Trabajo de tecnologia


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Trabajo de tecnologia

  1. 1. ConstructionConstruction materialsmaterials
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION From ancient time, builders have used a wide variety of materials for construction. But now there are more tegnology that have help to the construction techniques. Depending on their properties we use diferent construction materials. And in this presentation we are going to explain the most popular of them.
  4. 4. Stone Stone is a natural material that we extract from quarries. In construction we use different types of stone, like: marble,granite and slate, depending on its properties and what do we want to construct. In the past stone was very usefull, but today we only used it to make brake-waters, railway lines and a few things more.
  5. 5. Cement Cement is a blinder, its a mixture of ground and baked minerals, oxides, and sometimes other substances. Depending on the components of the mixture,we can obtain different types of cement, with different properties. The standar mixture of cement is the portland cement and it contains: clay, chalk, gypsum, limestone, tricalcium aluminate and metal oxides.
  6. 6. Mortar Is the mixture of cement sand and water. To produce the mortar there are some processes like setting that is when the elements of different minerals and water produce a chemical reaction.
  7. 7. Concrete  Is a mixture of mortar with added pebbles, so it is a mixture of sand, cement, water and pebbles, and this is why it is stronger than mortar.
  8. 8. Reinforced concrete  It is concrete with steel bars inside it, so its stronger than normal concrete.  Because of this it is used in big buildings, because has a very good resistance to compression.
  9. 9. Plaster Is a solid soft material used in aesthetics puposes and to cover rough walls. Generaly it is used because of its fire resistance properties, plaster cames from gypsum. Gypsum is extracted from quarries and then we grind it. Wen it is mixed with water it becames plaster.
  10. 10. Advantages and disadvantages of plaster  Advantages  Gives a smooth surface.  It easy to work.  Is a good insulator.  Is resistant to fire.  Disadvantages:  It is weak.  Absorbs water.
  11. 11. The history of ceramics Ceramic is te oldest artificial material,it was first used in Asia more than 10.000 years ago. In the bigining ceramic was used only in pottery.
  12. 12. What is clay? Ceramic is made from clay. Clay is a mass of very small particles of rock. Clay is a natural material but ceramic is artificial.
  13. 13. Ceramic products In ancient times the most common ceramic products was ceramic pottery, but in the present there are bricks, roof tiles and wall tiles.
  14. 14. Phases of build construction:
  15. 15. Foundation Before the home is built, the site must be cleared and graded. Once this is done, trenches for the foundation are dug. Most foundations are built of poured concrete.
  16. 16. Framing Once the foundation is set, the floor, walls, stairs and roof are built. The frame is the shell of the home that provides the shape of the structure. The conventional approach is to build the home from individual pieces of lumbar, called stick-built construction.
  17. 17. Exterior finishes This stage finishes the outside of the home and protects the inside from the elements.
  18. 18. Mechanical Rough-ins Once the interior of the house is properly protected from the elements, the plumbing, electricity, water heating, and heating, ventilation and air conditioning ( HVAC) systems are installed.
  19. 19. Insulation Insulation is then added to the exterior walls and the roof-although some products will air seal and insulate in one step. The quality of insulation material can make a big difference in energy bills, too, so do your homework.
  20. 20. Interior finishes Once everything behind the walls is complete, the flooring, drywall, tiles and cabinetry are installed, and the home is painted.
  21. 21. By: Carlos Sánchez y Miguel Angel Pinilla