8.FASES OF BUILD A BUILDING8.FASES OF BUILD A BUILDING
From ancient time, builders have used a wide
variety of materials for construction.
But now there are more tegnology that have
help to the construction techniques.
Depending on their properties we use diferent
And in this presentation we are going to explain
the most popular of them.
Stone is a natural material that we extract from
In construction we use different types of stone,
like: marble,granite and slate, depending on its
properties and what do we want to construct.
In the past stone was very usefull, but today we
only used it to make brake-waters, railway lines
and a few things more.
Cement is a blinder, its a mixture of ground and
baked minerals, oxides, and sometimes other
Depending on the components of the
mixture,we can obtain different types of
cement, with different properties.
The standar mixture of cement is the portland
cement and it contains: clay, chalk, gypsum,
limestone, tricalcium aluminate and metal
Is the mixture of cement sand and water.
To produce the mortar there are some
processes like setting that is when the
elements of different minerals and water
produce a chemical reaction.
Is a mixture of
mortar with added
pebbles, so it is a
mixture of sand,
cement, water and
pebbles, and this is
why it is stronger
It is concrete with
steel bars inside it,
so its stronger than
Because of this it is
used in big
has a very good
Is a solid soft material used in aesthetics
puposes and to cover rough walls.
Generaly it is used because of its fire
resistance properties, plaster cames from
gypsum. Gypsum is extracted from quarries
and then we grind it.
Wen it is mixed with water it becames plaster.
Advantages and disadvantages
Gives a smooth
It easy to work.
Is a good insulator.
Is resistant to fire.
It is weak.
The history of ceramics
Ceramic is te oldest artificial material,it was
first used in Asia more than 10.000 years ago.
In the bigining ceramic was used only in
What is clay?
Ceramic is made from clay.
Clay is a mass of very small particles of rock.
Clay is a natural material but ceramic is
In ancient times the most common ceramic
products was ceramic pottery, but in the
present there are bricks, roof tiles and wall
Before the home is built, the site must be
cleared and graded. Once this is done,
trenches for the foundation are dug. Most
foundations are built of poured concrete.
Once the foundation is set, the floor, walls,
stairs and roof are built. The frame is the shell
of the home that provides the shape of the
structure. The conventional approach is to build
the home from individual pieces of lumbar,
called stick-built construction.
This stage finishes the outside of the
home and protects the inside from the
Once the interior of the house is properly
protected from the elements, the plumbing,
electricity, water heating, and heating, ventilation
and air conditioning ( HVAC) systems are
Insulation is then added to the exterior walls
and the roof-although some products will air
seal and insulate in one step. The quality of
insulation material can make a big difference
in energy bills, too, so do your homework.
Once everything behind the walls is
complete, the flooring, drywall, tiles
and cabinetry are installed, and the
home is painted.