, firewall parameters, culty finding the user to correct the problem. And the and other data. But the documentation may fall short cycle continued. at the physical layer. In particular, older networks that have gone through many moves, adds, and changes Points of compromise (MACs) are not likely to have current documentation. At one point, the user concluded the problem must have In real time—during a crisis—it can mean the differ- something to do with the equipment on that particular ence between quickly solving a problem and wasting precious time locating that prob- lem’s source. A real-life crisis For example, a customer recently had an issue with an errant device on the network. The company had a five-building campus network, and a laptop was creating a denial- of-service (DoS) attack from the inside due to a virus. The switch would shut down the port, and information-technology (IT) staff would go to the telecommunications area to determine the location of the mis- behaving device. But when IT got to the switch’s physical location, the physical layer—largely floor, so he moved to another An intelligent system undocumented—became an issue because short of trac- floor. After being discon- includes patch panels that ing cable, there was no way to find the laptop’s location. nected again, he decid- are configured with a The IT staff began tracing the cables, only to fi nd ed the problem was with sensor pad above each port. that the laptop was no longer there; the user believed the building’s security set- his loss of connectivity was due to a network prob- tings—so, he moved to another building. Again, the cy- lem, and each time he was disconnected, he moved to cle continued. another location—only to fi nd that he would soon lose Roughly five hours later, the laptop and its user were his connection there, too. found and the problems were corrected. For the IT staff, In this scenario, the switches were doing their job it was five hours of pure chaos; for the user, five hours by shutting down the user’s port. The user was “trou- of pure frustration. In other scenarios, compliance and overall network CARRIE HIGBIE is global network applications market manager with security can also be compromised at the physical layer. Siemon (www.siemon.com). _________ Most companies have desks and cubicles that are ➤ www.cable-instll.com Cabling Installation & Maintenance ■ February 2008 ■ 9 C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue Next Page EMaGS B F
  12. 12. C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue Next Page EMaGS B F largely unoccupied and used by staff members who can be back of the patch panel. A standard patch cord with an addi- considered transient. Conference rooms with available ports tional conductor is connected to the front of the system. can also pose a risk. In many vertical markets in which com- The patch cord has a standard 8-pin modular/RJ-45 inter- pliance is required, these open ports can cause a company to face or a standard fiber connector, but also includes a “ninth conductor” designed The system works with both copper and fiber, and is scalable to to contact the sensor pad. This additional let end users purchase only what they need, when they need it. connection allows the system to operate fail its audits unless: in dynamic mode by detecting changes in real time—thus • The ports are shut down completely, or removing the human-error factor from documentation work • A means exists by which only certain users can gain access as the continuity or changes in continuity provide real-time to the network through these connections. information to the database. The only other option is to firewall these ports from the The system works with both copper and fiber, and is scal- actual network, which would mean a reconfiguration each able to let end users purchase only what they need, when they time an authorized user wanted to use the port. All these risks need it. Analyzers are available in a variety of configurations and their remedies can be burdensome to an IT manager. as well. Software is purchased on a per-port basis and can work In the data center and telecommunications areas, tech- either as a standalone application, or integrated with an exist- nicians provide an additional risk if they accidentally ing network-management package. unplug something. If, for example, the accidental discon- In an integrated configuration, a device and its channel can nect was a Voice over IP switch or a critical server, the be traced from within a network management package, such results would be devastating. What if a piece of equip- as HP OpenView. A simple right-click on the device and the ment containing critical information is removed from software can be launched, showing an immediate trace of the a facility, as has been reported in the news many times physical cable. The trace includes all the information about the recently? How does a network manager know who has channel, including patch cords, where the channel terminates, accessed the network? Where did this person/these people and the number of connectors within the channel. It can also access the network? How is access documented? And finally, how are MACs managed? These questions are not only intriguing, but also extremely challenging to IT managers. The