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Class Handouts

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  1. 1. 1/7/2015 1 SCULPTURE Sir Pen Sculpture • Latin sculptūra to sculpt • sculpere to carve • Art of carving, casting, modelling or assembling materials into three- dimensional figure or forms. Medium used in sculpture wood Semi-precious stones stone papermetalceramic Elementsand Principlesof Sculpture • Line and silhouette • Form and space • Balance and orientation • Scale and proportion • Texture • Light • Value • Color • Movement and emphasis • Pattern and rhythm • Contrast Line & silhouette • Line is the path of a moving point • Contour line is the outline that forms the edges of the sculpture that create its silhouetteThe characteristics of a sculpture’s contour lines determine the shape and feeling of its silhouette. • Characteristics of contour lines include: • Width- thick, thin, tapering, uneven • Length - long, short, continuous, interrupted • Direction- horizontal, vertical, diagonal, perpendicular, parallel, radial • Focus- sharp, blurry, fuzzy, choppy • Feeling- sharp, jagged, graceful, smooth, curved, zigzag
  2. 2. 1/7/2015 2 Line & silhouette Form & space • A form is three-dimensional – it has height, width and thickness while shapes are flat, or twodimensional • geometric forms, or forms with names, such as spheres, cubes, cylinders, cones, etc • organic forms, or irregular forms with no names that may appear to have grown from nature. • Space refers to the area between, around, above, below, or within elements in a work of art. • Positive space is the part of the work that is filled with subject matter – the actual physical forms making up the sculpture. • Negative space is the empty space around and/or above, below, or within the sculpture. All Form & space Louise Bourgeois. Arch of Hysteria, 1993. Polished bronze. Balance & orientation • The balance of a sculpture has two aspects. • Actual physical stability- sculpture stable enough in itself to stand firmly • compositional balance refers to the way the elements of a piece of art are arranged to be visually appealing and to create a static feeling • There are 3 main types of balance: • symmetric balance, in which the sculpture can be divided evenly in half by one axis • asymmetric balance, in which the two sides of the sculpture are different • radial balance, in which the sculpture is in a spherical arrangement • Orientation (L atinoriens = rising sun) is the arrangement of the sculpture in space. Balance & orientation Left: radial balance Olafur Eliasson. Multiple Grotto, 2004. Stainless steel. Right: symmetric balance. Justin Knowles.Broken Circle, 1998. Stainless steel. Proportion and scale • Proportion refers to how big each part of the sculpture is relative to the other parts. • Scale of a sculpture refers to its size relative to the size of its surrounding environment.
  3. 3. 1/7/2015 3 Texture • Texture is the way something feels when you touch it. • There are two kinds of texture: - Real texture is the actual surface quality of the work of art, or how the actual sculpture would feel like if you touched it. - Implied texture is the illusion of texture that an artist creates to simulate the texture of objects in real life Light, value & color • Value is the lightness or darkness of a color. In sculpture, value is often created by the way light hits and/or passes through the piece. • Color is the way light waves are absorbed or reflected by everything around us. • Without enough value and/or color contrast between the sculpture and its environment, viewers will not notice the artwork! Light, value & color Movement & emphasis • Movement can be said as : • The arrangement of visual elements to cause the viewer’s eyes to move over the artwork in a specific direction, sequence, or pattern; • the illusion of motion in a piece of art. • Emphasis refers to the creation of focal points, which are the part(s) of the sculpture that take on the most visual weight or dominance (relating to balance), demanding the most visual attention. • Primary focal point is the first element the viewer notices in the piece, and is the part of the piece that demands the most attention; • Secondary focal points are what the viewer notices after noticing the primary focal point, and are the second-most emphasized parts of the work. Movement & emphasis Tom Friedman. Untitled, 1995. 30,000 toothpicks. Eduardo Chillida. How profound is the Air (Lo profundo es el aire), 1996. Alabaster. Pattern and Rhythm • Pattern is the repetition of elements within a piece of art • Rhythm is a visual tempo or beat which relies on repeated elements
  4. 4. 1/7/2015 4 Contrast • Contrast refers to the juxtaposition of forms, objects, textures, values, or colors to stress the differences between them. Contrast makes art eye-catching, reinforces the illusions of dimension and space, and directs attention to focal points. Brief history of sculpture Prehistoric Sculpture • The earliest known examples are the two primitive stone effigiesThe Venus of Berekhat Ram (Israel) and The Venus of Tan-Tan (Morocco). • Figures of men, women, and animals served to forces of nature, which were worshiped as evil or good spirits Brief history of sculpture Egyptian sculpture • Based on the belief in a life after death. • Life-size and even larger statues, carved in slate, alabaster, and limestone • Noble people are made larger than less important people • Human and animal are often combined to symbolize ideas like human intelligence and animal strength. • Standing and seated figures Brief history of sculpture Greek Sculpture • the Greek belief that "man is the measure of all things“ • the Greeks developed a standing figure of a nude male, called the Kouros or Apollo. • the most important function of Greek sculpture was to honor gods and goddesses. • sculptors described their figures in as natural and exact way as possible. Brief history of sculpture Roman Sculpture • Roman art is founded upon that of the Greeks • Produced civic sculpture celebrating statesmen and their achievements. • The most important contributions of the Roman sculptors were portraits. • Most are in bust forms and prominent men and women in the society ColossusofConstantine Greek vs Roman
  5. 5. 1/7/2015 5 Brief history of sculpture Gothic • The faces of the statues have expression, and their garments are draped in a natural way. • Natural and life-like air with an impression of real bodies and limbs underneath the clothes French Gothic relief sculpture door jambs 13th Century Brief history of sculpture Renaissance • New emphasis on glorifying the human figure. • No longer was sculpture to deal only with idealized saints and angels; • a more elegant, decorative style, relying on a smooth, precise finish and complex, elaborate designs mannerism Brief history of sculpture Baroque • Characterized by dynamism (a sense of motion), which is augmented by extravagant effects like strong curves and rich decoration • Swirling draperies or brilliant gilding. Cathedra petri ("Chair of Saint Peter") by Bernini Brief history of sculpture Rococo • Purely ornamental • Features a sense of dynamism and extravagance • Rococo works are gentle and playful especially in figurines
  6. 6. 1/7/2015 6 Vertumne et Pomone () by Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne Brief history of sculpture Neoclassic and Romantic Sculpture • deliberate return to classical subject matter and style • Perfect human anatomy • Calm, reflective look (immitation of the Greeks) • Based on imagination and appeal to the emotions Psiche svenuta (1823-1828) by Tenerani Pietro Philippine Sculpture • Before the coming of the Spaniards, Philippine sculpture had a striking similarity with the Egyptian sculpture which is characterized by frontal nudity. The bulol, symbolizes a rice god who guards the Cordilleran’s rice granary. Philippine Sculpture • Woodcarving comes in ornamental form in the which features the"panolong", an extended beam carved with the Sarimanok or the Naga design. Philippine Sculpture • These multi-purpose blades come in different materials and designs. Blades were made of iron which local smiths fashioned according to their own design. Some metal blades were ornamented with gold, silver, ivory, and brass.
  7. 7. 1/7/2015 7 NapoleonAbueva: NationalArtist for SculptureandFatherof Contemporary Filipino Sculpture • Noted for his works on varied media like wood, bronze, coral and stone • Many of his sculptures that now sit in public places in the Philippines and abroad convey a sense of realism with their intimately physical presence, lifelike forms and evocative gestures. • Mythology, history and day-to-day life was the inspiration of Abueva Blood Compact Nine Muses of the Arts The Power Form Family Group