Title, abstract, introduction, literature review boga


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Title, abstract, introduction, literature review boga

  1. 1. Title, Abstract, Introduction, Literature Review Prof. Hamadi Iddi Boga JKUAT-Taita Taveta Campus
  2. 2. Title • The Title is the label of your submission; most-read element • Should be brief: as few words as possible (<20), and informative: describe contents accurately describe subject specifically Easy to understand Suitable for indexing •  Include key words for indexing •  Make most important words stand out (order!) • Don’t promise more than what is in the proposal • Cut unnecessary words (e.g. “some notes on ….”) • Avoid abbreviations and jargon
  3. 3. Example • Residual accumulation of herbicide residue threatens the sustainability of rice-wheat rotation systems in northern Nigeria. The incorporation of green manure into the soil may stimulate the co-mineralization of pesticides and their metabolites. A two year field experiment will be conducted on the experimental station of the Nigeria Rice Research Institute to evaluate the effects of the application of Azolla pinata and A. carolingiana as green manure on the mineralization and co-metabolization of the herbicides propanil and buthachlor in a flooded rice soil.....
  4. 4. Examples 1. Organic matter for sustainable agriculture in the tropics 2. Studies on the effects of Azolla pinata and Azolla carolingiana green manure on the mineralization and co-metabolization of Propanil and Alachlor in a flooded Tropaquept under Oryza sativa L. - Triticum aestivum L. rotation in Nangara village of Northern Nigeria 3. Effect of azolla on the mineralization of herbicides in a flooded rice soil of Nigeria
  5. 5. Title should address • What? • Why/Objective? • Where? In selecting words for a Title be as general as permissible and as specific as necessary Key Words should be different from title words Key words should be in alphabetical order
  6. 6. Abstract • Should be short (150-250 words) • Should contain key words for indexing • Should stand on its own • No references, No abbreviation, No citation of tables or figures, No unsubstantiated conclusions • Should have the following sections – Introduction/Background (the problems and its significance) – Objectives – Materials & Methodology (approach to finding a solution) – Expected output – Conclusions
  7. 7. Abstract Continued… • Make a great first impression. Most applications require a brief abstract or summary of the project. It is generally a good idea to write the abstract or summary last, when you can review the full proposal project description and pull out the most significant and winning arguments. • Think of it as the introduction to your project, which offers reviewers their first impression of you and your proposed work. Your goal is to gain their attention and guarantee that they will read the full proposal with interest, and even enthusiasm.
  8. 8. Exercise Cassava is Africa’s second most important food staple, after maize, in terms of calories consumed and is widely produced in Kenya, Nigeria, Ghana, Congo, Cote de’voire, Tanzania, and Uganda. The roots are used as a source of calories and the leaves are rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals. Cassava is a drought resistant crop surving in most arid and semi arid areas. Despite its potential in reducing poverty, one of the Millenium development goals, cassava remains a marginalised crop in most African countries. Pests and diseases pose the greatest challenge to cassava farmers. In Africa, this crop has been affected by a number of viruses notably the African cassava mosaic bigemivirus. Several methods ranging from physical to chemical methods have been used to manage the viruses. However these methods have not been able to eradicate the persistent viral attacks. This project seeks to employ molecular techniques to develop a recombinant DNA vaccine against the African Cassava mosaic virus. Gene constructions containing African Cassava Mosaic virus gene will be made and transgenic cassava cell lines developed. The cells developed will then be observed for coat protein expression and resistance to the virus. It is expected that the antivirus obtained will be used to develop resistant cassava varieties which can be distributed to farmers at affordable prices. It is also expected that a live vaccine will be developed that can be incorporated in sprays and used to spray the cassava plants as it is the case with animal based vaccines that have been developed to counter most animal viruses. The project would be crucial in saving this important staple food. In so doing, cassava’s untapped potential such as for pasture as well as an industrial material can be realised.