intelligent answer Intelligent patching has been around for some time; how- ever, functionality has improved from the original releases. In any of the scenarios described above, an intelligent infra- structure management system would have allowed the network manager to right-click on the offending device, view the entire channel, and even locate the device on a graphical map. An intelligent infrastructure management system’s graphi- cal mapping capabilities include clear markings of outlet loca- tions on computer-aided design (CAD) drawings. By adding the physical layer, network managers are no longer limited to Each patch cord includes a “ninth conductor” designed to contact the upper-layer information. While knowing the media sensor pad, allowing for detection of changes in real time. access control address (MAC address—not to be confused with moves/adds/changes), IP address, and logon information is show the physical location of the device on a CAD drawing. helpful, should physical layer documentation be out of sync The soft ware reads the object identification information with the actual infrastructure, finding problem devices can for network devices through Simple Network Management be daunting. Intelligent patching bridges that gap. Protocol (SNMP), and can also send SNMP (including Ver- The intelligent system works through a combination of sen- sion 3) traps to shut down ports based on user-defined param- sor-enabled hardware and software. On the hardware side, the eters. This provides great benefit when the physical layer is patch panels are configured with a sensor pad above each port. included. For instance, if you wanted to know the location of The pad is connected to an analyzer via a connection on the every personal computer on your network that is running ➤ 10 ■ February 2008 ■ Cabling Installation & Maintenance ww.cable-install.com C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue Next Page EMaGS B F
  13. 13. C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue Next Page EMaGS B F Windows 2000, you could have that information displayed related issues are concerned, the additional documentation graphically as well as in report format. and logging abilities not only enhance a company’s security The Virtual Wiring Closet (VWC) module provides docu- position, but also answer many of the compliance-related mentation on the telecommunications rack, including connec- requirements of documentation and access logging. tivity, patch-cord length, and where each device is connected. After all, most troubleshooting and investigations start It becomes a data dictionary for your racks and/or cabinets. with who, what, where, when, why, and how. By adding the intelligent physical layer to your overall management, Work orders and security the answers to these questions are easier to attain and A significant benefit of the intelligent patching system is that it more thorough. will track MAC work automatically, saving IT departments from the manual process of updating spreadsheets and documenta- tion. The package also includes a module LABELING for work-order creation. Work orders can be dispatched, and the changes automati- cally tracked, allowing a manager to know when the work was completed. DOESN’T GET ANY The intelligent physical layer manage- EASIER. ment system can also be integrated with other security systems, such as APC’s NetBotz or video cameras. Based on user- defined triggers—for instance, when some- one unplugs a VoIP switch—a camera can snap a picture, write it on the log and, as you would expect from management soft- ware, can provide alarms via e-mail, cell, or pager, complete with escalation for unan- swered alarms. Contacts can be placed on entrance doors to rooms or cabinets. As soon as the contact Create labels on your PC and is broken, the same logging can initiate, download to RHINO 6000. Or including a photo of the log indicating date create and print labels at the worksite. Either way, the rugged and time as well as photographic/video award-winning RHINO 6000 evidence of the culprit. simplifies labeling with advanced functions that are genuine time- savers. In search of thorough answers While this article explains a few of the fea- tures of an intelligent patching system, the industry terms and symbols overall benefits are significant. If we go back to the example described earlier, had an including graphics and logos intelligent system been in place, a simple right-click would have saved five hours of formatting (wire wraps, flags, vertical, fixed-length, patch chasing down a user. Not only would the panel, and more) documentation be up to date, allowing the network manager to know where that switch port terminated in the building, it Award-winning RHINO 6000 now available at also could have shown the location graphi- Accu-Tech, Norfolk Wire & Electronics, and CSC. cally. The IT staff very likely would have got- For more information, visit ten to the user before his frustration began w w w. r h i n o l a b e l i n g . c o m / c i m and he started moving from place to place. © 2007 DYMO - A Newell Rubbermaid Company 31616 Where security- and compliance- www.cable-instll.com Cabling Installation & Maintenance ■ February 2008 ■ 11 C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue Next Page EMaGS B F
