Beck depression inventory


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Beck Depression Inventory

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Beck depression inventory

  1. 1. Beck Depression Inventory Carlos F. Martinez, M.Ed., MHA
  2. 2. General Test Information Title of Test: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Author: Aaron T. Beck, Robert A. Steer, and Gregory K. Brown. Publisher: The Psychological Corporation, 1996 (revision). Time to administer test: about 5 to10 minutes.
  3. 3. General Test Information Cost: BDI-II Complete Kit (Beck’s Institute)- Includes Manual and 25 Record Forms…$110.00 Restrictions in Administration: “C Level” qualification. Users must be licensed, certified or have a doctoral degree in psychology or related field.
  4. 4. Purpose and Nature of the Test Type: individual or group. Purpose: to assess the existence and severity of symptoms of depression, not to diagnose. Population: adults and adolescents 13 years of age and older. Population for which designated: it is intended to assess the severity of depression in psychiatrically diagnosed patients. Nature of content: Verbal (21 questions) with numerical score for each question.
  5. 5. Purpose and Nature of the Test (Cont..). Types of Items: Clients choose statements to describe themselves in terms of the following 21 areas: sadness, pessimism, past failure, loss of pleasure, guilty feelings, punishment feelings, self- dislike, self-criticalness, suicidal thoughts or wishes, crying, agitation, loss of interest, indecisiveness, worthlessness, loss of energy, changes in sleeping pattern, irritability, changes in appetite, concentration difficulty, tiredness or
  6. 6. Practical Evaluation Qualitative features: the BDI-II addresses the major components of clinical depression, both the psychological and physiological symptoms, and it certainly is portable! Ease of administration and clarity of directions: instructions are straightforward and clearly stated. The BDI-II is also very user- friendly in terms of ease and speed of administration.
  7. 7. Practical Evaluation Scoring: each answer is scored on a scale value of 0 to 3 and then combined with all other answers to calculate a total score:• 0 – 13: minimal depression• 14–19: mild depression• 20–28: moderate depression• 29–63: severe depression
  8. 8. Practical Evaluation (Cont.) Examiner Qualifications and Training: Little training is required to administer or score the test. However, the interpretation of the final score requires a professional with clinical training and experience (“C” Level).
  9. 9. Technical EvaluationNorm and Standardization sample:The outpatient sample included 500 clients. 317 (63%) women 183 (37%) men 454 (91%) White 21 (4%) Black 18 (4%) Asian 7 (1%) Hispanic
  10. 10. Technical EvaluationStandardization sampleStudent Sample: 120 college students from University of New Brunswick in Canada 56% women 44% men 100% White
  11. 11. Technical Evaluation Reliability: a one-week test-retest correlation of .93 resulted from a study of 26 outpatients who had been referred for depression and took the BDI-II during their first and second therapy sessions (Beck et al., 1996).
  12. 12. Technical Evaluation Validity: One of the main objectives of this new version of the BDI was to have it conform more closely to the diagnostic criteria for depression listed on the DSM-IV. It has demonstrated strong evidence of convergent validity (i.e. r= .71 with the Hamilton Psychiatric Rating Scale for Depression – HRSD).
  13. 13. Cultural Evaluation Not enough research on the psychometric properties of the BDI-II among minority groups. The standardization sample is not demographically representative of the U.S. population. Minority populations were extremely under- represented.
  14. 14. Cultural Evaluation There is no information regarding socioeconomic status or residential location of test users. Most tests are based on western (US) definitions and cultural practices, so clinicians should be cautious when using it. I would use it since there are no culture-free tests.
  15. 15. Reviewer’s Comments Dr. Elizabeth Peterson-Vita (Clinical Director at Mecklenburg County Area Mental Health) has used the BDI-II more than 2,000 times and recommends it.Strengths: Helpful to get empirical scores for depression. Can use it again a few days later to track symptoms. It has a high internal consistency. It also has high content validity.
  16. 16. Reviewer’s CommentsWeaknesses: Like other instruments it’s not like a blood test where you get a more accurate result. Clients can minimize or exaggerate when answering. In her experience adolescents usually minimize. Other clients may exaggerate to seek disability and compensation. Cannot treat it as if it speaks the “truth.”
  17. 17. Summary Evaluation The BDI-II is probably one the most used inventories when measuring depression. Many clinicians use it to assist them when measuring the severity of depression in clients. Like many other inventories, there are limitations and problems.
  18. 18. Resources Beck Institute website ( Beck Depression Inventory Manual Mental Measurements Yearbook. Personal communication with Dr. Elizabeth Peterson-Vita (Clinical Director at Mecklenburg County Area Mental Health)