  9. 9. Exercise • Construct a Title • Identify 5 key words • Identify weaknesses of the abstract
  10. 10. In Summary Residual accumulation of herbicide residue threatens the sustainability of rice-wheat rotation systems in northern Nigeria. The incorporation of green manure into the soil may stimulate the co-mineralization of pesticides and their metabolites. A two year field experiment was conducted on the experimental station of the Nigeria Rice Research Institute to evaluate the effects of the application of Azolla pinata and A. carolingiana as green ... Effect of azolla on the mineralizaion of herbicides in a flooded rice soil of Nigeria M. Mouse, D. Duck and D. Pluto* Walt Disney Institute, Duckhousen, Mickey Lane 13, FL, USA * Corresponding author (pluto@havard.edu) Alachlor, Azolla pinnata, A. carolongiana, Inceptisol, Oryza sativa, Propanil Title Authors Afiliation Abstract Key words
  11. 11. Introduction • Bearing in your mind that the first impression is the last impression, you need to present your introduction as clearer as possible—leaving no ambiguities. This is the entrance of your paper through which your reader will travel a journey of reading. If your introduction is attractive, your reader will delve into your words till the last full stop is reached. • the introduction discusses the meaningfulness of the study with presentation of problem or issue as well as the argument advocating the need of study for researcher’s chosen object. The statement of the issue gives a clear-cut insight into the intentions of the researcher. Thus the introduction presents a background and statement in context to the pertinent issue. • It may be easier to think of this section as a review of Relevant Literature. Cite previous projects and studies that are similar to what you are proposing. Show the funding agency that you know what you are proposing because you are familiar with what has preceded you. • Position your project in relation to other efforts and show how your project: – will extend the work that has been previously done, – will avoid the mistakes and/or errors that have been previously made, – will serve to develop stronger collaboration between existing initiatives, or – is unique since it does not follow the same path as previously followed.
  12. 12. Introduction… • In the introduction you should: – 􀂃 define or identify the general topic, issue or area of concern – 􀂃 point out overall trends in what has already been published – 􀂃 Present the case for the new study with a sentence like “In this study……….” • Essentials – Wide reading of subject area – Relevant current literature – Electronic resources available
  13. 13. Literature Review • Reviewing a good example of literature review is always beneficial and no student can deny this fact. One more fact is that this section belonging to the research proposal and dissertation creates confusion for lots of students, even the scholars. This happens because the name itself plays tricks on their minds, failing to understand its real and broader meaning. Then, what does the literature review mean? • if your research proposal declares obesity as to be a central idea, your review will focus on this topic. There is the vast availability of information published on this subject with various resources. Obviously, you are supposed to utilize those materials for reference in your dissertation. Your literature review will review these materials, also called literature, with importance given to its relevance to your topic and your argument.
  14. 14. Literature Review • In a literature review you are required to present: – 􀂃 established findings – 􀂃 conflicting evidence – 􀂃 gaps in the body of scholarship relating to your topic.
  15. 15. Why Review Literature • Why are you asked to write a literature review? • You are asked to write literature reviews in some of your courses so that you can demonstrate to your lecturers that you are able to: – 􀂃 determine what has already been written on a topic – 􀂃 identify previous approaches to the topic – 􀂃 identify central issues in the field – 􀂃 integrate what previous researchers have found – 􀂃 identify important issues still unresolved.
  16. 16. Literature Review • What steps must you take in preparing to write a literature review? • There are a number of steps to undertake before you write the literature review. You need to: – 􀂑 formulate a problem in your field of study – 􀂑 familiarise yourself with a broad range of texts that deal with that problem – 􀂑 decide on the texts you wish to include in your review – 􀂑 decide on the most appropriate way to classify the texts – 􀂑 identify the key issues – 􀂑 critically analyse what you have read – 􀂑 identify important issues that are still unresolved – 􀂑 write a draft of the review – 􀂑 read and think about what you have written and then rewrite.
  17. 17. Literature Review • You may use the following sub-headings to classify what you have read, or you may narrow the focus of your review to deal with some of these categories only. Or there may be still other How might you classify different writings on your topic? categories that are more appropriate for your research. For example: – 􀂑 research outcomes – 􀂑 research methods – 􀂑 theories – 􀂑 applications – 􀂑 integration of the works of others – 􀂑 criticism of previous work – 􀂑 building of bridges between related topics – 􀂑 identification of central issue(s).
  18. 18. Literature Review.. • What makes a good literature review? • A good literature review: – 􀂑 clearly delimits the subject matter to be reviewed – 􀂑 covers all important relevant literature – 􀂑 is up-to-date – 􀂑 provides an insightful analysis of the ideas and conclusions in the literature – 􀂑 points out similarities and differences, strengths and weaknesses in the literature – 􀂑 identifies gaps in the literature for future research – 􀂑 identifies the context for which the literature is important.
  19. 19. Introduction to E-resources • E-resources