  14. 14. C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue B Next Page EMaGS F Our Underfloor Cable Tray Systems Are Going F.A.S.T.™ When was the last time you looked forward to installing underfloor cabling systems? With current underfloor cable tray systems, you have to manage the logistics of working around other installers, struggle with attaching the tray system to existing floor supports—and deal with the back and forth of getting the right tools. There’s got to be a better way—right? Introducing the Cooper B-Line F.A.S.T. System—a new, tool-free option in underfloor cable support. The F.A.S.T. System is the most Foldable, Adjustable and Stackable underfloor Tray system on the market. It requires no tools and has fewer parts, is simpler to install and doesn’t require installation experience. And, to save time and installation scheduling headaches, it can be installed before the raised floor is in place. Take a good look at the future of underfloor cable tray systems—because it’s going F.A.S.T. www.cooperbline.com C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue B Next Page EMaGS F
  15. 15. C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue B Next Page EMaGS F www.cablinginstall.com installation Turning up, troubleshooting Voice over Internet Protocol V oice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) may be Ensuring performance requires test and measurement of all traffic, and listening to calls. viewed by accountants and business owners as a rela- points to communicate directly concerning the quality tively new, cost-saving technology for the enterprise. of the RTP packet stream. The control plane provides For those commissioning and managing the data net- signaling protocols that perform such functions as reg- work transport of IP voice over the local area network/ ister VoIP phones and connect phone calls. wide area network (LAN/WAN), it may seem like just another application to manage, like e-mail or http. Measuring a subjective experience Yet the nature of the payload—voice, where there is no Applications such as e-mail and fi le transfers tolerate retransmission of time-sensitive packets—makes VoIP packet delays and use retransmission of bad or miss- testing and troubleshooting to maintain a high quality ing packets to achieve error-free performance at the ap- of experience (QoE) an entirely different effort. plication level. Because VoIP service cannot tolerate retransmissions and demands priority routing of pack- Start with basics ets, it places more-stringent requirements on IP data net- When a VoIP call is set up, speech is encapsulated in works. Ultimately, as with video, VoIP service quality is Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) that is encap- sulated in User Datagram Protocol (UDP), both ofwhich are transmitted in an IP frame. Each RTP packet contains a small portion of the voice con- versation. The size of the voice sample is depen- dent on the codec used to compress the digital bit stream at any endpoint, such as an IP phone. Three common codecs are: • G.711—A high-bandwidth, high-quality, low- est-delay 64-kbit/sec version; • G.729A/B/C—A low-bandwidth (8 kbits/sec) Using network-analysis tools such as this one, the DA-3400, you codec common across the WAN; can test and troubleshoot Voice over IP performance characteris- • G.723.1—Low-bandwidth (5.3 or 6.3 kbits/sec) but not tics, including Mean Opinion Score. widely used for VoIP due to long delay. While a higher-bandwidth codec more accurately determined subjectively by the end users. reproduces the analog input signal, it requires a For voice, unlike data, the key measures of quality are higher bit rate, which generates more network traffic intelligibility and identification. Intelligibility is the abil- and reduces the network’s overall call capacity. Using ity to understand what is being said. Identification is the a lower-bit-rate codec sacrifices quality yet uses less ability to recognize the voice of familiar callers, such as bandwidth. a family member or the boss. Real Time Control Protocol (RTCP) allows the end- Objective and subjective measurements exist to judge ASSAJI ALUWIHARE is general manager/network enterprise and test, the performance and QoE of VoIP service. These form and GARY MEYER and THAD WARD are product managers with JDSU’s the basis of good VoIP installation and troubleshoot- Communications Test and Measurement business (www.jdsu.com) ing procedures. ➤ www.cable-instll.com Cabling Installation & Maintenance ■ February 2008 ■ 13 C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue B Next Page EMaGS F
