+ Preview of Chapter What is a fallacy? Typesof Fallacies: Logical, Ethos and Pathos. What are Logical Fallacies? What are Ethos? What are Pathos How are fallacies used in the process of communication?
+ WHAT IS A FALLACY? A Fallacy is a deceptive, misleading, or false notion, belief, etc.: “The world was flat” was at one time a popular fallacy.
+ Logical Fallacies Begging the Question A Red Herring Non sequitur Straw Man. Stacked Evidence. Either-Or Post Hoc Hasty Generalization
+ Logical Fallacies Begging the Question: demonstrates a conclusion by means of premises that assume that conclusion.Ex. Aspirin users are at risk of becoming dependent on the drug, because aspirin is an addictive substance A Red Herring: provides irrelevant and misleading support that pulls the audience away from the real argumentEx. We admit that gay marriage is an unchangeable tendency, but this issue is ridiculous. Non Sequitur: incorrectly assumes one thing is the cause of anotherEx. I hear the rain falling; therefore, there’s no game.
+ Logical Fallacies Straw Man: when an individual ignores the other’s position and replaces it with distorted arguments in order to misrepresent the opponent’s position.Ex. Have you stopped beating your kids? Stacked Evidence: represents only one side of an issue, therefore distorting the argument.Ex. Dogs are superior than cats because they are smarter and loyal. Either-Or: reduce complicated issues to only two possible courses of action.Ex. Barack Obama either creates an immigration reform or he say goodbye to the Latino vote.
+ Logical Fallacies Faulty Casualty: (Post Hoc) Talking about an event or situation to create confusion that it caused the point of argument. Ex. After the Red Sox fired Bobby Valentine, they never won another World Series. Hasty Generalization: drawing conclusions from very little or not enough evidence. Ex. I wouldn’t go to a Yankees’ game, the only time I went there people were rude to me.
+ How are fallacies used in the communication process? Not rhetorically intended to appeal to reason but rather to emotion, or to create more sensitive disposition. Fallacies are used to win arguments.
+ What we learned… We learned the definition of fallacies We identified the different logical fallacies Begging the Question A Red Herring Non sequitur Straw Man. Stacked Evidence. Either-Or Faulty Casualty Hasty Generalization We stated the function of fallacies in the process of communication.