  16. 16. C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue Next Page EMaGS B F Active tests, such as Perceptual Speech Quality Measurement (PSQM), Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ), and Perceptual Analysis and Measurement System (PAMS) that uses an analog input signal, each collect known voice samples across the network to a receiving endpoint, where a comparison analysis of the degraded sample is conducted. These are not tones, but rather actual prerecorded WAV files available in different languages. This test requires two devices (one at each end) and is often used to evaluate ability of the existing network to handle VoIP by generating and assessing calls. (Active tests are not intended for in-service monitoring, analysis and troubleshooting.) The Mean Opinion Score (MOS) is a passive test that cal- culates voice quality without a reference voice sample, measuring IP transport quality of actual VoIP calls. Used Depending on the test instrument’s capabilities, you can measure and most commonly to turn-up, test and troubleshoot networks, generate reports on VoIP-related issues, such as (clockwise from top the MOS assigns a value between 1.00 (bad) and 5.00 (excel- right) signaling, packet loss, and jitter. lent) to the overall quality of delivered voice through a network. MOS does not look at encoded voice, but rather, it rates the IP varies or if network conditions change due to congestion transport quality of the packets carrying the encoded voice. or route changes. This causes variation in packet spacing, Delay, jitter, loss, and sequence of packets are measured. which degrades voice quality. Jitter buffers on receiving devices—which themselves cause delay—can only compen- Common degradation problems sate for mild jitter. Several common effects impair voice quality on a VoIP sys- tem. The test and measurement values important for manag- Assessment, pre-qualification ing QoE on a VoIP system are: While echo is a common complaint with VoIP systems, in • Latency. Because IP networks operate on statistical mul- reality, it is an analog problem, usually the result of an imped- tiplexing technologies, latency in IP networks is usually ance mismatch where two wires convert to four somewhere higher than with analog transmission. Any delay in end- in the network. While echo is not induced on the IP network, to-end transmission of voice from speaker to listener im- increased latency on voice packets will aggravate echo. pedes voice quality. IP networks will have varying latency Before a VoIP system can be installed at the premise, the times over a single path depending upon the level of traffic network must be assessed for suitability for transporting on the network. In general, lower-bit-rate codec increases VoIP traffic. Testing and measurement confi rms the ability delay for VoIP calls. of the LAN—switches, routers, and cabling—to handle • Packet loss. This can occur in many ways. A router or switch delay-sensitive VoIP traffic. Th is step also helps determine queue may be full and cannot hold any more packets, caus- load planning for the LAN/WAN and reveals the bandwidth ing arriving packets (segments of a voice transmission) of premises cabling. to be discarded. Bit errors may exceed correctable levels, This phase of testing is typically carried out with handheld or a packet may be misrouted or exceed its time-to-live equipment, software or passive test devices, each of which look quota due to network topology changes or network at all the traffic on the LAN/WAN or home network to assess congestion. In either case, packet loss harms VoIP quality. the quality of the network before VoIP service is added. Test- • Jitter. Packets that arrive at the destination at irregular ing tools determine whether packets are being dropped or lost intervals or out of sequence can make voice choppy and as they traverse the network. difficult to understand. Out-of-sequence packets often It is important to note that the network can provide error- occur due to multiple routing paths to the same destina- free data service while performing very poorly in terms of lost tion. If packets are out of sequence by only one or two and dropped packets. High throughput can be used to make sequence numbers, jitter buffers on receiving devices can up for problems such as jitter, latency and packet loss on data place packets back into order before voice playback. Pack- transmission. A network that carries data perfectly may not ets unable to be placed into proper order are discarded be capable of providing satisfactory quality for time-sensitive, by the receiving device—reducing voice quality. Jitter is higher-priority packets of VoIP traffic. also induced when switch or router packet-processing speed Before service turn-up, it is important to verify connec- ➤ 14 ■ February 2008 ■ Cabling Installation & Maintenance ww.cable-install.com C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue Next Page EMaGS B F
  17. 17. C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue B Next Page EMaGS F Cool Technology When it comes to cable, smaller is best. That’s what you get with copper cable made with AirES® technology – from ADC’s TrueNet® structured cabling systems. Air channels are integrated into the insulation to lower the dielectric constant and im- prove electrical performance while reducing cable size. In fact, ADC’s NEW Plenum CopperTen® cable is .275”, a 22% reduction in cross-sectional area compared to typical Augmented Category 6 cables. What does this mean for you? Improved data center cooling 22% Smaller smaller cable enhances airflow and improves reliability and uptime Reduced installation costs smaller, lighter cable means pulling more cable at the same time Decreased capital expenses smaller cable improves fill rates in cable trays, conduit and raceways For cooler data centers and maximum system uptime, insist upon cable made with ADC AirES technology. For more information on all ADC’s TrueNet structured cabling systems contact us today. Ask for your com- plimentary interactive Cable Selection Guide. 1-800-366-3891 or +1-952-938-8080 www.adc.com/truenet Angled Copper Patch Panels Fiber Patch Panels CopperTen® Cable Angled MPO Cassettes FiberGuide® Raceway ©2007 ADC Telecommunications, Inc. All rights reserved. C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue B Next Page EMaGS F
  18. 18. C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue Next Page EMaGS BF Common VoIP ailments and causes Problem Likely trouble Common causes tivity to signaling gateways and provi- Call will not connect Configuration error, packet loss Registration problem with call manager sion service, and determine call quality. Gateway provisioning problem Terminal adapters and VoIP phones or Can makes calls on, Improperly configured codec IP phones plug into the LAN, and IP but not off, network Misconfiguration at PBX/voice bridge addresses are provisioned. Handheld Clicking/popping Packet loss, packet jitter Network congestion test sets are normally used because noises, garbled Buffer overruns in network elements speech Priority queuing and traffic shaping problems they can mimic an end device in the Calls connect but Packet loss network. Handheld test sets also help then drop isolate problems. For example, a hand- Echo or overtalk Packet delay Priority queuing issues held device can be used to determine heard during calls Choice of codec whether a specific end device has been Network congestion provisioned correctly or to identify errors in provisioning network equipment during installation. stream can be monitored by listening to calls via handheld units, At this stage of assessment, voice quality issues are exam- with the MOS for each connection then measured and logged. ined. Calls are placed and received through the network to You should perform the following service turn-up and ensure that links are provisioned with the correct signaling provisioning tests: protocol. Calls are placed within the LAN/WAN and from the • Ping to test registration with proxy server; LAN/WAN to the public switched telephone network (PSTN). • Place calls on and off the network; Here, technicians can confidently confi rm that signaling • Trace the call route; within the LAN/WAN is operational. If voice quality is poor, • Assess MOS for call quality. to isolate problems, you place test calls from one side of the router to another and to the ingress gateway. Troubleshooting and maintenance While checking VoIP call options, the quality of the RTP There are two reasons for troubleshooting: failure or ➤ Quiktron Understands That Not ALL Fiber Cable Needs Are Created Equal... That is why we offer custom fiber solutions available in timeframes and budgets to meet most requirements, through the industry's leading distributors. So whether you need a simple patch cable, a complex multi-strand pre-terminated trunk cable, or something in-between, contact Quiktron, or your local distributor, to find out how easy and quick sourcing custom cable can be. Quiktron, your number one source for timely custom fiber solutions. We stock a wide variety of standard fiber solutions available for same day shipping! 800.361.0471 • www.quiktron.com 16 ■ February 2008 ■ Cabling Installation & Maintenance ww.cable-install.com C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue Next Page EMaGS BF
  19. 19. C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue Next Page EMaGS B F intermittent issues. When the issue is This display from a VoIP butt set reports on a call that failure, troubleshooting is similar to was monitored live. turnup. You verify onnectivity to local elements through ping, trace routes and lated, or a customer issue. It is always important call placement. Calls are placed on and to evaluate quality from the end user’s perspec- off the network, perhaps to the techni- tive, so the first step is to perform an IP phone cian’s mobile phone. Test fi les are ex- emulation test. By listening for the reported com- changed to validate jitter and packet plaint—bad voice quality, echo, garbled speech, loss. The problem can be sectionalized to CPE or carrier. clicking sounds—you can immediately determine if the CPE Intermittent issues are more challenging. The circuit must is the source of the problem. be monitored in-service to determine which calls are experi- In the next step, attempt registration of the test device with encing troubles and when exactly the trouble occurs. Here, it the gateway/proxy server. The test set conducts signaling and is important to know the profile of all traffic riding on the net- displays signaling error messages, as well as proving connec- work at the time of the trouble. For example, other applications tivity to the gatekeeper/proxy server and verifying provision- may use more router processing time or bandwidth, which can ing of the customer’s unique alias. You can also use this test cause VoIP calls to drop or lose voice quality as packets are lost. device to place test calls on and off the network. If off-net calls The only means to determine whether CPE traffic is the cause is fail, gateway provisioning may be causing the trouble, or there to monitor the whole circuit while the problem is occurring. may be a connectivity issue that can be identified by pinging the gateway device IP address. Storm watch Here, you perform a trace route set of tests if the ping test Another example of an intermittent problem that can only fails, which helps isolate path/device connectivity problems. be uncovered by monitoring all traffic is a broadcast storm, A handheld test set allows tests from multiple locations to iso- which occurs as network elements are reconfigured or moved late the source of the trouble. For example, calls can ➤ and broadcast domains are misconfigured. This storm causes broadcast packets, such as a network printer or other network elements that advertise their existence, to flood the network and steal bandwidth, impairing voice quality. Broadcast storms are easily detected with analysis tools that show steep spikes in broadcast packets at the same time as reported VoIP quality problems. These tools also provide guid- ance on what actions to take, and include a list of offending stations or devices that are allowing packets to broadcast out- side of a specified domain, such as a printer in Hong Kong try- ing to tell everyone in New York that it is available. The VoIP problem can beby reconfiguring routers to not send broadcast packets into subnets where they don’t belong. Capture agents on router/switch ports enable capture and forward of every call that falls below a score established through MOS or PESQ. Talking on a phone configured to have 20 milliseconds (ms) of voice in every packet, a pack- et should arrive every 20 ms. Variation in arrival time or dropped packets are detected by the capture agent. If the test shows packets with errors, it helps pinpoint VoIP qual- ity issues such as routers dropping packets. If errors are localized, packet errors that degrade voice quality can be stopped. For example, RF, EMI and other noise can cause packet errors. With proper testing, you may fi nd a cable run adjacent to a bell that is the source of massive ______________ packet errors every time the bell goes off. To isolate VoIP problems, the first step is determining whether the problem is in the network, a provisioning issue, CPE-re- www.cable-instll.com Cabling Installation & Maintenance ■ February 2008 ■ 17 C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue Next Page EMaGS B F
  20. 20. C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue B Next Page EMaGS F be placed from the next router down to the ingress router to taking measurements at the packet interface of live calls. diagnose whether the problem is on the LAN or WAN link. Of course, customer quality is based upon an experience. Common troubleshooting tests include handset volume, Your MOS values are based upon values generated on a test processor, microphone, earpiece, echo canceller performance; device; if the test shows a good MOS score, the call must be TDM voice quality, echo; network packet performance; packet captured and listened to using a test set with the ability to play throughput; packet loss; packet delay/latency; packet jitter. Yet back the voice and emulate the actual VoIP phone. even when jitter and packet loss values are fine, there may still The converged enterprise IP network shares many appli- be problems reported. This is why it’s important to listen to calls. cations: e-mail, data, instant messaging, Internet access and, Objective voice quality is established by generating a MOS by increasingly, voice. In addition, new applications, server moves, and adding/deleting workstations, IP phones, and printers are happening all the time. With such an unstable environ- ment, the load on the network is always changing and can present problems for the VoIP application running on the same network. When server consolidation occurs, there is now new traffic over the WAN that nev- er existed and possibly never left the build- ing. More often than not, VoIP is a victim of changing IP traffic. Upon testing, you may find jitter, which is usually caused by excessive traffic loads on the network. The first rule of VoIP troubleshooting is to ask: What else is going on in the network? How come excessive jitter wasn’t there before? Adding VoIP can cause its own network problems. If e-mail and data have the same priority as voice, then no application has priority. Packets must be tagged properly by CPE and honored by network elements. For example, tests may show that prior- ity is only set in one direction for a par- ticular router, slowing data traffic. With lots of new VoIP calls on the WAN, when someone tries to do a file transfer (which then takes a back seat to voice), the net- work slows and the help desk phone rings. More often than not, more bandwidth is the solution. When in doubt, listen When testing VoIP, it is most impor- tant to remember that this is a voice ser- vice. Measuring jitter and delay provide important clues for troubleshooting. Yet at some point, resolving a VoIP problem requires that you follow the second rule of VoIP troubleshooting: _________________ Listen to calls to maintain and improve QoE for VoIP services. 18 ■ February 2008 ■ Cabling Installation & Maintenance ww.cable-install.com C Previous Page A Installation 7Maintenance Contents Zoom In Zoom Out Front Cover Search Issue B Next Page EMaGS F

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